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ELEMENTS OF CRITICISM.

One can obreme that is the cloon little Town of winchestertito lively active people & The Cor

too much for his statue. The same objection lies
against a cascade where the statue of a water-god
pours out of his urn real water.

I am more doubtful whether the same objection lies against the employing statues of animals as supports; that of a negro, for example, supporting a dial, statues of fish supporting a basin of water, Termes supporting a chimney-piece; for when a stone is used as a support, where is the incongruity, it will be said, to cut it into the form of an animal? But leaving this doubtful, another objection occurs, That such designs must in some measure be disagreeable, by the appearance

of giving pain to a sensitive being.

It is observed above of gardening, that it contributes to rectitude of manners, by inspiring gaiety and benevolence. I add another observation, That both rardening and architecture contribute to the same ena! by inspiring a taste for neatness and elegance. In Scotland, the regularity and polish even of a turnpike road has some influence of this kind

upon

the

poor people in the neighborhood. They become fond of regularity and neatness; which is displayed, first upon their yards and little inclosures, and next within-doors. A taste for regularity and neatness, thus acquired, is extended by degrees to dress, and even to behavior and manners. The author of a history of Switzerland, describing the fierce manners of the plebeians of Berne three or four centuries ago, continually inured to success in war, which made them insolently aim at a change of government in order to establish a pure democracy, observes, that no circumstance tended more to sweeten their manners, and to make them fond of peace, than the public buildings carried on by the senate for ornamenting their capital; particularly a fine town-house, and a magnificent church, which to this day, says our author, stands its ground as one of the finest in Europe.

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REVIEW. To what are gardening and architecture now improved. Does the author propose to treat them as useful or fine arts ?

What are the two different destinations of gardening and archiLecture?

What does this variety of destination bestow on these arts?
How do they entertain the mind ?
What emotions does gardening raise ?
In what is architecture superior?-in what inferior to garden-
Which is superior in grandeur?-in utility ?
What great advantage does gardening possess ?
What is necessary for producing this effect?
To what is a building confined ?
What is wanted to bring architecture to maturity ?
How does it differ from gardening, with respect to materials ?

What is the other thing wanted to bring architecture to perfection ?

What should be a ruling principle in gardening and architecture?

How is it violated ?
What bad effect results from superfluity of decoration?
What mistake is made in forming plans?
What is the effect of strict regularity in laying out a large field?

What is the simplest plan of a garden ?--a more complex ?the third kind?—the completest plan?

What is important in this plan?
What emotions should follow each other?
Should they be united ?--why not?
Give examples.
What emotions ought to be raised together?
What is Kent's method of embellishing a field?
What is observed of the gardens of Versailles ?

Where should regularity be studied, and where should it not be studied ?

How should trees be disposed ?
What is observed of the star form?
How should thickets be disposed ?
* What is the rule in laying out a field?
What ornaments should be rejected in gardening?
What sort of imitations are displeasing?
Give an example.
With what are the vulgar entertained ?
What should be avoided in designing a garden ?
What sort of walks are most agreeable in an embellished field?
why?
Why is a straight avenue less agreeable than a winding one?
Why should a garden on a flat be highly ornamented ?
What is the advantage of an elevated walk?
Why is a Gothic preferable to a Grecian ruin?
What kind of fountain is condemned?

Is it necessary, in gardening, to oppose relative to intrinsic beauty?

What is a summer garden?
Where is it suitable?
Where is a winter garden desirable ?
What are its requisite properties?
How may it be made subservient to education ?

Into what three kinds are buildings and parts of buildings dis.
tributed ?
What is required in buildings intended for Atility?
Where should beauty alone be regarded ?
Where is the great difficulty of contrivance?
Where should regularity prevail ?—where utility?

What is required in the door of a dwelling-house?-of a palace? of a church?

Whence arises the beauty of a Gothic tower?
What sort of figure is preferred for a dwelling-house?
What is the form of rooms required by utility ?
What form is best calculated for receiving light?
Where should intrinsic, beauty be preferred to relative beauty?
Do the British always suit their dwellings to their climate?

