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of duty; he shrinks from the idea of in a charger, that her mother may killing him. One of the reasons glut herself with the spectacle. How which deters bim from consenting to does Herod receive the demand ? the murder is his fear lest the people Does he aver that no promise, no of the land, who all believe John to oath, can bind him to do that which be a prophet, should rise in arms to he has no right to do, that which God avenge his death. But it is evident bas forbidden, to commit murder ? that Herod has also scruples of con- Does he reject the claim with abhor. science which contribute to his re- rence? Does he punish those who luctance. For he has long been tho- urge it? Herod loves the praise of men foughly acquainted with the manner more than the praise of God. He is of life, and the conduct of John, he exceeding sorry when he hears the rehas been accustomed to frequent at. quest of the daughter of Herodias. tendance on bis instructions. He But habits of siu have perverted his still listens to them at times with understanding, clouded his conscigladness; and in many respects re- ence, undermined his stedfastness, gulates his own proceedings in con- enslaved hiin to false shame. He is formity to the exhortations of the perplexed by indistinct scruples, or . propbet. Sunk in sin, he trembles pretends to be perplexed by scruples in the presence of holiness. Enslaved respecting his oath He apprehends to Satan, he reverences the name of that his nobles will censure him if he God.
Let thy imprisonment,' he departs from his word. He imme. whispers to himself, • let thy unjust diately commissions the executioner imprisonment satisfy the queen. to behead John in the prison). * Thy blood shall not be upon my “ Within no long time afterwards, "head.'
Herod is apprized of the wonderful “ The malice of Herodias is una- actions of Jesus Christ, and of the bated. The king, it is true, has not different opinions which men enter. yet consented to her purpose ; but tain concerning him. His own opi. she does not despair. She has al. nion is speedily formed. He conready proved herself able to per- cludes that John the Baptist is resuade him to detain John in prison; stored to life. Whence is this con. and she hopes, by seizing some fac clusion: Whence, but from the revourable opportunity, to obtain a membrance of his guilt, which haunts mandale for his execution. A fa- him night and day, and menaces hiin vourable opportunity arrives, and she with the sure chastisement of headoes not let it slip.' In a moment of ven? Overwhelmed with terror and riotuus festivity, Herod promises to consternation, he concludes that God grant her daughter's request, even has undertaken the cause of bis serthough it should amount, according yant ; that God has raised the mur. to his own figurative expression, to dered prophet from the grave, and the half of his kingdom. The young has seni biin again upon eartb, armed woman retires to consult her mother. with the power of working the most In her absence behold Herod amus- stupendous miracles, that he may ing himself with conjectures concern- avenge himself on the wretch who ing the nature of the recompence despised his reproof, and shed his which she will prefer. Will she des innocent blood. Il is Joha, he cries, mand a jewelled robe? A sumptuous whom I beheaded. He is risen from palace > The revenues of a city: the dead; and therefore mighly works The government of a province ?' do shew forth themselves in him! Such He knows not what is passing in the are the terrors of a wounded con. mind of Herodias. He knows not that science !” p. 280—285. vanity and pride and avarice and ambition have retired, and have relinquished the whole heart to revenge. His speculations are interrupted by CXXI. Novum ORGANUM Scien. the entrance of her daughter. Mirth TIARUM; containing Rules for conand curiosity sparkle in his eyes. She ducting the Understanding in the advances straightway with haste. All Search of Truth, and raising a solid is silent. She requires the head of Structure of Universal Philosophy. By John the Baptist ! She requires that FRANCIS Bacon, Baron VERU. it be produced without delay. She LAM, Viscount St. ALBANS, and requires that it be delivered to her Lord High Chancellor of England. Vol. I,
Tran lated from the Latin. By Pe- they combined their forces. If some ter Shaw, M. D. with Notes, Critical large obelisk were to be raised, would and Explanatory. In two volumes, it not seem a kind of madness for 12mo.
men to set about it with their naked
hands? and would it not be greater HE preface contains an analysis madness still to increase the number
of the work, but as our extracts of such naked labourers, in confiwill be produced in their order, and dence of effecting the thing and the subjects specified, we proceed to were it not a farther step, in lunacy, state the author's design, as expressed to pick out the weaker bodied, and in the introduction.
use only the robust and strong: as if As the work is written in the form that would certainly do? but if, not of aphorisms, the figures prefixed to content with this, recourse should be the quotations express the numbers had to anointing the limbs, according of the aphorisms extracted.
