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-ranks of life, upon which the happi- Dr. Haygarth says, in a letter to ness and the virtue of the community Dr. Percival : “ Fresh air and clean, greatly depend.”.p. 266, 267. liness were the only means which I
Section VI. Hints respecting the employed to prevent infection."
As this section chiefly refers to the CXVIII. An Essay on the Method construction and management of hos- of illustrating Scripture from the Repitals for the reception of fever pa- lation of Modern Travellers in Patients, we only observe that cleanli- lestine and the Neighbouring Counness and air are recommended as the tries. Published, in pursuance of the best means to expedite the cure. As Will of the late Mr. Norris, as having purifying infected places has been gained the Annual Prize instituted recommended by medical practition- by him in the University of Cambridge. ers, the Doctor inserts that recom- By John FOSTER, A.B. Scholar of mended by Dr. Carmichael Smyth ; Trinity College, Cambridge. and as it inay be useful for private families, we insert it for the benefit HJE principles of this essay are of our readers.
· Put half an ounce of vitriolic acid serrations. into a crucible, or into a glass, or “ [. the researches of Sir William china cup, or deep saucer; warm this Jones and Mr. Maurice, and by the over a lamp, or in heated sand, add- relations of modern travellers in the ing to it, Trom time to time, some East, there appears to be a striking nitre. These vessels should be placed analogy between several oriental traá twenty or thirty feet distance from ditions, and the Mosaic account of each other, according to the height the formation of the world by the of the ceiling, or virulence of the Spirit of God, the order of creation, contagion, and should be stirred with the consecration of the seventh day glass spatulas. In hospiials or pri- to rest, the original perfection of sons the lamps or vessels containing man, his fall, the precise method of heated sand may be placed on the it, a consequent change in the earth, Hoor; on board of ships it will be the longevity of the human species, better to hang them to the ceiling by their accumulated impiety, the des waxed silk cords.” p. 339, 340. luge, its universality, the prediction
In this section is introduced some of the exact number of days before very distressing cases of extreme mi. this awful event was to commence, şery wilnessed by J. Neild in his phi- the period of its continuance, the lanthrophic researches into the state nunber of persons saved in the arki, of our prisons; his accounts are truly the story of the raven and the dove, affecting
the appearance of the rain-bow with Accompanying this section are en- the reasons of it, tlie building of Ba. graved sketches of a lever hospital, bel, and the dispersion of mankind; and a plan of a cot-bedstead con- but, above all, a confused idea of a structed of iron.
Mediator seems alway to have preThe advantages arising from the vajled currently among the nations establishment of houses of recovery of the East, to keep fever patients separate from
holl. It is of moment also to obI other patients, and in the different serve, that there has been little, if
stages of the complaint to remove any intercourse, and certainly none them into distinct rooms, appears sufficiently early, between the Jew's from the following statement.
and Hindoos to produce that univer". The comparative number of con- sal and surprising conformity, which tagious fevers at Manchester, for three exists in the respective traditions of years previous to the establishment of these nations. From this considerathe house of recovery in 1796, and in tion consequences will result of the one year succeeding its establish- first importance to mankind. ment, appears to have been as fol. “ 111. It also appears, that many
of these oriental traditions obtained From Sept. 1793 to May 1796. .1256. carlier than the time of Moses, mutiFrom May 1796 to May 1797......26." lated, indeed, by different sects, and
diversified, as it might naturally be of the cabin of a ship, lying near the expected, by the inventive genius of "shore. The operator handled them, man. The "Mosaic narration, then, and then put them into a bag. At of these facts, must either have been "other times I have seen the serpents a compilation from such oriental twist round the bodies of these Pavili traditions, or the effect of an imine. • in all directions, without having diate revelation from the Deity. But their fangs extracted or broken, the former opinion is highly impro- and without doing them any in. bable, because, as we have already *jury'." p. 28-29. observed, there has been no adequate communication between the Hindoos and the descendants of Israet. And the probability of the latter opinion CXIX. A PLEA for Religion and the may be established by contrasting Sacred Writings: adderssed to ike the perfections of the Mosaic narra- Disciples of Thomas Paine, and tive with the imperfections of these wavering Christians of rvery Peroriental traditions ; the connexion, suasion. With an Appendix, com'Ain. purity, simplicity, congruity of the ing the Author's Determination * one, with the incoherence, impu- have relinquished his Charge in the rity, want of simplicity, incongruity Esiablished Church, and the Reasons of the other: its probability, how- on which that Determination was ever, has been especially established founded. By the Rev. DAVID Simr by deinonstrating the exact confor. SON, M.A. 8vo. mity of some of the principal events recorded in the book of Genesis with 'T the course and constitution of na- prctixed to this book, that it was ture.
