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THE STARS. When we look at the heavens, they If the reader were required to guess present the appearance of an immense the number of stars that can be seen in dome touching the earth all around us, or the course of an evening, the number of the half of a hollow sphere. Now, if would, no doubt, be in the tens of thousthe earth could be removed from under ands. But in reality, if we could see us, we should be able to see the other even the stars of the Southern Hemishalf, thus making up the entire sphere, phere that are hidden from our view, beand this astronomers call the Celestial cause of the intervening earth, the numSphere. Now, if we watch the mo ber would not be more than about five tion of the stars set in it, they all seem thousand, though some whose eyes are to move from east to west, that is, they good and well trained could see more, rise in the east and set in the west, ex and others less. When we use an ordincept some stars around the North Pole, ary opera glass or telescope, where we which are always visible, but seem saw only one before, we may now see to move around a point in the north, tens or even hundreds, and with the called the North Pole, and this is al most powerful telescopes of modern most exactly located by the North Star. | times, the number is increased prodiThis last star may be watched from hour giously, the estimates ranging from thirty to hour during the night, and so far as the to fifty million. eye can judge, it seems not to move at all. Some stars seem to be much brighter

There is a point in the Southern than others. This difference may be Hemisphere of the heavens just opposite caused by some being nearer to us than the North Pole, called the South Pole. others, or by a real difference in brightThese two points seem to be the extrem ness or in size. But still some stars that ities of an axis on which the whole are known to be the nearest to us, are sphere turns. This revolution of the not by any means the brightest. Stars sphere on its axis, is only apparent, as it are classified according to their magniis the earth that moves, in a contrary di- tudes; thus we speak of the brightest rection, in the course of its daily revolu- stars as those of the first magnitude, and tion from west to east.

so on, but by this, we are not to suppose If we observe stars from one evening that magnitude has any reference to size, to another, we shall see that most of for on this subject we know but very litthem remain in the same fixed position, tle, but to the degree of brightness. All with reference to each other. They look the stars of the first six magnitudes may like so many bright objects set in a solid be seen with the naked eye, but for the hollow sphere, so that they cannot ap- others, a telescope is necessary, and in proach each other nor recede from each order to see those of the sixteenth magother. These are the stars proper or the nitude, the largest telescopes must be fixed stars. But there are a few that used, seem to move about among the others, It has been found a very difficult matsome very slowly, so that we might ter to make an accurate measurer of continue our observations through many light, so as to classify the stars with cerweeks or even months, before we could tainty. Consequently, some have placed detect any change in position with the a star in one magnitude, while others naked eye, while others move rapidly | have placed it in another, as they are so that we can observe the change from obliged to guess at its brightness as one evening to another. These are the nearly as the eye can determine. wandering stars, more commonly called Catalogues of stars have been gotten the planets, of which not more than six up from very early times, showing the are visible to the naked eye, and even positions of the most important. The one of these can not be seen unless its earliest of these is that contained in the position is exactly known.

Almagist, a work written by the astrono

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such figures.

But when neither of these methods are moved from under us, we should see it extending through the Southern Hemis- | six hundred and fifty feet from the eye, appearance to the naked eye, but when THE STARS.

37 mer and geographer, Ptolemy, about the we use the telescope, what seemed to us commencement of the Christian Era, and to be a white fleecy cloud, is now resolvwhich continued for fourteen hundreded into an immense number of stars so years, without change, to be the text close together, that without this aid to book in schools. This catalogue is sup- the eye, they could not be distinguished posed to have been copied from the from each other. earlier one of Hipparchus, published The distances at which stars are located about one hundred and fifty years before from us, are simply beyond all compreChrist. The number of stars was one hension, and in consequence of their imthousand and eighty. In modern times, mense distances, it has been found very star catalogues have been gotten up on

difficult to make any measurements at a far more extensive scale. That of all. This has been one of the most diffiArgelander, contains about three hun- cult problems of modern astronomy, but dred thousand.

by means of the refined methods now in The ancients imagined they could see use, some of these distances have been figures formed in the heavens by the pe

measured with tolerable accuracy. culiar grouping of the stars; although The star nearest to the earth is Alpha these figures may be found in the charts Centauri, that is the brightest star in the that accomany most school astronomies,it constellation of the Centaur; as Alpha would be very difficult for us to make out is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.