to the art of the ancient wrestlers, The design of the work is thus ex. and then all begin afresh, would not pressed :
this be raving with reason? Yet this " 2. The thing we propose, is to is but like the wild and fruitless prosettle the degrees of certainty ; to cedure of men in intellectuals, whilst guard the sense by a kind of reduce they expect great things from multition * ; generally to reject that work tudes, and consent, or the excellence of the mind which is consequent to and penetration of capacity, or sense; and to open and prepare a strengthen, as it were, the sinews of new and certain way for the mind, the mind with logic. And yet for all from the immediate perceptions of this absurd bustle and struggle, men the senses. - And thus much was, still continue to work with their naked doubtless, intended by those who have understandings. At the same time so highly magnified ihe art of logic, it is evident, ihat in every great work which plainly shews they sought for which the hand of man performs, the some assistances to the understand. strength of each person cannot be ing; and held the natural procedure, increased, nor that of all be made to and spontaneous motion of the mind act at once, without the use of instrususpect. But this remedy came too ments or machines I. late, after the mind was possessed, “ 3. Upon the whole, men are to be and polluted by customs, lectures, reminded of two things; 1. That it and doctrines, and fill with vain fortunately happens, to prevent all idols, or false notions.- Whence this controversy and elation of mind, that superinduction of logic, far from cor- the ancients will remain uodisturbed recting what was amiss, rather fixed in the honour and reverence due to the errors of the mind than opened a them, whilst we pursue our own deway to truth. The only remedy left sign, and reap the fruits of our mois, therefore, to begin the whole work deration. For if we should pretend of the mind anew, and from the very to produce any thing better than the first, never leave it to itself, but keep ancients, yet proceed in the same it under perpetual regulation, as the way as they did, we could by no art business were performed by a ma- of words prevent soine apparent ri. chine t. And, indeed, if men had valship in capacity or ability; and set about mechanical works, with their however allowable this might be, as bare hands, unassisted with instru- it is a liberty they took before us, ments, as they have ventured to set yet we should know the inequality about intellectual works, almost with of our own strength, and not stand the naked powers of the mind, they the comparison. But now, as we go would have found themselves able to upon opening a quite new way for have affected very little, even though the understanding, untried and un
known to the ancients, the case * Viz. by contriving ways of submitting changes, and all party and contest things, in a proper manner, to the senses, drops. 2. That we are no way bent that a true judgment may be formed of them, upon disturbing the present philosowhen thuis again brought under view.
The foundalion of the Novum Organum thor also intended some allusion to the Orga- be not found just, the superstructure must
+ Hence we learn the reason of the title Novum Organum; though doubtless the au
seems laid in this paragraph; so that if ibis non, or Logic of Aristotle,
fall or course.
phy, or any other that is, or shall only that what we offer should be appear more perfect; the common true, but also, as much as is possible, system, and others of the same kind, that it should be accessible to the humay continue, for us, to cherish dis- man mind, though strangely beset and pites, embellish speeches, &c. the prepossessed; we intreat it, as a piece philosophy we would introduce, will of justice at the hands of mankind, be of little service in such cases; nor if they would judge of any thing we is ours very obvious, and to be taken deliver, either from their own sense, at once, nor tempting to the under the cloud of authorities, or the forms standing, nor suited to vulgar capa- of demonstration which now prevail, cities, but solely rests upon its utility as so many judicial laws, that they and effects. Let there be, therefore do it not on the sudden, and without by jciat consent, two fountains, or attention, but first master the subject, di pensations of doctrine, and two by degrees make trial of the way we tribes of philosophers, by no means chalk out, and accusiom themselves enemies or strangers, but confederates to that subtilty of things, which is and mutual auxiliaries to each other; imprinted in experience, and lastly, and let there be one method of cul that by due and seasonable persetivating, and another of discovering verance, they correct the ill habits the sciences. And to those who find that closely adhere to the mind : and the former more agreeable, for the when thus they begin to be themsake of dispatch, or upon civil ac- selves, let them use their own judg. counts, or because the other course is ment, and welcome t.” Introduction less suited to their capacities, (as must xviii-xxii. Deeds be the case with far the greater Part I. Section 1. General AphoDumber) we wish success in the pro- risms for interpreting Nature, and exe cedure, and they may obtain their tending the Empire of Man over the ends. But if any one has it at heart, Creation. not only to receive the things hitherto “ 2. Neither the hand without in. discovered, but to advance still far: struments, nor the unassisted under, ther, and not to conquer an adver- standing, can do much ; they both sary by disputation, but to conquer require helps to fit them for business ; nature by works; not neatly to raise and as instruments of the hand either probable conjectures, but to know serve to excite motion, or direct it, things of a certainty and demonstra. so the instruments of the mind either tively; let him, as a true son of the suggest to, or guard and preserve the sciences, join issue with us, if he understanding §.” p. 1, 2. pleases; that, leaving the entrance of nature, which infinite numbers have once a year, till he brought it to the present trod, we may at length pass into her degree of perfection. And whwever desires inner courts. To make ourselves to see how far it was, by this means, im. stil more intelligible, we shall give Pisa, published by Gruter ; which was the
proved, may compare it with the Cngitata pt Dames to these two methods of procedure, and familiarly call the first
rough draught of the first book only of the the anticipation of the mind, and the thirteen, if not many more years before the
Novum Organum, and sketched out at least ither the interpretation of nature. publication of this piece ; for Sir Thomas Bod“4. And now, we have only this re
ley, in the year 1607, complains of the juest to make, that as we have be author for having kept it so long in his coftowed much thought and care †, not fer.
