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of it from our infancy. Instead of ple of the rich and noble infidence our villages, where we see on one every body else: whoever thrives 19 side castles and houses of pleasure, as to be never so little above the and on the other miserable huts and dregs of the people, is ashamed to cottages, let us imagine we saw those work, especially at husbandry. Hence spacious farms which the Romans come so many shifts to live by one's called villas, that contained an apart-' wils, so many new contrivances as are ment for the master, an inner yard invented every day, to draw money for poultry, barns, stables, and ser out of one purse into another. God vants houses; and all this in exact knows best how innocent all these proportion, well built, kept in good unnatural ways of living are. They repair, and exceedingly clean. We are at least niost of them very preca. may see descriptions of them in Var- rious; whereas the earth will always ro and Columella. These slaves were maintain those that cultivate it, if most of them happier than our coun. other people do not take from them try, people, well fed, well clothed, the produce of it. and without any care upon their “'So far then is the country and hands for the sustenance of their fa- laborious life of the Israelites from milies. The masters, frugal as they making them contemptible, that it is were, lived more to their satisfaction a proof of their wisdom, good educa. than our gentry. We read in Xeno- tion, and resolution to observe the phon of an Athenian citizen, who, rules of their fathers. They knew the taking a walk every morning into tirst man was placed in the terrestrial the fields to look after his workmen, paradise to work there ; and that, at the same time promoted his health after his fall, he was condemned to by the exercise of his body, and in more laborious and ungrateful toil. creased his substance by his diligence They were convinced of those solid to mahe the most of it. So that he truthis so often repeated in the books was rich enough to give liberally to of Solomon: that poverty is the fruit religious uses, the service of his of laziness. That he who sleeps in friends, and country. Tully men- summer, instead of minding his harvesi, tions several farmers in Sicily, so or that plows noi in winter for fear of rich and magnificent, as to have their the colii, deserves to beg and have xohouses furnished with statues of great thing. That plenty is the raia ai con. value, and were possessed of gold and sequence of labour and indusiry. That silver plate of chaced work.

riches, 100 kastily got, are not blessed. “ li tine, it must be owned, that There we see frugal poverty, with as long as the nobility and rich men of cheerfulness and plainness, preferred a couðtry were not above this most to riches and abundance, with strife ancient or all professions, their lives and insolence; the inconvenience of were more happy, because more con- the two extremes of poverty and formable to nature. They lived long- wealth, and the wise man's desires, er, and in beiter health, their bodies contined to the necessaries of life. were fitter for the fatigues of war and He enters into a minute detail of travelling, and their minds more se- æconomical precepts: Prepare ibig rious and composed. Being less idle, work, says he, without, and make it they were not so vred of themselves, fit for thyself in the field, and afternor so solicitous in refining their plea. wards build thine house; which is the sures. Labour gave a relish to the same with that maxim in Cawo, that smallest diversions. They had fewer planting requires not much consideevil designs in their heads, and less ration, but building a great deal. temptation to put them in execution. “ Now that which goes by the Their plain and frugal way of living name of work, business, goods, in the did not admit of extravagance, or oc- book of Proverbs, and throughout the casion their running into debt. There whole Scripture, constantly relates to were, of consequence, fewer law- country affairs; it always means lands, suits, selling up of goods, and fami. vines, oxen, and sheep. From thence lies ruined : lewer frauds, outrages, are borrowed most of the metaphoand such other crimes, as real or ina- rical expressions. Kings and other ginary poverty makes them commit, Chiefs are called shepherds; and the when they are not able or willing to people, their flocks; to govern them, work. The worst is, that the exam- is to find pasture for them. Thus, the

Israelites sought their livelihood only Bibliographical Essay, it is not necesfrom the most natural sources, which sary to occupy these pages with any are lands and cattle: and from hence, detailed account of that part which all that enriches mankind, whether is now presented to the reader. Great by manufactures, trade, rents, or traf- pains and labour have been taken to ticking with money, is ultimately de- make it what it is; and yet it is very rived. What a blessing would it be far from what it should be.- A per. to the world, were these times of fect work of this kind never yet saw primitive simplicity restored to man- the sun ; and perhaps in Bibliography kind !" p. 23–32.

especially, perfection is unattainable.

