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things on the inhabitants of the old thee, and ye shall seal them up also, with world, sought to, and had counterfeited the things which ye shall write. For them in the new.” Men who could behold, the language which ye shall manifest such a high order of inventive write I have confounded, wherefore I credulity, would not be likely to prove will cause in my own due time that these slow in pronouncing the belief and prac stones shall magnify to the eyes of men tice of others idolatrous, though they these things which ye shall write. And might, in every particular, agree with when the Lord had said these words, He that enjoined by the law and the Gospel. shewed unto the brother of Jared all the Be this, however, as it may, we find no inhabitants of the earth which had been, reason for believing that De la Vega and also all that would be: and he withever had in his possession either the held them not from his sight unto the treasure of Votan or the book written by end of the earth.” him; though he may have had, and un “And the Lord commanded the brother doubtedly did have one written by some of Jared to go down out of the mount of the primitive historians many centu from the presence of the Lord, and write ries later; which doubtless contained a the things which he had seen; and they transcript of some of the truths con were forbidden to come unto the children tained in the original Votanic document. of men, until after that He should be The value of the treasure and writings lifted up upon the cross; and for this of this great follower of the Divine voice

cause did king Mosiah keep them, that is evidenced by the fact of their having they should not come unto the world been so carefully guarded for so many until after Christ should shew Himself generations.

unto His people. And after Christ truly We will now turn to the Book of Mor- | had shewed Himself unto His people, mon in search of clearer light upon this He commanded that they should be interesting subject; after which we shall made manifest. And now, after that, leave the reader to draw his own conclu- they have all dwindled in unbelief, and sions as to whether or not Votan and the there is none, save it be the Lamanites, brother of Jared were identical. We and they have rejected the Gospel of have already seen, as shown in a previ- Christ; therefore I am commanded that ous article, that the former led, by divine I should hide them up again in the command, a small colony, whose lan- earth.”—Ether, iv, 1–3. guage was not confounded, from the Now, if the brother of Jared, of whom great Tower to America, and that the the Book of Mormon bears this record, brother of Jared, being favored of the and Votan, of whom the Popol Vuh Lord, and a man of mighty faith, did and other historic ancient American likewise. The third chapter, verses 21– writings, as we have seen, speak, are 25, Book of Ether, contain the follow one and the same, then we can readily ing:

understand why he should write a book "And it came to pass that the Lord recording his genealogy and deeds,. said unto the brother of Jared, Behold, and giving an account of the won. . thou shalt not suffer these things which derful things which Jesus, before He apye have seen and heard, to go forth unto peared in the flesh, had shown him, and the world, until the time cometh that I why, also, he and his generations after shall glorify my name in the flesh: where him should guard the same and the fore, ye shall treasure up the things treasure (the stones of interpretation) which ye have seen and heard, and shew with such sacred care, for a period of

And behold, when ye perhaps not less than two thousand four shall come unto me, ye shall write them hundred years. and seal them up that no one can inter Ether, who wrote his book about 600 pret them: for ye shall write them in a B. C., being a great Prophet of God, language that they cannot be read. And was familiar with the writings and hisbehold, these two stones will I give unto tory of the brother of Jared, and it was

it to no man.



doubtless through his record that it be 420, hidden, by divine command, these came understood that one of the des- | books and the treasure in the earth, cendants of Votan, and not Votan him- | where they remained until brought forth self, had written the book; when the by the great modern Prophet, Joseph facts are, that they each wrote, but one Smith, it is clear that the bishop of Chi. many centuries previous to the other. apas failed to destroy them. Moroni having again, about A. D.

Moses Thatcher,

CRIME AND EDUCATION. The zealous advocates of the increase be eradicated by simply filling the minds of education among the masses, in their of men with book knowledge. The arguments in its favor as a preventive religious and moral nature of men must of crime, are apt to confound knowledge be trained, and the heart attuned to with wisdom; wisdom, if we mistake the love of truth and righteousness, not, being the right use of knowledge. before we may expect perceptible changes Many of the ideas these persons advance in society in this direction. On the apply more directly to the moral powers other hand, the wider the spread of of mankind than to their intellectuality; intellectuality and scholastic attainments, and the true reason why certain crimes intermingled with religious skepticism are less frequent among some classes of and lax ideas regarding morality, the society than among others, is to be more prevalent will crimes of this class attributed more to the fact that their become, and the more difficult of detecmoral training has not been neglected, tion; because, in the first place, of the than that they are learned in letters or in artistic manner in which they will be art.

conceived and carried out, and because of There are certain crimes upon which the apathetic and lukewarm moral sentithe education of the common school, ment of the community, which condones under the systems now most popular, and partly encourages


wrongs, has no apparent, and to the mind of the especially when committed by men of writer, can have no conceivable effect. wealth, former social standing, or of

. influential connections.

