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rope. I believe there is no instance work of divine Providence, where all of a herring running a hundred or a things go quietly on without noise or hundred and fifty miles up a fresh bustle, so that the whole is accouie water river, or existing at all in water plished before men imagined or took perfectly fresh.

notice that it was in hand. And we “ The above particulars you may should here remember the prophecy depend upon ; they were commu- of Daniel concerning the latter ages nicated to me by Mr. West, who is of the world : Many shall go to and from proprietor of the largest shad fish- and knowledge shall be increased; eries on the Delaware.

thereby plainly intimating it to be “ This river also abounds in cat- the design of Providence, tbat when fish, perch, jack, eels, and a great va- the world was laid open to a general riety of others; above all, in stur- intercourse, as by our numerous long geon, which are frequently caught by voyages it now begins to be, at the accident in the shad-nets, and either same time also the sciences should boiled for their oil, or suffered to rot receive increase *.” p. 90. on the shores, being very seldom sent Other grounds of hope are expressto market, when this is the case, ed, and the author proceeds to the they are sold for a mere trifle, chiefly next section. to emigrants. The Americans have Section VII. An Idea of the New conceived a violent antipathy to this Method of interpreting Nature t. p.116. fish. I recollect no instance of seeing Part II. Section 1. Particular apbo. it at their tables. They have every risms for interpreting nature, or the external appearance of the European means of enlarging the human power sturgeon, but in other respects must and knowledge, by the discovery of be very different, or the Americans forms. lose one of the best fisheries in the After nine aphorisms, which, it is world.” p. 68–70.

observed in a note, “ contain a kind This work contains a brief descrip- of close wroughl, axiomatical chain tion of Philadelphia, Baltimore, New of doctrine, that, when rightly unYork, and Boston, and many cir- derstood, will appear deep, sagacious, cumstances relative to the author's and drawn from nature, so as to lay profession as a theatrical character, a firm, just, and adequate foundation which we think uninteresting.

for the intended new logic, or me. thod of investigating the forms of

things," the author proceeds thus CXXXII. Bacon's Novum ORGA

in NUM SCIENTIARUM ; containing

Aphorism 10. The indications Rules for conducting the Understand- for the interpretation of nature ining in the Search of Truth, and rais- clude two general parts: the first reing a solid Structure of Universal lates to the raising of axioms from Philosophy.

experience, and the second to the (Concluded from page 493.)

deducing or deriving of new experiSection III. Of the Different Philo- * We may now be enabled, in some measophical Theories.

sure, to judge how far these grounds of hope Section IV. Of the Signs or Charac- were solid and well laid. Certainly a great teristics of False Philosophy.

revolution in philosophy has gradually enSection V. Of the Causes of Errors sued upon the endeavours of the author; and in Philosophies.

philosophers have been insensibly drawn off Section VI. Of the Grounds of Hope, from speculation and theory to practice and for the farther Advancement of Philo- experience, whence many useful inventions sophy and the Sciences.

and works have proceeded, and more may, “We begin with God the author perhaps, proceed. of all good, and the Father of light, thor's method of interpreting nature, is ra

+ The idea given in this section, of the aufrom whom the goodness of this de.

ther a negative than a positive idea, and sign manifestly shews it to proceed. formed by excluding what it is not, rather We

e see in the divine works, that the than hy directly shewing what it is, which smallest beginnings are certainly suc- will be the business of the second part to ceeded by the elfects. And what is unfold. But this section was necessary to said of spiritual things, that the kingo' give some glimpse of the thing itself, and dom of God comes not with observa. prepare the mind by degrees for the great tion, is also found true in every great lamp to be afterwards set up,

ments from axioms. The first is di- These tables conclude the first rovided into three kinds of administra. lume. tions or helps, viz. the helps, 1. for Volume II. Part II. Section II. the sense ; 2. for the memoty; and, The doctrine of instances; or, the 3. for the reason.

inethod of expediting the interpreta* 1. Therefore a just and adequate tion of nature, and the investigation natural and experimental history is of forms, by prerogatire instances. to be precured, as the foundation of That our readers may form a judg. the whole thing; for we are not to ment upon the nature of the second fancy, or imagine, but to discover part of this work, we present to them what are the works and laws of na- the description given of it in the apture.

