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i Social Evolution, p. III.

I hope I have not misrepresented the Reverend Doctor Brooke Herford.

* The Reverend Stanley Hughes, my dear friend, who should have written this book, largely inspired me to do it by his uncompromising persistence in this contention. This

passage is imitated from one in Dorner's Glaubenslehre. Cf. vol. ii., p. 57 (T. & T. Clark).

* I do not know who has written more worthily on this great theme than has Professor Henry Jones, a disciple greater than his master, in Browning as a Philosophical and Religious Teacher. Cf. cap. vi., Browning's Treatment of the Principle of Love.

Ethics of Citizenship, p. 184. · Social Evolution, p. 192 ff. * This prayer is from the Ambrosian Missal.

Harper's Weekly, Feb. 22, 1896. 10 The statements made by me in The Forum for November, 1894, regarding the conditions under which thousands of operatives in Fall River pass their lives, have never been refuted.

In The Forum for May, 1896, Miss Clare de Graffenreid, Agent of the United States Census Bureau, gives an abstract of her survey of labourers' tenements in this country. It was a sufficiently horrifying revelation to those who were ignorant on the subject. This passage is pathetic : “Going from Fall River to Nashua, I could


hardly believe my eyes on seeing the ' company' tenements there;-rows of good brick houses, with private entrances, front and rear and a hall for each entrance, and actually a door-bell. Nothing touches my heart and imagination like a door-bell. After New York and Fall River, these closed doors and individual bells were idyllic. They stand for the sweet reserve of family life, reposeful days, and

peaceful evenings when the schoolgirl is busy with her lessons, and the mother lays the cloth and rocks baby's cradle. The door-bell means privacy, family life, household gods, home." Miss de Graffenreid is authority for the statement that eighty-eight thousand persons in Boston live in houses containing three or more families each.

11 Cf. Maurice, The Kingdom of Christ. 1: The Victory of the Cross, p. 16.

18 St. Luke, xvii. 21: Ιδού γαρ η βασιλεία του θεού Évrós új av ļotiv. Cf. Xen., an. 1, 10, 3; and Hell., 2, 3, 19.

" About one million of copies of Merrie England has been printed and sold. The wide distribution of this socialistic document is a fact which undoubtedly reaches the magnitude of an event. The book's probable effect upon the English mind is a grave question. Much of its teaching,—that especially which I have borrowed, I hold to be true ; there are particulars which I believe fallacious. The reception given this book in England illustrates how much more prepared for socialistic advance the older country is. It is well-nigh impossible to conceive of any “respectable" group of people here in conservative America discussing Merrie England in the temper, and with the degree of sympathy, which has been shown towards it, for instance, at Oxford.

10 The words, occurring in the parable of the talents (St. Matthew xxv. and St. Luke xix.), “Thou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the exchangers, and then at my coming I should have received mine own with usury,” are sometimes adduced in defence of interest-taking. But Christ is not here speaking in His own character. This is the advice of one who is described as a “hard” and an

austere” man. 16 References to the quotations in this paragraph are, in order, as follows: Aug. in Matt. xix. 21, N. T. Lect. lxxxvi. 3 (Benedictine ed.); in Ps. xxxvii. 3, 5; Basil in Ps. xiv. (xv.), 5 (Hom. ii.); Chrys. in Matt. Hom. v. 9; Hom. lvi. 9; Basil in Ps. xiv. (xv.), 3.

“The Fathers are unanimous,” says Gibbon in a note to his forty-fourth chapter, mentioning Cyprian, Lactantius, Basil, Chrysostom, Gregory Nyssa, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, and “a host of councils and canonists." He might have extended the list. The literary form which the discussion takes in ancient writers is most frequently an appeal to those who lend, to lend to the Lord. This turn is taken in affecting language by many of the Fathers. I cannot forbear quoting at somewhat greater length from these mentioned in the address.

“Let us not then traffic in other men's calamities, nor make a trade of our benevolence. .. For to this intent thou hast wealth, to relieve poverty, not to make a gain from poverty ; but thou with a show of relieving makest the calamity greater, and sellest benevolence for money.

Sell it, I forbid thee not, but for a heavenly kingdom. Receive not a small price for so good a deed : thy monthly one per cent. (Toros éxar obtiaios), but the immortal life. Why art thou beggarly and poor and mean, selling


thy great things for a little, for goods that perish, when it should be for an everlasting kingdom? Why dost thou leave God, and get human gains ? Why dost thou pass by that Wealthy One, and trouble him that hath not ? and, leaving the sure exchanger, make thy bargain with the unthankful ? He longs to pay, but this pays grudgingly. He repays with praises and auspicious words, this with insults and revilings. He here and there; this hardly here.

Tell me not this, that he is pleased to receive, and is thankful for the loan. It is because he is compelled to be thankful for thy cruelty. It seems to me as though, shouldest thou deliver him from perils, thou wouldest exact of him a payment for the deliverance. What sayest thou ? ‘Not so'? Delivering him from the greater evil, thou wouldest be unwilling to exact money, and for the lesser dost thou display such inhumanity!

“When I have received interest, I give to the poor,'one tells me. Speak reverently, O man ; God desires not such sacrifices. Deal not subtly with the law. Better not give to a poor man, than give from that source. For the money that hath been collected by honest labours, thou often makest to become unlawful because of that wicked increase ; as if one should compel a fair womb to give birth to scorpions.

And never doth the money-dealer enjoy his possessions, nor find pleasure in them ; but when the interest is brought, he doth not rejoice that he hath received gain, but is grieved that the interest hath not yet come up to the principal. And before this evil off-spring is brought forth complete, he compels it also to bring forth, making the interest principal, and forcing it to bring forth its untimely

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