one who has any regard for the truthWhat, then, are the crimes which it is

will argue that in the midst of the nations asserted that education will lessen, if not where grades of education exist, or, in obliterate? Crimes against propertyother words, where the people are not all theft, burglary, arson, etc.; and those of barbarous and totally uneducated, that violence against the person-murder, adultery and its kindred infamies are manslaughter and other brutalities. Unespecially and distinctively the sins of doubtedly these crimes are more prevalent the uneducated. Rather, as it is generally among the uneducated than the educated, admitted, these are the crimes of the but it is an open question whether primaririch, and consequently of the better ly and originally education has anything educated. We here use the word educa to do with the matter. Is it not rather the tion in its common acceptance, as the state of society in which the uneducated, knowledge acquired at school, and in as a rule, are born and reared, and of this sense desire it to be understood when which the absence of education is only hereafter used in this article.

one phase, which is responsible for this Again, there are crimes wholly impossi fact? These evils are manifested most ble to the utterly uneducated, forgery, largely amongst the poverty stricken; peculation in office, falsification of ac and it is their poverty that causes them counts, and in a less degree, coining and to be uneducated, not their lack of educa. counterfeiting. These evils will never tion which causes them to be poor, only,



as often happens, evils of this kind re-act or the antagonism of classes. This and inter-act upon each other, the child | feeling is engendered and nurtured of the poor is untaught, and, because he amongst the poor (and consequently the is untaught, when he grows up to man uneducated), because the wealthy have hood, he remains poor; he is at a dis little or no cause, only in exceptional advantage through the whole struggle of cases, for this feeling, and they know life.

that their wrongs, if any, cannot be Crimes against property can be traced redressed in such ways; when the rich to many causes which bear far more desire to exercise this feeling they call heavily upon the poor than upon the for the aid of the government, and rich; and as the great bulk of the un accomplish their object by the power of educated are found in the ranks of the the military; but when this is done it poor the fault is improperly laid mainly has little relation to the subject now to the want of education, while in truth under consideration, and arises more that unfortunate fact should only bear from political or social upheavals than an inconsiderable portion of the burden; from any individual infractions of the we will notice a few of these causes. law. We have no doubt that more

Idleness. The poor man has to work, ignorant than educated men are charged beg, or steal for a living; no such with arson and the like, but if the crime alternatives are presented to the rich. be ascribed to lack of education it is not The lazy poor man, whether learned or that education which the common school untaught, has to beg, steal, or starve; as a supplies. We are of the opinion that it rule he prefers to beg or steal, whilst the more probably arises from too much of indolent rich man, be he fool or philoso- another kind of education, which conpher, can live without work or without founds the rights of men, and teaches stealing. Thus laziness, the fruitful that one class of wrongs can be righted mother of a thousand evils, is really the by the committal of other wrongs, and primary cause of many crimes which are that those who esteem themselves popularly and thoughtlessly ascribed to oppressed are justified in injuring those ignorance, that is, to scholastic igno whom they consider their oppressors. rance, for to ignorance, in its widest We maintain that individual crimes of meaning, must be ascribed nine-tenths this kind are not, as a rule, attributable of the sins of mankind.

to any influences or causes connected Poverty. The poor man is tempted by with the lack of education. We are not want, want of the necessities of life, of now considering the actions of men when which the rich man experimentally knows aggregated as mobs, or as forces in nothing.

The hungry and naked commit rebellion against their governments--and many crimes against property, which are even such require educated leaders. In simply the results of their condition. such conditions of society, when the Let the positions of the classes be passions of men are violently inflamed, changed, the rich be made poor and the the education of the intellect has but poor rich, we should then find that the little restraining force. previous scholastic or literary training of Squalor. Dirt, misery, degredation, the former (if without natural moral and the other concomitants of poverty stamina), would have little effect upon

have much to do with these kinds of crime. their actions when in want of bread. The more men and women are huddled It would perhaps occasionally alter the together like beasts in a corral, without description of the crime, the forger and any regard for the decencies of life, the his ilk would probably take the place of less respect they will have for right as an the burglar and the footpad.

abstract idea. They will be kept honest Revenge. Many crimes against prop

in action, by the fear of the rigors of the erty, such as arson, willful destruction of law; such honesty is, of course, only property, maiming of animals, etc., are

superficial, and breaks down under a very attributable to the feeling of revenge,

slight pressure, or whenever the chances



of being detected are sensibly diminished. faces of officers and fellow prisoners The low lodging houses and tenements grow familiar, and to an extent take the of the large cities are hotbeds of vice, place of former friends and acquainbecause they degrade man's moral nature, tances. Habit is well said to be second lessen his self respect, and teach a dis nature, and as soon as a man becomes regard for the proprieties and decencies reconciled to prison life, the less worth of life, which is particularly injurious to will he be to society, and the less liklithe habits of the young, and render them hood there is of his reformation when peculiarly unfit to resist temptation. But set free. Again, the longer he is kept this is the misfortune, not the fault of the confined the more unprepared will he be poor; the wrong lies in the deficiencies when at liberty to battle with the world and weaknesses of modern civilization. or to "rustle for his grub,” to use a