The same reasons, conse- completely finished, and on the point quently, which render the former of being published by the author, opinion improbable, will always ren- when death prevented him, in March der the latter probable.”. p.3-5. 1709. Ais executors, from motives
These principles are illustrated by not generally interesting, hesitated on a variety of observations from which the propriety of making the work we extract the following, observing public. "His son, Mr. D. Simpson, by the way, that “ Burder's Orientai being now of age, and the edition Customs," of which we lately gave and copy-right belonging to him, an account, is a work formed ex- he thinks it his duty to perform the actly on the principles here recom- intentions of his father. mended.
“In the preface it is observed, that " XXX. “Surely the serpent will thoughi dristical principles may buoy • bite without enchantment, anda bab- up the minds of persons intluenced •bler is no better.'- They are like by them, while health and prosperity the deaf adder, that stoppeth her smule, they will generally lail us in ear, which will not hearken to the seasons of adversity, and especially voice of the charmer, charming in the views of approaching dissoluever so wisely.'—Who will pily a tion." This is exemplified in the 'charmer, that is bitten with a ser- eases of some of the mutineers, the • pent?' It is an established fact, late Lord P---, and particularly in that serpents may be charmell, and the death of William Pope, of Bolton rendered perfectly harmless by mu- in Lancashire, who in the view of sical sounds. But our two lasi q10- death called for damnation, and intations seem to allude to certain per- stead of being thankful to those who sons, who made a profession of charm. would have endeavoured to adminiing serpents, not by music particu- ster comfort to bin, mavifested the larly, but by words. The charmers greatest enmity against them. • otserpents,' says Mr. Browne, * seein The speech of Mr. Erskine, and "wortliv of remark, their powers ap- Lord Kenyon's address to the jury 'pearing extraordinary. The ser- on the trial of Williams, for publish.
pent most common at kahira is of ing Paine's Age of Reason,' follow, • the viper class, and undoubtedly and an address to the reader, in which
poisonous. It one of them enters a Bishop Watson's Apology for the • house, they send for a charmer, who Bible, and his Apology for Christia. • uses a certain form of words. I pity, are warmly recommended. • have seen three serpents enticed out
in a second advertisement the au
thor haring given the outlines of the serious in your advice answered work, says, “ If he is thought severe the old man, • I really am,' replied upon the episcopal and clerical orders the King.– Why then,' said Whis. of men, let it be remarked, that he TON, had Martin Luther been t:leems them all very highly in love for ' of this way of thinking, where would their office sake, because he is per- your Majesty have been at this suaded it is of divine appointment; "time'?” p. xxiv. and that, if at any time he has given The author commences his work, way to his indignation, and expressed by shewing the tendency of the princihimself in strong terms against these ples and practice of religion to be orders, it is never intended to attect happiness; and mentions some well any but the culpable part of them; known characters eminent in their and that both the prophets under the stations in life, and no less eminent 0:d Testament dispensation, and for piety, and then proceeds to give a Christ with his apostles under the number of exampl: ; illustrative of his Necu, have done the same. We can- design under the following descrippot folow better examples.
tions. - DYING INFIDELS. — - PENI" But in a Plea for Religion and the Tent and RECOVERED INFIDELS. Sacred Writings, where is the pro. - DYING CHRISTIANS, who have priety of exposing the imperfections lived too much in the spirit of the world, of the church, with her bishops and --and CHRISTIANS dying, either with clergy?
great composure of mind, or, IN THE Because the undiscerning world FULL ASSURANCE OF FAITH. in general, and our deistical fellow From the tirst class, containing creatures in particular, constantly twelve examples, passing by Mr. unite them together, and wound the Hobbes and young SERVIN, we sepure and immortal religion of Jesus lect the account of the llonourable CHRIST and the Holy Scriptures FRANCIS NEWPORT, who died in through their sides: whereas they are the year 1692. He was favoured both things essentially different. What with a liberal and religious education. has the character and gospel of After spending five years in the uniChrist to do with the preaching of wersity he was entered in one of the JUDAS, the cowardice of Peter, the inns of court. Here he fell into the ambition of James and JOHN, the hands of infidels, lost all his religious lukewarmness and worldly spirit of impressions, commenced infidel bimour bishops and clergy, or with the sell, and became a most abandoned superstitious and secular appendages character, uniting himself to a club of the Church of Rome, the Church of of wretches who met together conEngland, or any other human esta- stantly to encourage each other in blishment under heaven? They are being critically wicked. In this manthings perfectly distinct. And if we per he conducted himself for several mean to defend the Gospel to any years, till at length his intemperate purpose, it must be the Gospel alone, courses brought on an illness, which independent of every human mixture revived all his former religious imand addition. Corrupt churches and pressions, accompanied with an borbad men cannot be defended.” p.xx, ror of mind inexpressible. The vioxxi,
lence of his torments was such, that The author expresses his desire to be sweat in the most prodigious man. speak the plain honest truth, as it ner that was ever seen.
