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carefully rejected all such speculations or con- 'jectures as might gratify the curiosity of learning without tending to edify the youthful mind. The account which is given of the Feasts and Fasts of the Jews, both before and after the Babylonian Captivity, will, it is hoped, prove useful to the reader, more especially by pointing out to him appropriate subjects of reflection while perusing the Sacred Records.

The history of Palestine, prior to the Fall of Jerusalem, rests upon the authority of the inspired writers, or of those annalists, such as Josephus and Tacitus, who flourished at the period of the events which they describe. The narrative, which brings down the fortunes of that remarkable country to the present day, is much more various both in its subject and references; more especially where it embraces the exploits of the Crusaders, those renowned devotees of religion, romance, and chivalry. The reader will find in a narrow compass the substance of the extensive works of Fuller, Wilken, Michaud, and Mills. In the more modern part of this historical outline, in which the affairs of Palestine are intimately connected with those of Egypt, it was thought unnecessary to repeat facts mentioned at some length in the volume already published on the latter country.*

The topographical description of the Holy Land is drawn from the works of the long series of travellers and pilgrims, who, since the time of the faithful Doubdan, have visited the interesting scenes where the Christian Faith had its origin and completion. On this subject Maundrell is still a prin

[* No. XXJIL of this Family Library.]

cipal authority; for, while we have the best reason to believe that he recorded nothing but what he saw, we can trust implicitly to the accuracy of his details in describing every thing which fell undei his observation. The same high character is due to Pococke and Sandys, writers whose simplicity of style and thought afford a voucher for the truth of their narratives. Nor are Thevenot, Paul Lucas, and Careri, though less frequently consulted, at all unworthy of confidence as depositaries of historical facts. In more modern times we meet with equal fidelity, recommended by an exalted tone of feeling, in the volumes of Chateaubriand and Dr. Richardson. Clarke, Burckhardt, Buckingham, Legh, Henniker, Jowett, Light, Macworth, Irby and Mangles, Came, and Wilson, have not only contributed valuable materials, but also lent the aid of their names to correct or to confirm the statements of some of the more apocryphal among their predecessors. The chapter on Natural History has no pretensions to scientific arrangement or technical precision in its delineations. On the contrary, it is calculated solely for the common reader, who would soon be disgusted with the formal notation of the botanist, and could not understand the learned terms in which the student of zoology too often finds the knowledge of animal nature concealed. Its main object is to illustrate the Scriptures, by giving an account of the quadrupeds, birds, serpents, plants, and fruits which are mentioned from time to time by the inspired writers of either Testament.

Edinburgh, September, 1 S31.

CONTENTS,

CHAPTER L

INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS.

Interest attached to the History of Palestine—Remarkable Character of

the Hebrew People—Their small Beginning and astonishing Increase

—The Variety of Fortune they underwent—Their constant Attach-

ment to the Promised Land—The Subject presents an interesting

Problem to the Historian and Politician—The Connexion with Chris-

tianity—Effect of this Religion on the Progress of Society—Importance

of the Subject to the pious Reader—Holy Places—Pilgrims—Grounds

for Believing the Ancient Traditions on this Head—Cnnntantine and

the Empress Helena—Relics—Natural Scenery—Extent of Canaan—

Fertility—Geographical Distribution—Countries Eastward of the Jor-

dan—Galilee—Samaria—Bethlehem—Jericho—The Dead Sea—Table

representing the Possessions of the Twelve Tribes Page 17

CHAPTER H.

HISTORY OF TUB HEBREW COMMONWEALTH.

Form of Government after the Death of Joshua—In Egypt—In the Wil-

derness—Princes of Tribes and Heads of Families—Impatience to take

Possession of Promised Land—The Effects of it—Renewal of War-

Extent of Holy Land—Opinions of Fleury, Spanheim, Reland, and

Lowman—Principle of Distribution—Each Tribe confined to a sepa-

rate Locality—Property Unalienable—Conditions of Tenure—Popula-

tion of the Tribes—Number of principal Families—A General Govern-

ment or National Council—The Judges—Nature of their Authority—

Not ordinary Magistrates—Different from Kings, Consuls, and Dic-

tators—Judicial Establishments—Judges and Officers—Described by

Josephus—Equality of Condition among the Hebrews—Their Inclina-

tion for a Pastoral Life—Freebooters like the Arabs—Abimelech, Jeph-

thah, and David—Simplicity of the Times—Boaz and Ruth—Tribe of

Levi—Object of their Separation—The learned Professions hereditary,

after the Manner of the Egyptians—The Levitical Cities—TheirNumber and Uses—Opinion of Michaelis—Summary View of the Times and

Character of the Hebrew Judges 34

CHAPTER in.