Familiarity with crime. It is well | prison phrase. Long confinement has said, “Familiarity breeds contempt,” and made him enervated in body, and robbed in nothing more so than in regard to him of manly ambition and independence. crime and its apparent consequences On the other hand, if he considers his the punishment which the law inflicts. sentence has been unjustly severe, and Association with the habitual criminal, | pronounced in the spirit of revenge, he which is the lot of some of the very broods over his supposed wrongs, and poor, has a manifest effect in the increase when his time is out he re-enters the of crime. There is a remarkable charac world with the idea that he and society teristic apparent amongst many trans are at war, and that it is his business, if gressors against the laws, the idea that possible, to get the best of the conflict. they are too smart to be found out, or if The rich man coming out of prison found out, to be convicted. But few after a long sentence has no necessity to would deliberately commit offences if go to work, the poor man has but little they imagined they would be punished. inclination, or indeed bodily strength, Criminals of this class are generally very and consequently, as a rule, falls back hopeful individuals, and the frequent into evil ways. To this must be added miscarriages of justice give them good the consideration of how difficult it is, reason for being so. As these characters in many communities, for a man once are generally gathered from the lower convicted of crime to obtain employment; strata of society, they naturally swell the he is a pariah, and an outcast, on whom number of criminals therein, and become his fellows frown, one who is almost another cause for the increase of crime compelled, for dear life's sake, through in those classes, wrongfully attributed to man's inhumanity to man, to resume the lack of schooling.

path of the transgressor. Thus again The Inequality of the Laws, which swelling the multitudes in the criminal in many countries bear more heavily classes, the majority of whom, for the upon the poor than on the well-to-do, reason above given, being the unedumay be placed among the causes that cated. swell the ratio of uneducated criminals. Bribery. There is yet another reason

Severe Sentences for Minor Offences why often the poor are convicted, and are a fruitful source of greater crimes. the rich escape. It is that the latter are The period when the misery and degrada- enabled to purchase a higher order of tion of the prison house is most keenly | legal talent in their defence, and thus felt is during the first few months of increase the chances of acquittal; while confinement. During that time the if this fail, it is notorious, that in many punishment is most intense. After this, countries the rich can buy the officers the feelings of strangeness and humilia- of the law, if not by direct bribery, by tion work off, the longing for friends and the many little artifices known to those home wears away, and the prison becomes who dabble in such unclean waters. In in part a home, poor though it be; at any fact, bribery has grown to be one of the rate, a place less to be dreaded; and the fine arts of the nineteenth century.



These are some of the reasons why the uneducated, or the poorly educated, make so large a showing in our criminal calendar. The causes are not directly traceable to the want of the education of the common school, but to the entire environment of the classes in which the uneducated are most largely found. We have no fault to find with the training of the mind, but do not think it should stop there. To make men intellectual, and intellectual only, without the corresponding balances of religion and morality,

will not decrease the criminal classes. The whole man must be educated, and the foundation laid in the love of truth and virtue. The wise man of old said, “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom," and we hold that his proposition is as true in the midst of the civilization of this age as it was in the earlier epochs of human history.

Geo. Reynolds.

To speak of a man as merely "good" has come to signify he is good for nothing.



death whose fruit was forbidden, desDEATH is the common heritage. It is cends to all generations, and every varia legacy to all the children, left by our ety of form and feature, and color and first progenitor. It is the result of trans- stature, and tendency and peculiarity, gression, the penalty of violated law. have the one common characteristic, the The immortal pair who dwelt in Eden certainty of death. fell into mortality through sin. Immor But is the dissolution of the body the tality is the power of continued exist- end of existence? Not at all. We have ence. But “all things are governed by seen that the part of man that comes law.” Sin is law-breaking. To live for from heaven lives on when that which ever requires perpetual obedience to the came from the earth returns to the earth. laws of everlasting life. “That which is Yet this is not sufficient. The query governed by law is preserved by law.” arises, Shall this body, made mortal By the same rule reversed, the reverse through transgression, remain for ever obtains. Therefore, that which is im- under the penalty of the broken law, or mortal and obeys not the laws of immor- is there some means of expiation for the tality, will become mortal. If obedience sin and restoration from the doom, its ensures preservation, disobedience in consequence? Are all the associations volves destruction. Law reigns in the formed in the flesh and pertaining to this highest as well as in the lower spheres mortal state, to perish with the decayed of being. Eternal life involves eternal body and be scattered like the dust to compliance with the laws of existence. which it is resolved? Are the fond rela

All seeds produce their own kind. tions of husband and wife, and parent Mortal beings beget mortality. When and child to be dissolved forever? Is the parents of our race became mortal this exquisitely, “fearfully and wonderthrough breaking a law of their immortal fully” formed mechanism, with the expecondition, they brought death to their riences of its temporal existence, to be offspring as well as to themselves. “In obliterated and lose its identity in the Adam all die."

The curse of death material universe? smites the whole family. “It is appoint The answer comes down from the reed unto man once to die.” No ingenuity motest ages, like sweet and sacred music he can exercise or precautions he can

whose tones swell and increase as the adopt will avert the impending doom. chorus is joined by the voices of the The decree has been proclaimed, “Thou Prophets and Saints of each succeeding shalt surely die,” and it is irrevocable. dispensation, until the grand harmony The taint that came from the tree of thrills every respondent soul. The bur

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