Though this request mnight be more neNotwithstanding this distinction, the cessary at the time the author made it, yet ithor has been suspected to oppose the perhaps it is not still unseasonable ; for postients, though this design every where is sibly the generality even of philosophers make use of all the assistance they afford, are not to this day sufficiently divested of for the purpose, and to advance the whole pre-occupation, party, and prejudice, to form philosuphy to a greater perfection. But a true judgment of what the author wrote so
few helps and materials for this pure long ago. are derivable from the ancients is ano- This aphorism, in another place, is turn
consideration. See hereatter, Sect. iv. ed thus: “The oaked and unassisted land, riso hereafter, Aph. 31, &c.
however stmng and true, is adapted only to The author write the tollowing work the performance of a tew easy works; but ve cimes over with his own hand; mak- when assisted by instruments, becomes able a rule to revise, correct, and alter is to perform abundance more, and of muck
“ 9. The root of all mischief in the and the ideas of the divine mind, that sciences is this, that falsely magnify- is, betwixt certain vain conceits, and ing and admiring the powers of the the real characters and impressions mind, we seek not its real helps. stamped upon the creatures, as they
"10. The subtilty of nature far ex. are found g.” p. 9. ceeds the subtilty of the sense and “26. The natural human reasoning, understanding ; so that the sublime we, for the sake of clearness, call the meditations, speculations, and rea- anticipation of nature, as being a rash sonings of men, are but a kind of and hasty thing; and the reason duly nadness, if tit persons were to observe exercised upon objects, we call the them * p. 4, 5.
interpretation of nature. “: 14. Syllogisin consists of propoși. “ 27. This anticipation has force tions, proposirions of words, and words enough to procure consent !; for if are the signs of notions ; therefore, all mankind were mad, is one and jf our notions, the basis of all, are the same manner, they might still confused, and oyer hastily taken from agree ainong themselves. things, nothing that is; þuilt upon “28. Anticipations, also, have a much them can be firm; whence our only greater power to entrap the assent, hope rests upon genuine induction t. ihan interpretations; becausę, being
' P. 5, 6.
collected from a few familiar parti“ 19. These are two ways of search. culars, they immediately strike the ing after, and discosering truth; the mind, and all the imagination; whereone, from sense and particulars, rises as interpretations, being separately directly to the most general axioms, collected from very various and very and resting upon these principles, distant things, cannot suddenly affect and their unshaken truth, finds out the mind; whence, of necessity, in intermediate axioms; and this is the difficult and paradoxical matters,ibese method in use. But the other raises interpretations appear like mysteries axioms from sense and particulars, by of faith . a continued gradnal ascent, till at ** 29. In the sciences, founded on last it arises ai the most general ax- opinion and decreę, anticipations and joms, which is the true way, but'hilogic are of great service, where not therto untried t." p. 7, $.
things, but the assent is to be brought “ 23. There is a wide diiterence be- under subjection. twixt the idols of the human mind, * 30. But though the labours and
capacities of men in all ages were greater
difficulty; and the case is exactly pnited and continued, they could the same with the mind. The whole will make no considerable progress in the be abundantiy explained and illustrated by sciences, by anticipation ; because what follows. See also Introduction, 99, the radical errors, in the first concoc. and 3. * This aphorism deserves attension. Cer: by the excellence of any succeeding
tion of the mind, are not to be cured tainly, upun examining, every man may find talents and remedies '. his common notions very inadequate, or far from corresponding even with those he gains
“31. And it is in vain to expect any by conversing more familiar y apd intimately great advancement of the sciences
, with nature And yet, after a lile spent upon by superinducing or engrafting new any particular enquiry, in the common me, inventions upon old. The restoratioe thud, there still usually remains some subtiltý imust be begun from the very founda. of liature behind, which we cannot catch, and are api, perhaps very extravagantiy, to ☺ See above, Aph. 10. Astronomers dis guess at. And if this be the case io sensible tinguish between the 'real and .pparent moand material things, wbat must our general
tions of the heavens; the unle, being respete theories and system's be?