What is chiefly necessary in works of art that are intended to imitate nature?

How is this done?
What are chiefly studied in works of art that are original?

What is the effect of a well-proportioned room?-of an ill-proportioned one?

In what are regularity and proportion essential?--why?
What rule does congruity dictate?
Give examples.
What is required in a Christian church?-in its situation ?-
why?

What do columns express?
Should the situation of a building regulate its form?
Give an example.
To what is the Gothic form of building suited ?

Why should the room, which first receives us on entering a house, not be large?

What suit of rooms is proposed for a very large house?

What is the inconvenience of a double row of windows in the same room?

What should be the chief study of the architect? What sort of ornament do private dwellings admit?-temples, triumphal arches, and other buildings intended for show?

Where should statues be placed ?
Why should not vases be placed on the top of a wall?
What ornaments did the ancients use for pedestals ?
What subjects admit the greatest variety in point of taste?
What were the three Grecian orders of architecture?
How are columns distinguished with respect to their destination?

With respect to destination, what order is classed with the Doric? --what with the Corinthian?'

How should the ornaments of the three orders be contrived ?

Give examples. Who invented the Corinthian capital ? From what did he take its form? What objections are made to it? What rule with respect to buildings is dictated by utility?—what by beauty ?-why? What is the great care of the artist? What kind of ornaments is most difficult? What is the effect of mixing them with realities? Give examples. What is observed of the statue of Moses striking a rock from which water actually issues ?

Why are statues employed for supports disagreeable?

How do gardening and architecture contribute to rectitude of manners ?

Give examples.

CHAPTER XXIII.

Standard of Taste. It is a common proverb that there is no disputing about taste. One thing at first view is evident, that if the proverb holds true with respect to taste in its proper meaning, it must hold equally true with respect to our other external senses : if the pleasures of the palate disdain a comparative trial, and reject all criticism, the pleasures of touch, of smell, of sound, and even of sight, must be equally privileged. At that rate, a man is not within the reach of censure, even where he prefers the Saracen's Head upon a sign-post before the best tablature of Raphael, or a rude Gothic tower before the finest Grecian building; or where he prefers. an unpleasant smell before that of the most odoriferous flower, or discords before exquisite harmony.

If the pleasures of external sense be exempted from criticism, why not every one of our pleasures, from whatever source derived ? If taste in its proper sense cannot be disputed, there is little room for disputing it in its figurative sense. The proverb accordingly com

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ELEMENTS OF CRITICISM.

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prehends both; and in that large sense may be resolved into the following general proposition, That with respect to the perceptions of sense, by which some objects appear agreeable, some disagreeable, there is no such a thing as a good or a bad, a right or a wrong ; that every man's taste is to himself an ultimate standard without appeal; and consequently that there is no ground of censure against any one who prefers Blackmore before Homer, selfishness before benevolence, or cowardice before magnanimity.

The proverb in the foregoing examples is indeed carried very far: it seems difficult, however, to sap its foundation, or attack it successfully from any quarter; every man is equally a judge of what ought to be agreeable or disagreeable to himself. Is it not whimsical and absurd, to assert, that a man ought not to be pleased when he is, or that he ought to be pleased when he is not ?

This reasoning may perplex, but will never afford conviction: every one of taste will reject it as false, however unqualified to detect the fallacy. Though no man of taste will assent to the proverb as holding true in every case, no man will affirm that it holds true in no case; there are objects that we may like or dislike indifferently, without any imputation upon our taste. Were a philosopher to make a scale for human pleasures, he would not think of making divisions without end: but would rank together pleasures arising perhaps from different objects, either as conducing to happiness, or differing so imperceptibly as to make a separation unnecessary. Nature has taken this course as to the generality of mankind. There

may

be subdivisions without end; but we are only sensible of the grosser divisions, comprehending pleasures equally affecting: to these the proverb is applicable in the strictest sense; for with respect to pleasures of the same rank, what ground can there be for preferring one beforer nother? If a preference in fact be given

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