These star groups were If we should give the distance in miles, named in very early times, some suppose

the imagination would have no concepas early as

the Argonautic Expedition, tion of it, so we must use some other as many of the heroes that took part in method. Light travels at the rate of one this, are represented in the heavens, but hundred and eighty-five thousand miles it is more reasonable to suppose that the

per second; now, if a ray of light should names of these groups, called constella start from this star to the earth, it would tions, were applied from one age to an

require at least three years and seven other, until we have them as they are now.

months to traverse that distance. Formerly, when it was desired to locate Another star, 61 Cygni, on which the a star: the part of the body of the figure first observations for distance in which it was situated was named, but made, is somewhat farther away. Serius, this method has gone almost entirely out

the dog star, the brightest in the of use, and likewise the method that fol- heavens, is so far away, that a wave of lowed that, of giving particular names to

light must travel nearly twenty years to the stars, as Serius, the dog star, etc.

reach us.

It requires fifty years for light The present method, is that adopted by to reach us from the North Star, while Boyer, of Augsburg. The stars of each

some of the smallest that can be seen constellation are named in the order of

are at such immensely great distances, their brightness, after the letters of the that the passage of light requires from Greek alphabet, and when these are ex

two to four thousand years, and accordhausted, numbers are sometimes used. ing to some, even tens of thousands.

Thus, stars may be blotted out of existused, the star is located by giving its

ance to-day, and it would require years

before we could be aware of it, as the All have noticed an irregular streak of last ray of light that left it previous to its what seems to be cloudy matter extend- extinction would require that time to ing across the heavens. This is called reach us. We may give another illustrathe Milky Way, and if the earth were re

tion to show the immense distances. To

an observer on Alpha Centauri, a thread around the whole heavens. This is its orbit, ninety-two and a half million miles,

when looked at sidewise.

were

latitude and longitude.

38

LEAVES FROM THE TREE OF LIFE.

The stars are all supposed to be suns, only a mere point. The instrument used very much like our own, surrounded by to determine the chemical constitution of their retinues of planets, but differing a the stars, is the spectroscope, and by little in chemical constitution from each means of this, the presence of many of other. These planets, if there are any, the most common elements that we are must be very much like those of our own acquainted with, has been detected in system, not shining by their own light, the atmosphere of the stars. Quebec. but simply by reflected light as in the case of the moon. The amount of light they would give forth, therefore, would be

Angels from friendship, gather hal! so small that we could not see them, even

their joy.-Young. with the most powerful telescopes; for There is nothing so imprudent as exwith the aid of one of these, even the cessive prudence; where it obtains faith star itself presents to us no disk, but I and progress are impossible.

LEAVES FROM THE TREE OF LIFE.
SECOND LEAF.

viz., original and actual. Original sin Faith in God once quickened in the is that which was committed by the parhuman heart, conscience is awakened ents of the race, the consequences of and the mind is self-convicted of sin. which pass upon all of their posterity. Repentance follows as the consequence. Actual sin is that committed by each inThis includes sorrow for the past and dividual and for which he is personally determination for the future. The first responsible. Adam and Eve broke the of these without the second is not genu- divine law given to them in the garden, ine repentance. It is barren and fruit- the penalty for which was death; natural less, and is therefore unacceptable to and spiritual, the first being the separaGod.