pendix. “ 2. But natural and experimental “ In the second section, the author history is so copious and diffusive a proceeds to perfect the art of disco. thing, as to confound and distractvering forms, or to shew the manner the understanding, unless such his- of framing an induction that shall tory be digested and arranged in pro- conclude as justly in philosophy, as per order; therefore tables, and sub- syllogism does in logic, or denionservient chains of instances, are to be siration in mathematics. Accordingly, formed and digested in such a man- he bere directly treats of prerogative ner, that the understanding may com- instances, or the way of procuring modiously work upon them.

proper collections of such facts, obo 3. And though this were done, servations, and experiments, as are yet the understanding left to itself, best fitted to enter the three tables of and its own spontaneous motion, is view, corresponding to the three first unequal to the work, and unfit to en- above-mentioned ; so that a few of ter upon the raising of axioms, unless these instances may answer the purit be first regulated, strengthened, pose of many, shorten the business of and guarded, therefore, in the third search and enquiry, and afford a preplace, genuine and real induction pared and proper matter for inducinust be used as the key of interpre- iion in all kinds of subjects. tation. But we are to begin at the “ And of these instances he makes end, and proceed backwards to the twenty-seven ditferent kinds; viz. rest.

1. Such as exhibit the nature enquired “ The enquiry of forms proceeds after in things that agree with, or difin this manner. First, all the known fer from others, in respect to that nainstances agreeing in the same na- ture only. 2. Instances wherein the ture, though in the most dissimilar nature sought appears in a state of gesubjects, are to be brought together, neration, or destruction. 3. Those and placed before the understanding. wherein the nature enquired after And this collection is to be made stands alone, in a high degree of perhistorically, without any overhasty section, or predominancy., 4. Such indulgence of speculation, or any great as shew the thing enquired after, in subtiliy for the present. We will il- its lowest state, weakest virtue, or first lustrate the thing by an example in rudiments. 5. Such as exhibit the the enquiry into the forın of heat.” Nature enquired after, in the way

of p. 167–169.

a lesser forin. 6. Such as shew a like. Then follow five tables to illustrate ness and relation in the concrete, so the author's plan, intitled the true as to help in uniting nature. 7. Such method of discovering forms, illus. as shew bodies in the concrete, as it trated by an example in the form of were out of their course, or broken in heat.

nature. 8. Errors of nature, things Table 1. Instances agreeing in the monstrous, extraordinary, or out of nature of heat.

the course of nature. 9. Bodies conTable 1). Instances of approxima- sisting of two ditferent natures, or tion, yet wanting the nature of heat. double species. 10. The most per:

Table III. Of the degrees of heat. fect works of men in every kind.

Table IV. An example of the ex. 11. Instances wherein the nature. clusion or rejection of natures, from sought is either constantly present, the form of heat.

or constantly absent. 12. Instances Table V. The first vintage, or that shew the limits of nature, or the dawn of doctrine from forin of heat. bounds betwixt existence and nonVo1.. Ι.

3 2

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existence, in all subjects. 13. Such LIAM PALEY, D. D. Archdeacon of as mix and join natures supposed to Carlisle, 8vo. be incompatible, or heterogeneous. 14. Such as show an inviolable con- HIS work is divided into twenty junction of one nature to another, seven chapters, which contain and the separable alliance of others. the following subjects : Chapters 1, 15. Such as shew the separation of and II. State of the argumentnatures that frequently meet. 16. Such III. Application of the argument.as assist the actions of the senses, par- IV. of the succession of plants and ticularly the sight. 17. Such as bring animals.-V. Application of the arthose things to the senses that did gument continued.-VI. The argunot appear before. 18. Such as dis- ment cumulative.-VII. Of the me. cover the motions of nature connect- .chanical and immechanical funced, or gradually continued. 19. Such tions of animals and vegetables.as afford information where the senses VIII. Of mechanical arrangement in fail. 20. Such as excite the atten- the human frame of the bones.tion, and hint the subtilty of nature. IX. Of the muscles.-X. Of the ses21. Such as measure the powers, and sels of animal bodies.--XI. Of the virtues of things, by space. 22. Such animalstructure regarded as a massas measure the powers of nature by XII. Comparative anatomy:-XIII. time. 23. Such as shew in what pro. Peculiar organizations.-XIV. Proportion quantity of body contributes spective contrivances: - XV. Relato quantity of virtue. 24. Such as tions.—XVI.Compensations.-XVII. shew the prevalency or subjection of The relation of animated bodies to virtues to one another; under which inanimate nature.--XVIII. Instincts. come all the species of motion, or –XIX. Of insects.-XX. Of plants. active powers.' 25. Such as point –XXI. Of the elements.-XXII. Asout advantages and conveniences for tronomy.-XXIII. Personality of the niankind. 26. Such as regard things Deity:-XXIV. Of the natural attri. of common occurrence, and there. butes of the Deity:-XXV. Of the fore save the trouble of new demon- unity of the Deity.--XXVI. Of the strations; under which come the se- goodness of the Deity.-XXVII. Cor. veral ways of practice, or means of clusion. operation. And, 27. Such instances In stating the argument the author as show that a small quantity of mat- says, “ In crossing a heath, suppose ! ter, or an apparently small efficient, pitched my foot against a stort, and may have a great effect.