“ The origin of the art of printing is, like the birth-place of 'Homer,

enveloped in absolute obscurity. The CLXVIII A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL history of important works is often in

DICTIONARY ; containing a chro. the same state; and the discordancy nological Account, alphabetically ar

of Bibliographers, and the confusion ranged, of the most curious, scarce,

of dates and places, are endless. useful, and imporlant Books, in all

“ It is not the province of the preDepartments of Literature, which sent work to settle these differences. have been published in Latin, Greek, -To furnish the student and the Coptic, Hebrew, Samaritan, Syriac, scholar with a portable and useful alChalder, Æthiopic, Arabic, Persian, phabetical manual, which may assist Armenian, &c. from the Infancy of them in the choice of books, conPrinting to the Beginning of the densing the most important informanineteenth Century. With Biographi- tion of numerous bibliographical cul Anecdotes of Authors, Printers, works, is the editor's intention. If and Publishers;-a distinct Notation he has succeeded in any tolerable of the Editiones principes and optim.z degree, it is what he ardently wish —and the Price of each Article, ed, and for which he earnestly la(where it could be ascertained) from boured. the best London Caialogues, and pub

“ In the compilation of this work, hic Sales of the most valuable Libra- besides innumerable collections from

ies, both at home and abroad. In- sale catalogues, (though in such a cluding the Whole of the fourth Edi- 'work necessary auxiliaries, yet the tion of Dr. Harwood's View of worst guides both with respect to the Classics, , with innumerable Addi- titles and dates) the best bibliogrations and Amendments. To which phical authorities have been consult. are added, an Essay on Bibliography, ed and followed : the chief of which with a general and particular Account are-Le Long's Bibliotheca Sacra, of the different Authors on that Sub- by Boerner and Masch, 1778-90jeci, in Latin, French, Italian, Ger- Maittaire's Annales Typographici, man, and Englisha Description of 1733–Vogt's Catalogus Historicotheir Works; firsı, improved, and best Criticus, 1738—Marchant's Histoire Editions with critical Judgments on

de l’Origine et des premiers Progres the Whole, extracted from the best de l'Imprimerie, 1740-De Bure's bibliographical and typographical Au- Bibliographie lustructive, 1763–– thorities. And an Account of the best Meerman's Origines Typographicæ, English Translation of each Greek 1765--Osmont's Dictionnaire Typoand Latin Classic. Vol. I.

graphique, Historique, et Critique

des Livres rares, 1768-the Abbé Ε

Mercier's Supplement to Marchant's full length, as it seemed necessary to give our readers a proper De Rossi's Apparatus Biblicus, 1782

Bowyer's Origin of Printing, 1776-idea of the Author's plan; for which - Denis's Supplement to the Annales reason also, we copy the advertise. ment.

Typographici of Maittaire, 1789– Cailleau's Dictionnaire Typographique, &c. 1792—Panzer's Annales Ty

pographici, 1793–Heinsius's Allge“ As the nature of this work, and meines Bücher Lexicon, 1793—1798, the sources whence it has been de- &c. &c. rived, will be fully explained in the “ To some this work may appear

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too diffuse ; to others, too contract will not be surprised to meet with sea ed; and some may think, that only veral mistakes, and will not be hasty select editions should have been in- in censuring. In so many thousands serted. To every respectable objec- of dates, places, and prices, these tor on these or any other grounds, it are unavoidable. The chiet of those may with due deference be said, that already noticed are the following; the Editor endeavoured earnestly to which the candid reader will find do please every man, though he felt no difficulty to excuse, and not much satisfactory hope that he should suc- Jabour to correct. The succeeding ceed. His chief aim has been to in- volumes, it is hoped, will have kiss sert useful and important articles, cause to claim the pablic indulgence together with whatever he knew to be on this head.” plii--v. curious and scarce. Had he indeed As specimens of the work itsell, consulted his own judgment only, he we give the following extracts from would have inserted fewer editions of this volume. Greek and Latin Classics: the rage, “ ABANO (Petri de) Pierre as it is termed, for collecting these, d'Apono; (so nanied from the place he thinks useless, and ridiculous in of his birth, now called Abbano.) the extreme.

Opus quod inscribitur, Conciliator * To this volume is added, a Fac differentiarum philosophorum et preSimile (taken from Meerman's Ori- cipuè Medicorum, per Thomam Sepgines Typographicx) of Coster's Ho. tem et Joannem Burster, de Campi. rarium, supposed to be the first essay dona, fol. Mantuæ, 1472, editio prioat Printing in Europe. Critics agree, ceps, 11. 11s. 60.-A scarce book, but that this small tract, which contains it has been often reprinted.--This only the alphabet, the Lord's prayer, editio princeps, at Mr. Gaignat's sale, the Apostles' creed, and three short at Paris, 1769, sold for 79 livres prayers, was executed with move- The author was the most famo!is pbiable wooden types, about the year losopher and physician of bis age. 1430 --See Horarium. If the leaves He was born, A. D. 1250, at a vila according to the paging, be pasted lage near Padua. Naude suspected back to back, the curious will then bim of magic, and, according to the have a perfect Fac Simile of Coster's reprehensible custom of those times, book. A few copies have been taken be was tried for it, but escaped burnoff on velluin, to make the work as ing by a natural death, at the age of complete a copy of the original as 88, in 1338. Bayle relates his being possible.

burnt in effigy afterwards, to suppress “ Notwithstanding the copious in- the reading of his works. formation already given concerning Another edition of his Conciliator the London Polyglott, an Appendix was printed at Venice, per Gab. die has been thought necessary: and as Tarvisio, 1476, fol. and was sold in the materials for it came to hand since the Valliere library, in 1784, for the printing of the preceding sheets, about 11. Is. sterling: - Besides these, it is necessarily referred to the suc- we have the following from the same ceeding volume. As this work is such author. a monument to the honour of the re. “ Petri Aponi Medici clarissimi in ligion and literature of this nation as Librum Joan. Mesve addito. Neapoli, no other country can boast of in its 1471. Edit. altera, 1175. Scarce own behalf, the Editor hopes he has works. little need to apologize to bis coun- “ Geomantia, 1556, in Svo. trymen for communicating in detail “ Physionomia, Padua, 1474, in his researches on this subject.