In nine days appears to him, without courting any
he was reduced from a robust state of man's favour, or fearing any man's health to perfect weakness, during all displeasure : to this expression the which time his language was the most following pole is subjoined, King dreadful that imagination can con GEORGE II. who was fond of the ceive. At one time, looking toward late Mr. Whiston, happened to be the fire, he said, • Ob! that I was to walking with him one day, during • lie and broil upon that tire for a the heat of his persecution, in hundred thousand years, to purHampton Court gardens.
As they • chase the favour of God, and be reWere talking upon this subject, his • conciled to him again! But it is a Mirjesty observed, that. however right fruitless vain wish; millions of mil' he miglit be in his opinions, it • lions of years will bring me no would be better if he kept them to nearer the end of my tortures than him-ell.' - Is your Mujcsiy really one poor hour. O eternity! eter
nity! who can properly paraplırase thor then proceeds lo notice another, upon
the words - fur evil and and says, " Others again late of cuer!'
feuce at the absurd doctrines of the “ In this kind of strain he went on, several religious Establishments in till his strength was exhausted, and Christinadtoin. They discover in them his dissolution approached; when re- certain peculiarities which they con covering a little breath, with a groan ceive to be irrational. They contound so dreadful and lond as if it had not the doctrines of these human jenitubeen human, he cried oul, “Oh! the 1500s (which were formed in the very • insufferable pains of hell and dam, clawn of the Reformation, winie uns • nation and so died; death sel- eyes were vet scarcely open encha tling the visage of his face in such a to discover truth) with genuine Casiform as if the body, though dead, tiunity. Not being at the pains to endwas sensible of the extremity of tor- mine matters to the bottom, and disa nients.” pill.
tinguish accurately, they support them The miserable death of Voltaire is to be alike, and hence contract a related at some length, and the death rooted indillerence, if not an iconof Altamont, in Young's Centaur, is querable aversion, 10 all religion. inserted, and after some others, the “ Some there are again, who, see. character and some circumstances in ing the pomp and pride of many of the life of Rousseau, with his presump- our bishops and dignified clergy, how tuous death, close this class.
they, in direct opposition to the holy The examples of the following spirit of the Gospel, the exainple of classes bear a uniform testimony to primitive clerks, as well as their own the unhappiness arising from indil. holy profession, scramble for emoluference to ihe Scriptures, and the le- merit, and beap together from two to licity which accompanies the atten- bail a score lucrative pieces of preo tive study of, and serious regard to ferment, while several thousands of their contents. Contrasting the pe. their brethren are destitute of the culiar advantages of religion in the ordinary comforts of live; witheat happiness it produces, particularly at further examination, naturally supthe close of life, the author makes a pose that region is all priest-cralt serious appeal to the intidel, and and self-interest, honour and con. names some illustrious characters who science having nothing to do in the have warmiy contendeci for religion, business.- 11 may be of use to state and then jutroduces the objections this more at large. raised against Christianity. Belore " It is well known then, that there we notice them, we think our readers are about 18,000 clergymen in Engiand will be gratified with the following and I'ales, of the esiaviished religion, anecdote.
When Dr. Halley was and near 10,000 parišlies. The rec. throwing out, upon a time, some in- lories are 3,096; the vicarozes 3,087; decent retlections opon Clristianity, We livings of other descriptions his friend, Sir Isaac Newton, stopt 2,970; in all 11,753. him short, and addressed him in these, “Twenty or thirty of those livings or the like words, which imply that may be a thousand a year and upthis great astronomer had employed wards; tour or fire hundred of his life in studying only the book of them 500 pounds a year and upnature:- Dr. TALLEY, I am al- wards; two thousand of them 200
ways glad to hear you when you pounds a year and upwards; fire • speak about astronomy, or other ihousand of them under 100 pounds * parts of the mathematics, because a year. The average value of livings
that is a subject you have studied, is about 140 pounds a year, reckon• and well understand; but you should ing them at 10,000. • not talk of Christianity, for you have * As these things are not very gene
vot studied it ; I bave, and an rally understood, we will be a little • certain you know nothing of the more particular. • matter'," p. 72.