were asked how the stone came to be • This doctrine of prerogative in- there, I might possibly answer, that stances is treated with care, and illus. for any thing I knew to the contrary; trated with a suitable variety of ex- it had lain there for ever; oor would amples, that open the way to enqui- it perhaps be very easy to shew the ries of all kinds, and lead to the im- absurdity of this answer. But supprovement of all the parts of philo. pose I had found a watch upon the sophy; so as to shew, in a summary ground, and it should be enquired view, what is already known, in nu- how the watch happened to be in merous subjects, and direct a farther that place, I should hardly think of prosecution, at the same time that the the answer which I had before given, author is carrying on his own parti- that, for any thing I knew, the watch cular design of perfecting the art of might have always been there. Yet introduction, and laying down pre- why should not ihis answer serve for cepts, and giving directions for the the watch, as well as for the stone ? execution of the remaining parts of why is it not as admissible in the se his work. Ind here ends all that is cond case, as in the first for this left of the Novum Organum.” P. 250 reason, and for no other, viz. that, --253.

when we come to inspect the watch, we perceive (what we could not discover in the stone) that its several

parts are framed and put together for CXXXIII. NATURAL THEOLOGY, a purpose, e.g. that they are so forin

or Evidences of the Existence and ed and adjusted as to produce ma Attributes of the Deity, collected from tion, and that motion so regulated as she Appearances of Nature. By WIL- to point out the hour of the day;



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that, if the several parts had been whether they conduced to that effect differently shaped from what they in any manner whatever." p. 4,5. are, of a different size from what they This is illustrated in two supposed are, or placed after any other manner, or in any other order than that “ Nor, fourthly, would any man in which they are placed, either no in his senses think the existence motion at all would have been carried of the watch, with its various machi. on in the machine, or none which nery, accounted for, by being told would have answered the use that is that it was one out of many possible now served by it." P. 2, 3.

combinations of material forins; that A minute description is then given whatever he had found in the place of the materials used, and the differ, where he found the watch, must have ent parts of the machinery employed contained some internal configurain the construction of a watch. " The tion or other; and that this confi. inference, we think, is inevitable, that guration might be the structure now the watch must have had a maker; exhibited, viz. of the works of a that there must have existed, at some watch, as well as a different structime, and at some place or other, an ture. artificer or artificers who formed it “ Nor, fifthly, would it yield for the purpose which we find it ac- his enquiry more satisfaction to be tually to answer, who comprehended answered, that there existed in things its construction, and designed its use." a principle of order, which had disP. 3, 4,

posed the parts of the watch into The argument is inforced by the their present form and situation. following considerations: " I. Nor “ He never knew a watch made by

a would it, I apprehend, weaken the the principle of order; nor can he conclusion, that we had never seen even torm to himself an idea of what a watch made ; that we had never is meant by a principle of order, dis, known an artist capable of making tinct from the intelligence of the one ; that we were altogether inca watch-maker. pable of executing such a piece of “ Sixthly, he would be surprisworkmanship ourselves, or of under- ed to hear that the mechanism of standing in what manner it was per the watch was no proof of contriformed: all this being no more than vance, only a motive to induce the what is true of some exquisite remains mind to think so. of ancient art, of some lost arts, and, “VII. And not less surprised to be to the generality of mankind, of the informed, that the watch in his hand more curious productions of modern was nothing more than the result of manufacture.

the laws of metallic nature. It is a “ Neither, secondly, would it in- perversion of language to assign any validate our conclusion, that if the law, as the efficient, operative cause watch sometimes went wrong, or that of any thing: A law presupposes an it seldom went exactly right, the agent ; før it is only the mode acpurpose of the machinery, the design, cording to which an agent proceeds : and the designer, might be evident, it iinplies a power; for it is the orand in the case supposed would be der according to which that power evident, in whatever way we account- acts. Without this agent, without this ed for the irregularity of the move- power,

which are both distinct from ment; or whether we could account itself, the law does nothing; is nofor it or not. It is not necessary thing. The expression, the law of that a machine be perfect, in order metallic nature, may sound harsh to shew with what design it was made; to a philosophic ear, but it seems quite still less necessary when the only as justifiable as some others which question is, whether it were made are more familiar to him, such as with any design at all.