8vo. " The biographicalanecdotes which “ Expositio Problemat. Aristotelis, are interspersed through this work, Mantur, 1475, et 1482, fol. are taken chietly from the Nouveau * De Remediis Venenorum, Svo. Dictionnaire flistorique; seventh edi sine an. aut loc. tion ; Lyons, 1789; and the critical “ De Remediis Venenorum, Romæ, Judgments, from too many quarters 1475, 4to. to be distinctly specified.

“ Tractatus des Venenis, 4to. Pa. * Those who have the smallest ac- duæ, 1473. Mediolani, 1475, 410. kiem quaintance with the difficulty of com- liber, cum Bened. de Nursia, Conserpiling such a work as the present, ratione Sanitatis, Romæ, 1175, bla.

" ABELARDI et HELOIS Æ, Con- of Worde, did not appear till 1512 : jugis ejus, Opera; ex Editione An- and about the same time, Gradus dreæ Quercetani, 4to. Paris, 1616, Comparationum cum Verbis Anor10s. 6d. This collection of the works malis simul et eorum composit. Thus of Abailard was published from the endeth ye Degrees of Comparyson MS. of Francis d'Amboise. The imprynted at London by me Wynwork contains, Ist, Several Letters, kyn de Worde. No date.” p. 5. the first of which gives an account of * ÆSCAYL.US, born at Athens, about the Author's troubles till the assem- 400 years before Christ, of one of the bling of the Conocil of Sens. The most illustrious families in Attica. He 3d, 5th, and 8th are addressed to brought Grecian tragedy, which had Heloisa. 20, Sermons. 3d, Doc- been invented by Thespis, to perfectrinal Tracts. The title page of this tion. He was not only one of the edition is soinetimes dated 1606, and most celebrated poets, but was also a sometimes 1626.

very eminent t'arrior.

He bore a Epistolæ, ex recensi distinguished part in the famous 'batone Ric. Rawlinson, 8vo. London, tles of Marathon and Platea. Of 97 1716, 55.- This is the best edition of pieces composed by hiin, only 7 hare these Letters, and has been corrected reached our times. It is said he lost from the most authentic MSS. It is his life by a very singular accident. not often to be met with.

Sleeping one day in the open field, Epistola, Latin and

an eagle, mistaking his bald head French, ý tom. printed on vellu!n, for a stone, let fall a tortoise which bound in red morocco, with silk ends she held in her talons upon it, and and morocco cases, 3.11. 8vo. Paris, killed him on the spot. This is said . 1782.- This was the only copy ever to have happened about 477 years be, printed on vellum: it is ornamented fore the Christian æra. with miniatures and beautiful draw. perly the inventor of the stage, or ings; and was purchased at Mr. platform, on which the persons of Paris's sale, in March, 1791, for 331. the Drama act; for previous to his The books in this sale were in the time tragedians acted on a sort of finest condition ; 636 articles sold for carriages, which conveyed them and 70761. 175 6d.p.1, 2, 3.

their implements from place to place, * ACCIDENCE, 1to. Latin, print, after the manner of our strolling coed by Wynkyn de Worde, in Cax- medians. Ile was the first also who ton's house ; no date, but evidently applied perspective to theatrical de: the first step to classical printing in corations; in which he employed England. He afterwards printed a Agatharchus, a famous paigier of Terence. In a copy of this book I Samos.p. 20. once found the following note: “The " Ars MORIENDI, fol. No dale • first book known to have been print- or place.- This is one of those books • ed by Wynkyn de Worde, in Fleet- which introduced the art of printing, • street, contains the Statutes of the and only preceded it a few years. It • 12th year of King Henry 7th, and consists only of twelve leaves printed • was printed in 1197, and conse- on one side from blocks of wood, • quently this Accidence must have each representing a dying scene, • been printed before that time, it with some pious cjaculations in Latin. being printed at Westminster, in Original copies are very rare;, but • Caxton's house.' Thus, while the the whole, in fac simile, has been learned Italians were printing the executed at Nuremberg, in fol, and best Greek and Latin classics, we were 8vo. The stile of the execution difam using ourselves with childish works, fers widely from the Bib. Pauperum, as Hilton's Scale of Perfection, &c. as well as the Speculum Salvationis." Foreign nations led us more than 50 p. 126. years; for the Perrotti Grammatica

He was pro




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