« PoprzedniaDalej »
practicability of cultivating it to ad. be best prepared for receiving invantage, the following contrast is struction at that period, when, in the presented to us : You can't open minds of unthinking people, instruc* that pretty box, love ;--come to me, tion commences :" p. 75–77. and I will do it for you.
See, what Pursuing the subject of attention, nice comfits there are in it.' The we meet with the following important 'box is opened-the comfits are eaten, observations : and mamma again screws on the lid. “ If the trains of thought, which, - Pleased with the novelty, little in our waking hours, incessantly flow master again desires to have it open through the mind, depend upon the ed, and again she complies with his nature of the objects to which we request. The request, or rather com- chiefly direct our attention, it apmand, is again repeated, and com- pears of the utmost consequence to plied with, till mamma grows tired, our success in education, to turn the and then she declares that the naughty attention to such objects as may inbox will not open any more. The troduce trains of thought unconnectill humour which succeeds is stifled ed with any violent emotion. This by niore comfits from her pocket, or is the great advantage of the pursuit the poor child is coaxed to resume of science. When it fortunately hapthe string by which the painted horse pens, that the attention is thus diis dragged round the room. All this rected in early life, the unruly pasI have seen, and similar occurrences sions will not gain a premature admay be now in your recollection. mission into the youthful bosom. Let us see how the same circumstance Many a rural nymph might have been is managed by a judicious mother:- saved from heart-felt misery by such
• Here is a pretty box, mamma; a knowledge of botany or minera6 but it won't open, all that I can do.' logy as would completely have occu
That box, my dear, won't open pied her leisure hours in retirement; by foree; the lid is screwed on, and while, from the mere want of ob• it must be turned in such a manner jects to engage her attention, the
as to take out the screw. Observe- Damon, or the Corydon, that first • There! it is opened ! now see how presents himself, seldom fails to be.
the part that fixes is cut in the man- come fatal to the vacant mind. 'ner of a screw.'
" Where the attention has been · O, yes! now I understand it; early engaged in fiction, it will not, * for I remember what papa told me without great difficulty, be turned to
one day about the cork-screw, when · realities. The cause is obvious. It · I was looking at it: but I thought is the business of fiction to excite " there was no use of screws but to emotion; the mind delights in this draw corks.'
excitement; and where it is frequent• All screws are made upon the ly produced, whatever is destitute of same plan, or principle, as it is call- it will appear insipid. lf, then, we ed, -- will you remember that would have the attention engaged in (word?'
the service of the intellectual facul· Yes, mamma; but what else is ties, and the faculties employed in & there besides cork-screws and screw- the search of truth, we must carefully lids for comtit-boxes?'
abstain from introducing emotions • Many things, my love, are made unfavourable to our design. From • upon the same principle. A piece the direction which is given to the • of furniture, that is just by you, is power of ATTENTION, the trains of • made upon the principle of the thought will derive their colouring, • screw; and if you will find it out and the character will ultimately • I will give you a kiss.'
partake of their complexion.” . • I see! I see! it is the stool on 87-89. " which my sister sits at the piano. Letter IV. Conception. « forte. It turns and rises just like the Iroductory Observations.--Mr. Locke's • lid of this box.'
Definition of Discernment applicable to « This scene I have likewise witness- Conception. The Evils arising from the ed. Does it require any argument to want of clear and accurate Ideas. -Hotu prove which of these children would these are to be obtained.- Conception to be most likely to pay attention to the be exercised in early Life, on the Obobjects of perception? Can we be at jects of Perception.- Books. -Peculiaany loss to determine which would rity of Temperament. - The Conceptions ni selancholy Persons languid.-0b. happy to extract from this part of the rations,
work. Letter V. CONCEPTion. Possess- Letter VII. JUDGMENT. First beteix different Degrees of Vigour. — gins to operate upon the Objects of se it may best be cultivaied in those of Perception. -Necessity of exercising it 0 Capacity-Exemplified in a Variety upon sensible Objecís.---Illustrations
.. or læstances. - Difference betwixt a How it may at first be exercised on Mo
Momsry of Perception and the Recollec- ral Propositions.--Party-Prejudice ini. i ne of Ideas.- The Advantage of cul- mical to its Cultivation.- Observations rating the latter.-Illustrations. on this Head.—The Use of History.