HISTORIC At OUTLINB FROM TRE ACCES8ION OF SAUL TO THE DE-

STRUCTION OF JERUSALEM.

Weakness of Republican Government—Jealousy of the several Tribes

—Resolution to have a King—Rules for regal Government—Character

of Saul—Of David—Troubles of his R«ign—Accession of Solomon-

Erection of the Temple—Commerce—Murmurs of the People—Reho»

boara—Division of the Tribes—Kings of Isreel—Kingdom of Jadah

—Siege of Jerusalem—Captivity—Kings of Judah—Return from

Babylon—Second Temple—Canon of Scripture—Struggles between

Egypt and Syria—Conquest of Palestine by Antiochus—Persecution

of Jews—Resistance by the Family of Maccabeeua—Victories of Judas

—He courts the Alliance of the Romans—Succeeded by Jonathan-

Origin of the Asmonean Princes—John Hyrcanus—Aristobulus—

Alexander Jannaus—Appeal to Pompey—Jerusalem taken by Romans

—Herod created King by the Romans—He repairs the Temple—Ar-

chelaus succeeds him, and Antipas is nominated to Galilee—Quirinius

Prefect of Syria—Pontius Pilate—Elevation of Herod Agrippa—Dis-

grace of Herod Philip—Judeaagain aProvince—Troubles—Accession

of Young Agrippa—Felix—Feslus—Floris—Command given to Ves-

pasian—War—Siege of Jerusalem by Titus Page 60

CHAPTER IV.

CN THE LITERATURE AND RELIGIOUS USAGES OF THE ANCIENT]

HEBREWS.

Obscurity of the Subject—Learning issued from the Tevitical Colleges—

Schools of the Prophets—Music and Poetry—Meaning of the term

Prophecy—Illustrated by References to the Old Testament and to the

New—The Power of Prediction not confined to those bred in the

Schools—Race of False Prophets—Their Malignity and Deceit—Mi

caiah and Ahab—Charge against Jeremiah the Prophet—Criterion to

distinguish True from False Prophets—The Canonical Writings of

the Prophets—Literature of Prophets—Sublime Nature of their Compositions—Examples from Psalms and Prophetical Writings—Humane

and liberal Spirit—Care used to keep alive the Knowledge of the Law

—Evils arising from the Division of Israel and Judah—Ezra collects

the Ancient Books—Schools of Prophets similar to Convents—Sciences

—Astronomy—Division of Time, Days, Months, and Years—Sabbaths

and New Moons—Jewish Festivals—Passover—Pentecost—Feast of

Tabernacles—Of Trumpets—Jubilee—Daughters of Zelophedad—

Feast of Dedication—Minor Anniversaries—Solemn Character of He-

brew Learning—Its easy Adaptation to Christianity—Superior to the

Literature of allother ancient Nations 88

CHAPTER V.

DESCRIPTION OF JERUSALEM.

Pilgrimages to the Holy Land—Arculfus—Willibald—Bernard—Effect

of Crusades—William de Bouldcsell—Bertrandon de la Broquiere—

State of Damascus—Breidenbach—Baumgarten—Barthotemeo George-

witz—Aldersey—Sandys—Doubdan—Cheron—Thevenot— Gonzales—

Morison—Maundrell—Pococke—Road from Jaffa to Jerusalem—Plain

of Sharon—Rama or Ramlu— Condition of the Peasantry—Vale of

Jeremiah—Jerusalem—Remark of Chateaubriand—Impressions of

different Travellers—Dr. Clarke—Tasso— Volney—Henniker—Mosque

of Omar described—Mysterious Stone—Church of Holy Sepulchre-

Ceremonies of Good Friday—Easter—The Sacred Fire—Grounds for

Skepticism—Folly of the Priests—Emotion upon entering the Holy

Tomb—Description of Chateaubriand—Holy Places in the City—On

Mount Zion—Pool of Siloam—Fountain of the Virgin—Valley of Je-

hoshaphat—Mount of Offence—The Tombs of Zechariah, of Jehoatuv

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