Obrazy na stronie
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very singular among the customs of sometimes so hot that I could scarcely the Fins, was their baths, and man- hold it in my hands. ner of bathing. Almost all the Fin “ The Finlanders, all the while Dish peasants have a small house built they are in this hot bath, continue to on purpose for a bath; it consists of rub themselves, and lash every part only one small chamber, in the inner- of their bodies with switches, formed most part of which are placed a num. of the twigs of the birch tree.' In ten ber of stones, which are heated by minutes they become as red as raw fire till they become red. On these flesh, and have altogether a very stones, thus heated, water is thrown, frightful appearance. In the winter until the company within be involved season they frequently go out of the in a thick cloud of vapour. in this bath, naked as they are to roll theininnermost part, the chainber is form- selves in the snow, when the cold is ed into two stories for the accommo- at 20, and even at 30 degrees below dation of a greater number of persons Zero*. They will sometimes come within that small compass; and it out, still naked, and converse togebeing the natare of heat and vapour ther, or with any one near them, ia to ascend, the second story is, of course the open air.., If travellers happen the hottest. Men and women use to pass by while the peasants of any the bath promiscuously, without any hainlet, or little village, are in the concealment of dress, or being in the bath, and their assistance is needed, least influenced by any emotions of they will leave the bath, and assist attachment. If, however, a stranger in yoking or unvoking, and fetching open the door, and come on the provender for ihe horses, or in any bathers by surprise, the women are thing else, without any sort of covera not a little startied at his appearance; ing whatever, while the passenger for, besides his person, he introduces sits shivering with cold, though wrapalong with him, by opening the door, per up in a good sound woll's skin. a great quantity of light, wbich dis- There is nothing more wonderful than covers at once to the view their situ, the extremities which man is capable ation, as well as forms. Without such of enduring through the power of an accident they remain, if not in habit. total darkness, yet in great obscurity,

“ The Finnish peasants pass thus as there is no other window besides instantaneously from an atinosphere a small hole, nor any light but what of 70 degrees of heat, to one of 30 deenters in from some chinks in the roof grees of cold, a transition of a hun. of the house, or the crevices between Ured degrees, which is the same thing the pieces of wood of which it is con- as going out of boiling into freezing structed. I often amused myself with water! and what is more astonishing, surprising the bathers in this man- without the least inconvenience, while ner, and I once or twice tried to go other people are very sensibly af. in and join the assembly; but the

fected by a variation of but five de. heat was so excessive that I could grees, and in danger of being afflictnot breathe, and in the space of a

ed with rheumatism by the most tri. minute at most, I verily believe, must Ang wind that blows. Those pea. have been suffocated. I sometiines sants assure you, that without the stept in for a moment, just to leave hot vapour baths they could not sus. mythermometer in some proper place,

tain, as they do, during the whole and immediately went out again, day, their various labours. By the where I would remain for a quarter bath, they tell you, their strength is of an hour, or ten minutes, and then recruited as much as by rest and enter again, and fetch the instruinent, sleep. The heat of the vapour mollis to ascertain the degree of heat. My fies to such a degree their skin, that astunishment was so great, that I the men easily shave themselves with could scarcely believe my senses,

wretched razors, and without soap. when I found that those people re

Had Slakspeare known of a people main together, and amuse themselves who could thus have pleasure in such for the space of half an hour, and quick transition from excessive heat sometimes a whole hour, in the same

to the severest cold, his knowledge chamber, heated to the 70th or 75th degree of Celsius. The thermometer, * I speak always of the thermometer of a in contact with those vapours, became

100 degrees, by Celsius.

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might have been increased, but his from him in whose hand are all creative fancy could not have been things. assisted :

• Come hither, I will make thee “O! who can hold a fire in his hand,

'my friend; approach, for thou shalt By thinking of the frosty Caucasus?

