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good in their meditations, and in

their labours of piety and love, but XIV. SCRIPTURE BIOGRAPHY: or also to their dying beds, where we the Lives and Characters of the prin- behold the triumph of faith over the cipal Personages recorded in the sa fears of death, and see thein breathcred Writings, particularly adaptea ing their souls with joyful hope into to the lastruction of Youth and private the hands of their heavenly Father." Families. By JOHN WATKINS, Preface, p. 3, 4. L.LD. Author of the Biographical The description and design of this and Historical Dictionary, &c. &c. publication, is thus given by the au12 me. boards 4s. 6d. and bound and thor, at the close of his preface: lettered 5s. pp. 491. Phillips, St. “ Some perhaps may object, that I Paul's Church-yard; Hursi, and have not been sufficiently copious in Button and Son, Paternoster-Row, the life of our blessed Lord and Sa. Harris, St. Paul's Church-yard; viour, and that I have totally omitConder, Bucklersbury; Matthews, ted all his disciples. To have gone Strand, Spragg, Panton Street; more into detail on so great a subject and Tabart, New Bond Street. as the history of Jesus, would have

far exceeded the limits to which I was THE importance and advantage confined. My principal design was of instruction this valuable little book Old Testament witnessed of him, is designed to convey we give in the and to give in the biographical form Author's own words! We behold an interesting sketch of redemption, in men of like passions, and placed from the fall of Adam to the ascenin like situations with ourselves, the sion of Christ. With the latter event advantages which are the result of my design was complèted. early piety, of virtuous resolution, of In delineating the Scripture chalowliness of mivd, and of religious racters, I had young persons chiefly integrity

. We may thus see the in my view, and have, therefore, enbeauty of holiness,' as it were em deavoured to render the whole pleasbodied, and exhibiting its graces in ing and instructing to them. The a variety of forms, and under nume seeds of piety cannot be sown too fous circumstances, which in the early; and nothing will so much bustle of public life would pass by, lost recommend religion as an agreeable and unheeded. The religious chan form. History and Biography are racter is contemplated to advantage, very attractive to young minds, and in prosperity and adversity, bearing if we can recommend the essential the one with a humble and thankful principles of religion by means of heart, and the other with calmness this species of composition, an iinand resignation. But religion is, pro- portant service will be rendered to bably, seen in its greatest lustre du- the rising generation. Preface, A. ring the dark and dismal hour of 6. 7. death. In that solemn season when This volume contains the biograthe busy scenes of folly are shut out, phy of Adam.-Cain and Abel. when the noise and contentions of Enoch.- Noah.— Abraham.--Isaac. the world are no longer heard, when - Jacob.- Joseph.- Job.-Moses.splendid rank and honour are disre- Balaam.- Joshua.- Ruth.-- Samuel. garded, when pomp and riches, and David.–St. John the Baptist.—and pleasures bear the glaring and morti- Jesus Christ. fying insciiption of vanity and vera As a specimen of the author's me. tina; then does Religion look through thod, we present our readers with the the gloom, and as she smiles upon following quotation from the life of the dying Christian, kindles in the Balaam : bosom, even of the vain and irre “ As he was on his journey, the ligious beholder, a wish to die the Almighty gave him another and still death of the righteous, and to bave more remarkable sign that his conhis latter end like bis.

duct was displeasing in his sight. The " In this graod point'it is that the angel of Jehovah appeared in the way excellency of Biography is strikingly with a drawn sword in his hand, but displayed, by introducing us not only the faculties of Balaam were intent to the acquaintance of the wise anů upon worldly objects, and he beheld. Vol. S.

G

oppose the

not the apparition. The ass on which being filled with terror by the flaming he rode, alone saw the tremendous vision before him, offered to return; vision, and to avoid it, turned aside but it was in terms which plainly into a field, which so provoked the shewed that he wished rather to pro. prophet, that he smote her with his ceed. “ Now, therefore,” says he, statt. The angel next appeared to " if it displease thee I will get me

progress of Balaam in a back again." The angel perceiving narrow way, which led through some the sinfaloess of his heart, left him to vineyards,'having a wall on each his own inclination, but laid a powerhand; bere the ass again attempted ful command upon him not to speak to save her master by turning aside, a word more or less than as he should and thereby crushed his foot against be directed from above. the wall. This roused his fury against This circumstance has occasioned the poor animal into greater violence, considerable speculation, and no little and he smote her with his stath with degree of ridicule according to the extreme severity. On coming to a principles of different writers. Sonie pass still narrower than the former, commentators have turned the wholethe angel made a full stand, and the into allegory, or parable, or vision; ass perceiving that is was impossible and they might, if they had pleased, to avoid him, fell down beneath Ba with equal propriety, have made a Jaanu, who, with savage ferocity, laid