"In the year 1714, when QUEEN The objections are then stated and ANNE's bourvy began to be distributed, answered. The first, which argues there were, the hypocrisy of many great pre- 1071 livings nut more than 10 pounds a ytał. lenders to religion, is soon dismissed, 1467. and so is the second, viz. the weak- 1126. ness, folly, and enthusiasm, the noise 1149. and nonsense of the zealots. The au- 854..
20 30 40
* In all 5,697 livings not more than common necessaries of life? And 50 pounds a year a piece.
then it is curious enough that these "This bounty is about 13,000 pounds church dignitaries, who are in posa year, clear of deductions, and is session of several thousands a vear therefore equal to 15 augmentations, per man, have madle laws directly annually, ai 200 pounds a piece. contrary to the practice of St. Paul,
* The whole income of the church, that the inferior clergy, who are desand two universitirs, is about 1,500,000 titute of all the elegancies, and many pounds a year. There are 26 bishops, of the comforts of life, shall not be is hose annual income is 72,000, or permitted to follow any other calling, according to another account 92,000 whereby to improve their condition, pounds. Each bishop, therefore, has and get bread for their families i on an average 2.770 or 3,538 pounds a Would there be any thing inconsistyear, supposing he had no other pre- ent with the character of a minister of ferment. — There are 28 deaneries and the Gospel of CHRIST, if the poor chapieri, whose income is about 5000 rectors, vicars, and curates of the pounds a year each, making together country should make a common cause, about 140,000 pounds - The income and associate together in one body of the two universities is together against their unleeling oppressors ? about 180,000 pounds a year. The Could there be any impropriety in 10,000 clergy have togeiher about their conduct, if they should peace1,108.090 pounds a year among them, ably and respectfully address the which is liille more than 100 pounds king, who is temporal head of the a piece. The whole body of the church, or the legislature of the land, clergy, and their families, make near to take their circumstances into se100,000 souls, that is, an eightieth part rious consideration ! One man, not oi the nation. And reckoning the a doit better than his brethren, shall population of England and Wales at enjoy 20,000 pounds a year--anotight millions of people, every clergy. ther" 15,000 - another 10,000—ano. min would have a congregation of ther 5,000-another 3,000--another 414 persons to attend to, in the same 2,000--and another 1,000. One shall way of calculation.
heap living upon living, preferment “There are, moreover, 2S ca: hedals, upon pretirment~10 a vast amount--96 deans, 60 archeeacons, and 5-14 prre merely because he has got access--benals, carons, &c.-- Besides these, too oiten by mean compliances-10 there are in all about 300 in orders some great man, while his more worbelonging to the disterent cathedrals, thy brother is almost in want of bread and about soo lay officers, such as for his children. The late Dr. Law, singing men, organists, &c. who are Bishop of Carlisle, if my memory does all paid from the cathdral emolu- not fail me, was possessed at the time minis; so that there are about 1700 of his decrase of ten or inore diilere persons attached to the several ca- ent prefermenis. He was bisho thedrali, who divide among them Head of a college-Prebend-- Reclv110,000 pounds a year, making upon Librarian, &c. &c. &c. and all this an average near 83 pounds a year a bestowed upon him--not because he piece.
was more holy, useful, and laborious · The whole income of the Kirk of than ordinary ; though a man of Scotland was, in 1755, about 63,500 merit and talents; but because lie pounds a year. This was divided wriggled bin seit into tavour with 2in0ng 94+ ministers, and on an ave- certain great persons, who had inFige made 72 pounds a piece per fluence with men in power. instan
ces of this kind are not uncommon; Upon a general view of these imat- they are, however, unjust, iinpolititers, when it is considered that all the cal, unchristian. No wise legislature bizhsprica, prebendaries, deareries, head ought 10 permit such abuses, religion ships of colleges, and best church liv. oui of the question.” ings, are occupied by a smaller pum- This appears to be a favourite to. ber, in all probability, than an eizh. pic with our author, who, atter eshelmih part of these clergy, what a de patiating more at large, returns to plorable situation must a large share his subjert in the following manner : of the remaining seventeen jousand 16 all these circum-tances,” say's ministers be in, especially under the tlie antliur', with others of a similar present advanced price of most of the kiud, are the causes why so many