tive to man, and the other to the truth; ť inz. A competent catalogue of instances, supposing an observer seated in the cenim on both sides of the question; so that whepi of the system. This may, perhaps, illusint all the exceptions are properly made, a sound, the present aphorism. är at least a serviceable portion of truth may || Is it not also the chief spring of buat be left, as an axiom, behind. See Aph. 105, actions ? 106.
This aphorism seems capital, or almost And apon this way it is, that the author axiomatical it is made great use of bere sests his greatest hopes of improving philo after, and requires to be well remembered sophy and the sciences. See hereafter, Aph. ** Let this' aphorism be well considered
and, if found just, remembered.
The Pleader's Guide.
493 tion, unless men chuse to move continually in a circle, without considera ably advancing." p. 10–12. CXXII. THE PLEADER'S GUIDE,
Section II. Of the False Images of a Didactic Poem, in Two Books, Idols of the mind.
containing the Conduct of a Suit at These images, or idols, are divided Law ; with the rirguments of Coun, into four classes, described by names,
sellor Bother'um and Counsellor Borea and their etfects are then repre- ’um, in an Action betwixt John-e. septed.
Gull and John-a-Gudgeon, for As “9. When the mind is once pleased sault and Battery, at a late contested with certain things. it draws all others
Election Book II. to consent, and go along with them; and though the power and number HE first part of this poem apó of instances, thai make for the con
pears to have been published a trary, are greater, yet it either attends considerable time since (though it not to them, or despises them, or has escaped our notice) for which the else removes and rejects them, by a editor apologizes in his preface, and distinction, with a strong and perni. then subjoins the following syllabus cious prejudice to mamtain the au- of the present Lectures by Mr. thority' on its first choice unviolated. SURREBUTTER. And hence, in most cases of super- “After so long an interval between stition, as of astrology, dreams, omens, the publication of the first part of the judgments, &c. those who find plea- late Mr. S-rr-b-tt-r's Professional Lec sure in such kind of vanities, a.ways ture, and the appearance of the sea observe when the event answers, but cond course, many of his readers slight and pass by the instances where migiit reasonably 'expect that the it fails, which are much the more editor should, at least, have had the frequent. This mischief diffuses it- grace to inake some sort of excuse selt still more sublilly in philosophics for haring so long neglected to fulfil and the sciences, where that which his engagements to the public : while has once pleased infects and subdues others, perhaps, will not scruple to all other things, though much more think it would be far more becoming substantial and valuable than itself. in him to make a suitable apology for And though the mind were free from publishing this poem at all; and in this delight and vanity, yet it has the truth, the editor is very much inpeculiar and constant error of being clined to be of the latter opinion more moved and excited by affirma- himself. tives than by negatives, whereas it “Ashowever, this second part is now should duly and equally yield to published separately, after an inter. both. But, on the contrary, in the val of delay, by no ineans ill adapted raising of true axioms, negative in- to the true genius and character of stances have the greatest force.” A.17, the subject, it may not be deemed im18.
pertinent to remind the reader that “12. The light of the understand. Mr. S. in the outline of his plan, proing is not a dry or pure light, but lessed to demonstrate the decided drenched in the will and attections, superiority of the common law over and the intellect forms the sciences the civil, with respect to some pecuaccordingly; for what men desire liar advayțages, heretofore not fully should be true, they are most inclined considered; and from thence to proto believe. The understanding there: ceed to the History of a Suit at Comfore rejects things difficult, as being mon Law, commencing with the Oria impatient of enquiry, things just and ginal Irit, and conducting his pupil solid, because they limit hope, and regularly through the whole of the the deeper inysteries of nature through subsequent process in all its splendid superstition; it rejects the light of varieties and modifications; and fi. experience, through pride and hangh- nishing the first book of his lectures tiness, as disdaining the mind should with the parties' final appearance in be meanly avd waveringly emploved; court, upon the return of the Process it excludes paradoxes for fear of the io Outlawry. vulgar. And thus the atfections tinge " The following pages, consisting of and infeci the understanding num- ten lectures, which compose the se. berless ways, and sometimes imper- cond part, resume the subject at the ceptibly." p. 20.
point where it rested, preserving the (To be concluded in our next.) epic and didactic character of the