fable or

dream of the whole history. on his blows with redoubled violence. Moses tells the story with as much The Almighty then opened the mouth plainness, perspicuity, and soberof the injured animal, and gave her ness, as he does any other in the power to remonstrate with the infatu- sacred book; on what account, ated prophet on the cruelty of his therefore, have we a right to depart conduct: But Balaam, instead of from the literal construction of the perceiving the finger of God in this relation ? but is there any thing absurd mysterious transaction, and calling in this miracle, any thing beneath the hiš sin to remembrance, was a proof dignity of God, or inconsistent with against even the power of miracles, the whole narrative! Fear to the conand expressed a wish that he had trary. An ass may be proverbially a sword in his hand to slay the stupid among men, but she is yet a faithful beast that had saved his part of God's creation, and she apo life. The messenger of Jehovah pears to be fitly chosen on this occanow made himself visible unto him, siou, to “ rebuke," as St. Peter ex. and the terrified prophet immediately presses it, “the madness of the profell on his face to the earth. Before phet*!”. Reason is supernaturally the angel proceeds to declare the pur bestowed upon the dullest of quadruport of his mission, he charges Ba peds, that an oracle of wisdom may laam with cruelty to the poor and de- be confounded. The remonstrance fenceless animat' on which he rode. of the ass is consistent, being not up• Wherefore hast thou smitten thine on the conduct of Balaam as a proass these three times!'* Does the phet, but as a master; not upon his Almighty then take pity on the low disobedience to God, but upon his and despised part of the brute crea wanton cruelty to herself. Now what tion? Will he bring into judgment is there in this miracle that can make those acts of cruelty which insolent it an object of ridicule, or to raise a man commits upon the dumb and de- just objection to the truth of sacred fenceless, however contemptible and history? Is any thing too hard for insignificant they apparently may be the Almighty, or is he to be tied down Let this incident in the story of Ba- to such a mode of performing milaam, convince us that he does take racles as we shall conceive to be concognizance of such actions, and that sistent? Is it more difficult, or is it he will one day make an exact en more absurd to give a human voice quiry concerning them, “A righteous and reason for a moment to an ass, man regardeth the life of,' or is tender than to an ideot; and may not he to his beast;' but the tender mer. who has given sight to the blind, and cies of the wicked are cruelt." speech to the dumb, open the mouth

Balaam was convinced now that his of the most despised animal, to bring eagerness to undertake this journey down the haugtiness and impiety of was offensive to the Almighty, and, man.

* Numbers xxxii. † Proverbs xii. 10.

* 2 Peter ä. 10.

tion is in agitation, whether an al. XV. INTRODUCTION to the New Tese ledged fact be true or not, our conviccament. By JOHN D. MICHAELIS, tion of the truth of it will certainly be bare Professor in the University of affected by the concurrence or conGottingen, &c. Translated from sảe tradiction of the testimonies of its fa45k Edition of the German, and con vour. And if the contradictions are siderably augmented with Notes, and such as to be wholly incapable of a a Dissertation on the Origin and Com reconciliation, the proof of the fact position of the three forst Gospels. By will certainly not be so satisfactory HERBERT MARSH, B. D. F. R. S. as it would' if the witnesses agreed. 8vo. vol. III. and IV. Cam But since not every deviation is a bridge, printed by J. Burgess, prin contradiction, and the same fact, as ter to the University, and sold by viewed by different persons in ditfeF. and C. Rivington, London; and rent lights, not only may but must be J. Deighton, Cambridge.

reported by them in ditferent ways,

we must examine, whether the devi. Y the preface to Vol. III. it apz: ations are such as may be explained lumes of this work appeared about the witnesses are in other respects eight years ago, and some circum. credible, we can have no reason for stances are given which occasioned refusing our assent. Further, we must the delay of the present volumes. It distinguish variations in respect to would be foreign to our plan to refer concomitant circumstances from va. back to the volumes published before riations in respect to the main fact; the appearance of our Journal; suf. for the former are of much less im. hce it to say, they have obtained the portance. general sutfrage of the learned, both That the facts, which are related at home and abroad.