Letter VI. CONCEPTION Live- In this Letter the exercise of this fa. j Tempers particularly subject to In. culty is particularly applied to the
racy - How this Fault ought to be female sex in the following language: skuated.-Tke proper Exercise of Me. “ A little reflection would teach us, wory in early Life considered.- Illustra, that in every situation in which a fetiks.
male can be placed, whether she be To excite to the practice of culti. free or subordinate, whether she rating the faculty of conception, Miss moves in an exalted sphere, or be Hamilton represents the mournful ef. reduced to the duties of an inferior
zets of neglect, exemplified iu pre. one, in public and in private, abroad ! judice, injustice, falsehood, with their or at home, judgment is ever necesI train of attendant evils, which are sary, ever essential; and that what
considered to arise from a want of ever be her rank and situation in soaccurate conception. On this facul- ciety, if judgment do not form her ty an hundred pages are employed: opinions, and direct her conduct, she did our limits permit we should be will become an object of contempt.".
(To be concluded in our next.)
XVIII. REFLECTIONS on the Works of seventeen whole pieces. Some įnac
Ged ix Nature and Providence, for curacies in astronomy and natural every Day in the Year. By Chris- history were discovered by Mr. TOPHER CHRISTIAN STURM. Clarke, which he thought himself Translated from the French, and colo obliged to supply in the best possible lased with the German, by ADAM manner. We learn also from the PreCLAKKE. 12mo. 4 Volumes (with face, that besides the omissions above 4 plates.) PP. 1188. boards. Price specified, "a part in most of the me165. Edwards, Bristol, Badcock, ditations, and in some cases a third of &c. London.
each, is omitted. To the truly Chris.
tian reader, these omissions will apHE Translator of this work is a pear of serious consequence, when he
is informed that they contain those considerable respectability in the con- parts, which chiefly relate to experiBetion of the late Rev. John Wes- mental religion. In this edition, the key: be is esteemed a man of natural Translator professes to supply the detakots and considerable learning. fects of the former : that our Readers la his Preface be observes, a desire may judge how far he has succeeded, that the whole work of the pious au- we subjoin the Meditation on the thor should appear, induced him to Circulation of the Sap io Trees, both give a new version to the Public, as in the old and new editions, as a spethe traaslation in three volumes, cimnen of the work. which is the most complete, omits
NEW EDITION, March 26.
OLD EDITION.- March 26.
The trees, which for several " The trees, which for several months appeared entirely dead, be- months appeared quite dead, begin ingia insensibly to revive.lo a few sensibly to resive. Some weeks hence weeks we shall discover more signs of we shall discover in them still more life still. lo a short time the buds signs of life. In a short time the buds will grow larger, opep, and expand will grow large, willopen, and produce their precious blossoms, We have their precious blossoms. We have it
OLD EDITION. observed this revolution regularly in always in our power to observe this the commencement of each spring, revolution regularly in the beginning and, perhaps, have been hitherto ig- of each spring; but, perhaps, have norant of the means by which it was been hitherto ignorant by what means performed. The effects which we it operates. The effects we observe observe in spring, in the trees and in spring, in trees, and other vegeother vegetables, are occasioned by tables are produced by the sap, which the sap, which is put in motion in is put in motion in the stalks of the their tubes, by the air and the in- trees by the air and increase of heat. creasing heat. As the life of animals As the life of animals depends on depends on the circulation of their the circulation of their blood, so also blood, so likewise the life and the life and growth of plants and trees growth of plants depend on the cir- depend on the circulation of sap. culation of the sap. To effect this, For this purpose, God has formed God has formed and adjusted all the and disposed all parts of vegetables, parts of vegetables, so as to concur so as to concur towards the prepara. to the preparation, preservation, and tion, preservation, and circulation of motion of this nutritious juice. this nourishing juice. It is chiefly by
“ It is principally by the bark, that means of the bark, that the sap in in spring the sap ascends from the root spring rises from the roots into the into' the body of the tree; and that bodies of trees, and even conveys even through the year, life and nou- throughout the year, all the nourishrishment are distributed to the ment to the branches and fruit. branches, and the fruits which they The wood of the tree is composed of bear. The woody part of the tree is small long fibres, which extend in a composed of small longitudinal fibres, direct line the whole length of the which extend in a spiral line from tree to the top; and which are very the root to the top of the tree; and closely joined together. Among those which are very closely united toge. fibres there are some so small and ther. Among these fibres, there are fine, that one of them, though scarce some so very small and fine, that one as thick as a hair, contains more than of thèin, which is scarcely as large as eight thousand little fibres, There a hair, contains inore than eight are a multitude of little veins to conthousand fibrillæ ! There are an in- tain the nourishing juice, and to make numerable multitude of little tubes, the circulation easy. These veins exwhich contain the nutritious juice, tend to the other branches, and rise and which facilitate its circulation. up the whole length of the tree to the These tubes extend through all the top; some conduct the sap from the branches, and ascend to the very top root to the top of the tree, and others of the tree. Some conduct the sap bring it down from the top to the botfrom the root to the top; and others tom. The sap rises up the ascending bring it down again to the root. The veins in the heat of the day, and sap rises through the ascending tubes, comes down the others again in the during the heat of the day, and comes cool of the evening. The leaves back by the descending ones, in the serve for the same purpose, and their cool of the evening.