Resolutions of future rectitude tion of the spirit and the body, and the are naturally accompanied by grief for second, banishment from the presence past wrong-doing, but regret may exist of God. The taint descended to their without reform, and such is not saving offspring. Death is the common lot, and repentance, the virtue of which is in a vail is drawn between man and his turning from evil and cleaving to good. maker. Thus mankind are prone to do Tears, self-reproaches, lamentations, self- evil, and the consequence is that "all abasement in language or in gesture have sinned and come short of the glory do not constitute repentance, no matter of God.” “The wages of sin is death.” how loudly they may be indulged in or Redemption is rescue from the results how conspicuous they may appear, but it of the fall. This can only be achieved is evidenced by forsaking things one by the raising of the race from the dead knows to be wrong and practicing that and restoring them to the presence

of which one is satisfied is right. Humility God. To effect this Christ came. Dois one of its chief characteristics and ing no sin he gave himself as a ransom this prompts obedience.

for those who sinned. He upon whom As repentance follows faith, so bap- death had no claim gave himself to death, tism succeeds repentance. For the wish that he might satisfy eternal justice and to work righteousness in future implies give mercy room to act. Death came by a desire for forgiveness of past guilt, and Adam, life comes by Christ. Through baptism is ordained for the remission of one act death entered the world, through sins. This opens the broad questions of one act life will come to all that death sin and redemption and the doctrine of has grasped. “As in Adam all die so in the atonement.

Christ will all be made alive.” Good There are two general divisions of sin, / and bad, believer and unbeliever, male

ant believer, by a man having authority full and complete benefits of the atonethe Son and of the Holy Ghost." All administrator must have divine authority. The ordinance must be performed corLEAVES FROM THE TREE OF LIFE.

39 and female, young and old will be raised | Any other kind of baptism is spurious from the dead and brought into the pres and of no effect. The believing repentence of the eternal father. This is the ant sinner, after making covenant with work of Jesus of Nazareth, who shed his God to forsake evil and keep His comblood in this great atonement to redeem mandments, is taken down into the water all mankind from the fall.

by the duly authorized and ordained repBut this was only part of his work.

resentative of the Lord Jesus, and being He died not only to atone for original dead to his old sins by repentance, is sin but for actual sin, and to become the buried from his old life by immersion in mediator between God and man. “With the watery grave; and then raised up out the shedding of blood there is no again to newness of life, is “born of the remission of sin;" this is the law. His water” and stands on earth a new creablood was shed for the sins of the whole ture in Christ Jesus. He is clean before world. For original sin unconditionally;

God. He is as pure from guilt as a new for actual sin conditionally. Mankind born babe. Though his sins were as had no part in the commission of the scarlet, he is now washed whiter than original sin, they perform nothing in the wool, and is prepared for the next step on redemption therefrom. Its effects came the straight and narrow path which leads through no acts of theirs; those effects to lise eternal. Happy indeed is he. Joy will be removed without anything they unspeakable fills his heart. Peace inmay do. No conditions are required as

describable dwells in his bosom. Purity preliminaries to redemption from original shines in all his nature. He has entered sin; it was committed by Adam, it was in by the door into the sheep fold, and is atoned for by Jesus Christ. But as each

one of the flock of Christ. The load of person is guilty of his own sins, so he his past misdeeds is rolled from his must comply with the conditions which shoulders and he is free. The liberty will entitle him to the full benefits of of the gospel is his. Henceforth he Christ's atonement for his own sins.

should be the servant only of the King Among these conditions are faith, re of Kings, and a soldier of the Cross. pentance and baptism. Saving faith But he has a warfare to fight which will must necessarily include the Son as well require all his strength, resolution and as the Father in its objects, because sal fortitude. For he has come out from the vation comes from the Father through world and the world will hate him, and the Son, and as Christ died for all, there persecute him and malign him, and try is no other name but his given under

to despitefully use him. The flesh of his man can be saved. Re own being will be in conflict with his pentance, as we have shown, includes spiritual nature now brought into actual humility, which leads to obedience, and life. And Satan, the great adversary of baptism follows, in which is given to the the children of light, with his hosts of repentant believer that remission of sins, emissaries will take special pains to obtained through the shedding of Christ's

tempt and try to allure him from the blood in the place of the blood of the path of salvation. But God will be on

his side, and if he holds true to his bapBaptism as a part of the Gospel is the

tismal covenants he will come off more complete immersion in water of a repent

than conqueror over all, and obtain the to act "in the name of the Father and of ment wrought out by the spotless and

merciful Savior, who henceforth is his this is essential to its validity. The can

loved and loving Lord. must believe and repent. The

C. W. Penrose.

Work for some good, be it ever so slowly; rectly. There is but “one baptism,” as

Cherish some flower, be it ever so lowly: there is but one Lord and one faith.”