in common by St. Matthew, St. The third volume, now before us, Mark, and St. Luke, are not arrang. consists of two parts; which, by be ed by all three evangelists, in chro. ing paged and bound up separately, nological order, is certain; for the form, in fact, two volumes, the one order of those facts is not the same in containing the text of Michaelis, the all three gospels. But we must not other the notes and dissertation of therefore conclude, that not one of the translator. The former contains them wrote in chronological order; gine chapters. l. Of the number of for one of them may have observed the Canonical Gospels.-II. Of the chronological order, which the other harmony of the four Gospels.III. two did not; or two of them may. Of the remarkable verbal harmony. have observed chronological order, of the three first Gospels.--IV. Of while the third did not. Now St. St. Matthew's Gospel.-V. Of St. Mark and St. Luke have generally Mark's.-VI. Of St. Luke's. VII. placed the facts, which they have in of St. Jobn's Gospel.-VIII. Of the common, in the same order, (the reaActs of the Apostles.-IX. Study son of which will be explained hereof Josephus recommended, &c. after) but St. Matthew, in the former

The second part of this volume half of his gospel, has placed a great contains the author's notes on the number of the facts, which he has in 'former, with his dissertation on the coinmon, with St. Mark and St. origin and composition of the three Luke, in a very different order. It first Gospels.

is therefore reasonable to suppose, These notes are in general too cri- that all such facts happened in the tical and learned for the bulk of our order in which St. Matthew has readers; but the following are not placed them, and not in the order in of that description, and besides, give which they are placed by St. Mark a fair specimen of our learned anno- and St. Luke, for St. Matthew, as tator's sentiments, and of his manner being an apostle, and eye witness 10 of reasoning.

the facts, which he has recorded, When we have certain knowledge must in general have known the time of the existence of a fact, as that of in which each of them happened, but an engagement between two armies, which St. Mark and St. Luke, who Do contradictions in the accounts of were not eye witnesses, could not that fact can deprive the existence of always know. Not to mention Ben. that fact itself. But when the ques- gel, Berthing, and other harmonists,

who make the facts, which are com- Epistles of John.-XXXIII. Of the mon to these three evangelists, sub. Apocalypse. ordinate to St. Matthew's arrange. In the XXIXth. chapter three ment, I will quote only the opinion sections are occupied in examining of Eickhorn, who says, in his Univer- the external and internal evidences sal Library of Biblical Literature, in favour of the authority of St. Jude's Vol. I. p.783. that the facts record. Epistle, with many curious opinions ed in the former part of St. Matthew's on the ninth verse. The result of the gospel, were re-arranged by St. Mat- evidence in the mind of Michaelis is thew, according to the exact order of thus expressed," From the account time, as it would be easy to shew by which has been already given, it apan analysis of the several sections of pears that we have very little reason which that part is composed.' Sir for placing the epistle of St. Jude Isaac Newton was of the same opi- among the sacred writings. If the nion, for he says, in his Observations ancient Church had decided posion Daniel, p. 152. of the edition tively in its favour, this decision would printed at London in 1742, 4to. not convince me that the Epistle of

That St. Matthew was an eye wit. St. Jude was inspired; but the anness of what he relates, and so tells cient church is so divided on this suball things in due order of time, which ject, that whoever is guided by it St. Mark and St. Luke do not.' And must at least suspect or rather reject Bishop Pearce has adopted the same the Epistle of St. Jude. And if we opinion ; see Vol. I. p. 207. of his are directed in our judgment by the • Commentary, with Notes, on the contents of the epistle, we shall have four Evangelists and the Acts of the still no inducement to believe that it Apostles,' London, 1777, 2 vols. 4to. is a sacred and divine work.” P.394. However, as there is hardly any The XXXI. chapter contains seven rule without an exception, I would sections, which give an account of not assert that St. Matthew has in no many arguments for retaining, and instance whatsoever deviated from many for rejecting, 1 John v.7. highchronological order. P. 8-10. ly interesting. To do justice to the