chief use is to make the sap circulate; “The leaves answer the same end: not only that which proceeds from their principal use is to concoct the the root, but also what the tree resap; not only that which proceeds ceives outward by means of dew, the from the root, but also that which the moisture of the air and rain. This tree receives externally by means of nourishing juice is spread through the dew, the humidity of the air and every part of the tree; but it could the rain. This nutritious juice is dis- not rise through the stalks, if there tributed through every part of the tree; but it could not ascend by the It is through these pores that the
were not openings in thein at the toptubes, if they were not open at the watery parts of the sap evaporate, top; and it is through these pores while the oily, sulphureous, and earththat the watery parts of the juice ly parts mix together to nourish the evaporate, while the oily, sulphu- tree, to transform into a substance reous, and earthy particles are united and give it a new growth. If the together to nourish the tree, to be juice does not reach it, if the circia transtornied into its substance, and to lation is stopped, if the interior orNEW EDITION.
OLD EDITION. give it a continual increase. . If the ganization of the tree is destroyed, juices cease to flow; if the circula. whether by too severe cold or frost, tion be obstructed ; if the internal by age, by any wound or outward acorganization of the tree be injured, cident, the tree dies. either by intense cold, frost, old age, a wound, or other external injury, , · the tree dies.
" After these reflections, can we in “ After these reflections, can ve this season behold trees with the same see with the same indifference as forindifference as formerly? Can the merly, the trees at this season? Will change which is about to take place the change there is going to be in in them be unworthy of our attention them appear so little worth our noand can we observe the renovation of tice? And, can we observe the renature, without thinking of that God newal of all nature without thinking who has given life to all his creatures; of God, who gives life to every creawho provides juices suitable to the ture ; who provides the juices anatrees; who communicates to the sap logous to trees; who coinmunicates the power to circulate in the vessels; to that sap the power of circulating and to distribute nourishment, life, through the veins, and from thence of and growth to the trees? Alas! we giving to trees life, nourishment, and are a full proof, that it is possible to growth? Alas! that it should be possee these things every year, and yet sible to see all these things every to pay no proper attention to them. year, without giving proper atten. For many years, at the return of iion to them: it is what I'am strong spring, we have had the opportunity a proof of., At the return of many of observing this vivifying power, springs, I have had the opportunity which shews itself in plants and in to observe this quickening virtue trees; but we have paid as little at which appears in plants and trees; tention to it as the beasts which graze but I have thought no more about it on the plains. And, what is yet more than the animals which graze in the astonishing is, that we have been fields; and, what is still more won. equally inattentive to the preserva- derful, I have been equally inattentive tion of our own lives, to the growth to the preservation of my own life, of our bodies, and the circulation of the growth of my body, and the cirour blood! As we have the happiness culation of my blood. Grant that I of seeing another new spring, may may now, at least, as I have the hapwe reflect on it in a more rational piness to see the spring again, thiók and Christian manner! may we re- in a more reasonable way, and more collect, that God is nigh to us in as a Christian. May I at last acevery part of his works; and that knowledge, through all the works of each of his creatures proclaims his nature, that beneficent Creator whose magnificence! But all our wishes greatness all the world proclaims. will be fruitless, if the Lord himself, But all my wishes will be fruitless, if who is the God of all grace, do not thou, thyself, O Lord, who art the incline our hearts to know and glo- God of all mercy, dost not incline my rify his great name.