Labor-all labor is noble and holy.-Osgood.

heaven whereby

sinner.

didate

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II.

TRAVELS IN ITALY.

tury, however, it became subject to the VERONA AND PADUA.

latter government, and remained so until On the evening train leaving Milan for the end of the Venetian republic. The Verona, November 15, 1873, the passen town presents the appearance of being gers were considerably diverted by the poverty-stricken; the inhabitants of beconduct of a pair of Lombard peasants, longing to some other age; their fantastic who were returning from the Cathedral garbs are such as are seen in the old City, where a few hours before they had plays; broad-brimmed hats, with feathers been joined in the sacred bonds of matri- waving above the crown, and long, full mony. We have no recollection of ever cloaks being worn by the men. Thus seeing a couple so much pleased with arrayed, their silent, measured tread falls themselves and each other. Their ad- upon the ear with apprehension, and miration not resting here, the happy their dark, flashing eyes are painfully groom busied himself directing his fel- suggestive of the deeds such characters low passengers' attention to the beauties dare to do. They make one feel that Veroof his bride: her eyes, smile, physique, na is a good place to visit by daylight, costume, etc., were pointed to with rap- rather than in the darkness of night. turous delight, he always winding up by The most interesting object in the city embracing the dear object of his admira is the ancient Arena, built in the time of tion, who seemed greatly to enjoy the at Diocletian, about 280 A. D. It is above tention she attracted, and the esteem in one hundred feet high, and is sixteen which she was held.

hundred feet in circumference, outside We arrived at the famous city of the measurement. The arena itself is about Scaligers in the middle of the night, a one hundred and fifty feet wide by two fitting time to trod the streets in which hundred and fifty feet long, or the size of were fought the petty battles of the Cap the large Tabernacle, Salt Lake City. ulets and Montagues. On our way to

Around it rise forty-five tiers of seats, the hotel, we passed the house in which having capacity for about twenty-five fair Juliet lived, and-need it be said, thousand spectators, besides standing were wont to stop a while and lean room for seventy thousand more. Here against the carved pillars of the balcony, were witnessed the sports and games of from which shot the fiery darts of love the ancients; acrobatic, gladiatorial, and that pierced the enamored heart of equestrian tournaments. At present, Romeo. It is surprising, considering the within the interior is located a small themany thousand young men who visit this | atre, while the arcades leading to it are place, annually, each feeling himself a rented by the town, to traders and merveritable Romeo, that the pillars are not chants of every description, who display worn away. The family now occupying a wonderful variety of goods for sale at the building, it is said, is without daugh- exorbitant prices. ters, and indeed it were unsafe for any The tombs of the Scaligers are elaboother to think of making it their home. rate marble, bronze and gold monuments

Verona is an ancient town of sixty located near the church of St. Maria thousand inhabitants. It was founded | Antica in the open street. The finest by the Gauls and passed into posses are surmounted by canopies, supported sion of the Lombard princes, who resid- by beautifully carved columns, above ed here during the middle ages; after which are equestrian statues of the wards it fell into the hands of the illus- princes, in whose honor they were erecttrious family of Scaligers, under whose ed; beneath the canopies are the Sarcopresidency the republic of Verona flour- phagi, surrounded with statues of Chrisished for upwards of a hundred years, tian heroes, and symbolical figures repthe rival, in many respects, of Venice. resenting Christian virtues. Around Toward the close of the fourteenth cen- / each tomb is a costly and elegant railing

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