The fourth volume is a continua- work a longer extract is necessary tion of the text of Michaelis (for the than our limits will allow, or we notes of Mr. Marsh extend no fur- should be happy to have presented ther than the three first gospels). one to our readers. The subjects are thus arranged We shall now give a brief analysis Chapter X. Of Paul's Epistles in ge of our Author's Dissertation on the neral, viz. of the order in which they the three first Gospels. Chap: I. are placed, and that he wrote more General statement of the question ; than are now extant.-XI. Of the (viz. whether the Evangelisis copied Epistle to the Galatians. -- XII. from each other, or from a common Epistles to the Thessalonians.-XIII. source.)-II. of the Authors, who To Titus.-XIV. Epistles to the Co- suppose, that the succeeding Evanrinthians.-XV. First to Timothy. - gelists copied from the preceding. XVI. To the Romans. XVII.Ge. Ill. Or Griesbach's hypothesis, in neral Remarks on some of the Epistles particular.-IV. Of the Authors who written by St. Paul during his Impri- suppose that our Evangelists made sonment in Rome, and on the Im use of a common document, or doprisonment itself.- XVIII. Epistle cuments.-V. Of Eichhorn's hypoto Philemon.–XIX. To the Colos- thesis in particular.-Vl. Of the Ausians.-XX.Tothe Ephesians.-XXI. thors who have united both of the To the Philippians-.XXII. Second preceding suppositions.-VII. StateEpistle to Timothy.- XXIII. St. ment of all the parallel and coinciPaul's Character and Mode of Life. dent passages of the three first Gos-XXIV. To the Hebrews.--XXV. pels ; result of this statement; and General Remarks on the Catholic an account of several very remarkEpistles.-XXVI. Of St. James.- able phænomena in the verbal harXXVII. and XXVIII. Epistles of mony of the Gospels.-VIII. The St. Peter. - XXIX of St. Jude. - supposition, that the succeeding EvanXXX. Of the first Epistle of St. gelists copied from the preceding, John, - XXXI. Dissertation ou I tried by these phænomena.-18. The John v. 7.—XXXII. The two last supposition, that the three first Evan

gelists made use of a common Greek rious forms of the above-mentioned docuinent, tried by these phæno- general supposition, as they may be mena.—X. The hypothesis, that our represented, when it is assumed, that three first Gospels contain three St. Matthew wrote in Hebrew, tried Greek translations, made independ. by the phænomena in the verbal harently of each other from the same mony of the Gospels.-XV. DescripHebrew original, tried by these phæ- tion of the Author's hypothesis.nomena.-XI. Of the various forms, XVI. This hypothesis, tried by the under which the general supposition phænomena in the verbal harmony of a common Hebrew document may of the Gospels.-XVII. The same hy. be represented : with a general nota- pothesis tried by the phænomena in tion, comprising all possible forms.- the contents and arrangement of the XII. Of some cautions necessary to Gospels. be observed in determining any par Under chap. VII. Mr. M. gives a ticular form.- XII. The various very curious and important table of forms of the above-mentioned gene- parallel passages in the three first ral supposition, as they may be re. Gospels in the original; but the whole presented, when it is assumed, that of this Dissertation is so connected as $t. Matthew wrote in Greek, tried not to admit an extract suitable to by the phænomena in the verbal har- our work, or generally interesting to mony of the Gospels.-XIV. The va- our Readers.

(To be continued.)

ORIGINAL CRITICISM AND CORRESPONDENCE.

IN

MR. EDITOR,

consequence of your opening literature, who knows not into what

department for correspondence strange and wild notions learned men in your New Series, I have taken the have often been betrayed by their Eberty to address you relative to a fondness for a darling hypothesis of peblication which appears to me of a their own invention; and in the pretendency dangerous to the cause of sent case, the claim of novelty is fully revealed religion, and the more so, as admitted. coming from a learned divine, and a The avowed object of Dr. H. is to professor in one of our universities. enquire into “ the origin and immeThe work I allude to is entitled, diate occasion of Psalm and Pro"On the Nature and Occasion of phecy;" and to shew that they were Psalm and PROPHECY. Twelve Cri. confined to a particular season of the tical Dissertations." By James HUR. year—the feast of the former rain, to DIS, D. D. Professor of Poetry in the which they had uniformly, one way or University of Oxford. (8vo. 268 other, an immediate reference. The Pr. Johnson.

plan of his work I shall give in his Before I offer any remarks on this own words, p. 2, 3. extraordinary work, I beg leave to “ The subject to be discussed, must premise, thai I by no means would of necessity be distributed into sepaattribute to the author any male- rate dissertations. In the first of volent designs against our established these the season of the Psalm and religion ; 1 rather conceive, that hav- Prophecy, which it must be undering discovered a mere hypothesis, stood have both the same origin, bewhich charmed him as a poet, he has long both to the same period of the been led off his guard so much as not year, and are often both composed to be able rigorously to investigate its by the same person, shall be detertruth; por has he, I would hope, per- nined. ceived its tendency to encourage in- .“ In the second, the manner of fidelity.

singing the psalm; and of receiving He must hare little experience in the word, shall be explained.

pages.

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