' the law of vegetable nature, the “ Nor, thirdly, would it bring any law of animal nature,' or indeed, as uncertainty into the argument, if there the law of nature' in general, when were a few parts of the watch, con• assigned as the cause of phænomena, cerning which we could not discover, in exclusion of agency, and power ; or had not yet discovered, in what or when it is substituted into the place manner they conduced to the general of these. elect; or even some parts, concern- «« VIII. Neither, lastly, would our ing which we could not ascertain observer be driven out of his conelu

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p. 6–8.


sion, or from his confidence in its made immediately by the hand of truth, by being told that he knows an artificer, yet doth not his alternothing at all about the matter. He ation in any wise affect the inference, knows enough for his argument. He that an artificer had been originally knows the utility of the end. He employed and concerned in the proknows the subserviency and adapta- duction. The argument from design tion of the means to the end. These remains as it was. Marks of design points being known, his ignorance of and contrivance are no more acother points, bis doubts concerning counted for now than they were beother points, affect not the certainty fore. In the same thing we may ask. of his reasoning: The consciousness for the cause of different properties. of knowing little, need not beget a We may ask for the cause of the co-. distrust of that which he does know.” lour of a body, of its hardness, of its

heat, and these causes may all be difThe state of the argument is thus ferent. We are now asking for the continued in the second chapter: cause of that subserviency to an use, “Suppose, in the next place, that that relation to an end, which we the person who found the watch have remarked in the watch before should, after some time, discover that No answer is given to this ques. in addition to all the properties he tion, by telling us that a preceding had hitherto observed in it, it pos- watch produced it. There cannot be sessed the property of producing, in a design without a designer ; contri the course of its movement, another vance without a contriver ; order watch like itself; (the thing is con- without choice ; arrangement withceivable ;) that it contained within it out any thing capable of arranging; a mechanism, a system of parts, a subserviency and relation to a purmould for instance, or a complex ad. pose without that which could intend justment of laths, files, and other a purpose ; means suitable to an end, tools, evidently and separately cal- and executing their office in accouculated for this purpose ; let us en- plishing that end, without the end quire what effect ought such a disco- ever having been contemplated, of very to have upon his former conclu- the means accommodated to it. Are sion?” p. 9.

rangement, disposition of parts, subOur limits preclude us from de- serviency of means to an end, relatailing the whole of the author's ar- tion of instruments to an use, imply guments, we can do little more than the presence of intelligence and mind." give the topics as they are stated. &c. p. ll, 12. * I. The first effect would be to in- " IV, Nor is any thing gained by crease his admiration of the con- running the difficulty further back, trivance, and his conviction of the ine. by supposing the watch before consummate skill of the contriver.” us to have been produced by ano

ther watch, and so on indefinitely. “IL. He would reflect, that though Our going back ever so far brings us the watch before him were in some no nearer to the least degree of satissense the maker of the watch, which faction upon the subject. Contriwas fabricated in the course of its vance is still unaccounted for." p. 13. movements, yet it was in a very dif- This part of the argument is pursued, ferent sense from that in which a by considering the increase of terms carpenter for instance is the maker in a series, and the simile of the chain of a chair; the author of its contri- that however numerous its links, it vance, the cause of the relation of its is unable to support itself, &c. &c. parts to their use. With respect to and thus concludes. “It is in vain, ihese, the first watch was no cause at therefore, to assign a series of such all to the second ; in no such sense causes, or to alledge that a series may as this was it the author of the consti- be carried back to infinity; for I do tution and order either of the parts not admit that we have yet any cause which the new watch contained, or of at all of the phænomena, sull less the parts by the aid and instrumen- any series causes finite or infinite. tality of which it was produced.” Here is contrivance, but no con

triver; proofs of design, but no de. “ III. Though it be now no longer signer." p. 17. probable, that the individual watch * V. Our observer would further which our observer had found, was also reflect, that the maker of the

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