heart to acknowledge and glorify thy - While nature is reanimated, grant, great and holy name. Now that all O God, that our souls may be quick Dature revives, grant that my soul ened by thy spirit! Let this new ex. may be quickened by thy, spirit. istence, which all the vegetables re. May this new existence, which the ceive in this beautiful season, be the vegetables receive at this lovely seasignal which shall cause us to awake son, be the signal to awaken me froin from our slumber, and excite us to my slumber, and lead me to virtue.” walk before thee in holiness; to lead a life of spiritual activity, agreeable to thy will; and duly to feel and worthily to magnify thy power and goodness! May this be the sacritice which our souls shall present unto thee in these days, which give us such bright prospects of future good i Amen."
To this edition is added a paper these pouches to collect and carry on the Hamster, an animal scarcely home the corn: and they are so large known in these nations, on which ac- as to contain an ounce and a half of count it is here transcribed: it is in- corn at once : which, on his return to serted as a duplicate to the Medita- bis den, the animal empties, by stroktion for the 8th of August.
ing and squeezing them with his fore“ The Hamster belongs to the mus feet, beginning behind, and pressing genus, but bears the nearest resem- forward towards the mouth.When blance to that of the myoxus, or mar- a hamster is met with his cheekmot. It agrees, however, with both pouches full of corn, he may be easily in the construction of its habitation, taken with the hand, without the risk its way of life, and its general pro- of being bitten; for while his pouches perties. In Gmelin's New System of are full, he has not the free use of his Nature, the hamsters make the third jaws: but if he be allowed a little general division, called criceti : and time, he soon empties his pouches, as the animal, which is the subject of related above, and raising himself on this paper, is styled the Mus Crice- his lind-legs, stands boldly on his detus Germanicus, or German Hamster. fence, or darts on his enerny. The males are about ten inches long, « This animal lives always in the and the tail about three: but the fe- corn-fields. Here it forms itself a males are scarcely more than one subterraneous burrow, divided into half of this size. The former weigh several apartments; with two holes from twelve to sixteen ounces each. leading from the surface: one is perUsually the head and back are of a pendicular, at which it goes in, and reddish brown colour, the cheeks red, comes out: and the other, where it the sides paler, with three white spots; lodges its excrement, is oblique, that the breast, upper part of the fore-legs, the wet inay the more readily run and belly, are black. But the colour off. : One part of this subterraneous varies much: sometimes they are dwelling, divided into several apart. found entirely white, or yellow; and ments, is the store-house, where it there is a species which is almost en« . lays up its winter provisions of corn, tirely black. But what is most wor- beans, peas, setches, linseed, &c. but thy of our observation in this animal each species of grain is kept by itself, are, its feet, its teeth, and its cheek in a separate cell. The chambers, pouches.
where themselves and young lodge, * The hamster uses his feet to run, are lined with straw or grass. The dig, and climb with. They are short old ones dig their chambers several and strong, having four toes and a feet deep; but those of the young claw, instead of a fifth toe, on the scarcely ever exceed one foot in fore-feet; and five toes on each hinde depth. In these holes the animal foot. Its teeth are sixteen in pum- dwells alone, for it has a rooted enber! it has two incisors in each jaw; mity against all other creatures, and and three grinders on each side. The even against those of its own species, grinders serve only to chew with; but the females pot excepted. When the fore-teeth, or incisors, serve not two hamsters encounter, one of them only to shell the corn, but also as certainly falls; and the weaker is deweapons for its defence; and to dig voured by the conqueror. up the earth, where it is too hard for “ The hamster lies by day in his its claws alone.
den, still and quiet; and in the dusk “The cheek-pouches are two skinny of the evening he comes out, and runs bags, proceeding from the jaw, above about till midnight: he then retires the neck and shoulders, and after- again into his hole, and continues wards sloping a little towards the quiet till about an hour before day. spine. They lie enclosed between the break; theu he comes out once more, muscles and the outward skin. On and runs about till sun-rising. the outside, these pouches are mem- · The hamster's manner of living is branous, smooth, and shining: and in considerably diversified: like various the inside, there are a great many other animals, he becomes torpid in glands which secrete a Huid, which winter, and continues in that state serves to keep the parts flexible, and the greater part of the cold season. to resist any accidents which might The male awakes about the middle be occasioned by the roughness of of February, and the female in March. particular seeds. The hamster uses They do not leave their holes imme