• henceforth be my companion. Come Or wallow naked in December snow,

down from the high hill; leave the By thinking on fantastic summer's heat?”

seat of sorrow behind thee; enough p. 296—299.

hast thou suffered; the tears thou

• hast shed are sufficient; thou hast Chap. XXIII. This chapter de- • felt pain and disease; the hour of scribes the national poetry of Fin. thy deliverance is come; thou art land. The turn of the natives for po

- set free from evil days; peace hasetry, and the manner in which they 'teneth to meet thee; relief from recite their poetical compositions is 'grief to come. thus stated : “ A circle is formed of • Thus went he out to his Maker; the auditors, in the midst of which 'he entered into glory; he hastened stand the improvisator, and his repe- into extreme bliss; he departed to titory coadjutor.

enjoy liberty; he quitted a life of “Every line which the improvisator sorrow;

he left the habitations of the sings or delivers, is repeated in the earth.' same tune by the coadjutor, who, « Proverbs are the result of extaking up the last word, or the last perience and wisdom; and no na. but one, finishes the line with him, tions, however barbarous, are found and then repeats it alone. This gives without them in their language. The the improvisator time to prepare the Finnish tongue has an abundance, succeeding line, which he sings, se- many of them conveying strong sense conded in like manner by his coad- and acute mark. They are for the jutor ; and thus they both proceed, most part in runic or alliterative verse; the coadjutor always taking up the and, like the Hebrew proverbs, are last word of the improvisaior's line, divided into hemistics, the latter iland then repeating it by himself un- lustrating the foregoing. The followtil the poem is ended. During inter- ing are Finnish proverbs, literally vals, they recruit their spirits with translated : beer or brandy, and sometimes con- • The good man spareth from his tinue the improvisation to

a late peck; but the wicked will not gire hour. Dancing not being very com- • from a bushel. mon among the Finnish peasantry, « The wise man knoweth what he their amusements at fairs, or at their shall do ; but fools try every thing, private meetings, consists in these • There is no deliverance through kind of songs, or recitations, some- * tears; neither are evils remedied by times accompanied by the harp, if sorrow. that instrument be at hand, when · He who hath tried, goeth immethe harper supplies the place of the diately to the work; but he who repetitor.

• hath no experience standeth to con "I'shall now lay before my read.

i sider, ers some specimens of these poems, • The wise man gathereth wisdom in which there will be observed much every where; he profiteth by the redundancy of expression, the sense "discourse of fools. being continued through two or more "A man's own land is his chiefest verses, the phrase only varied, as in “delight; the wood is most pleasant the eastern compositions. The Fin- 'that is his. nish tongue is peculiarly adapted to • The stranger is our brother; he this kind of phraseology, as it is highly • who comes from afar off is our kinscopious, and abounding with synonimous words.

When the morn breaketh forth, I “The first specimen I shall pro- 'know the day which followeth; a duce is an extract from a poem, or 'good man discovereth himself by funeral elegy, composed by Paulo Re- his looks. mes, a Finnish peasant, upon the oc- · The work is ended which is becasion of his brother's decease. This gun; there is time lost to say, what poein was printed at Abo, in 1763. shall I do: • The word went from heaven, • The tool of the industrious man is

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sharp; but the ploughshare of the dress of his daughter! I should leave 'fool wanteth grinding." p. 303- every thing to attend upon my be306.

• loved, who is the dear object of Love, our author adds, is, “as may my summer thoughts, and winter be supposed, the great business of the cares'. fair sex, and the topic upon which “ This version in rhyme is neither the energies of the Finnish poetess

so close as metaphrase, nor so distant are chietly exercised : it is, however, as paraphrase. not an easy matter to procure speci

1. mens of these songs, as they are ge

O were my love but here with me! nerally sung by the young women at : Cou'd I his well-known person see! meetings, to which men are rarely or • How should I fly to his embrace, never admitted. Mr. Frawzen, of "Tho' blood of wolves distain'd his face; Abo, presented me with a song, the · Press'd to my heart his band would take, composition of a country girl, a na- • Thu’’were encircled by a snake. tive of Ostro-Bothnia, and the servant

2. of the magister or the clergyman of. Those winds that whisper thro' the wood, the village, where she had constantly "Why is their speech not understood ? resided. It is composed on the occa- • They might exchange the lover's pray'r, sion of her lover's absence, in a style "And sigh for sigh returning bear. of natural simplicity, strong senti

3. ment, and bold figure, to attain which • Ill-cook'd the rector's meals would be, more cultivated understandings some. • Dressing his daughter wait for me; times labour in vain. The thought Whilst kitchen, toilet, I forsake, in the second stanza, if not altogether "And thought of my love only take; Dew to poetry, has something in it

• On that alone my care bestow, very striking, is prettily introduced, My summer's wish, my winter's vow.' and well turned. This little piece,

p. 317-319. considered as the production of a (To be concluded in our uext.) girl who could neither write nor read, is a wonderful performance. It is nature's poet delivering the dictates CXIII. SERMONS. By WILLIAM of her heart in the words which love

JAY, 8vo. has suggested, and snatching a grace • bevond the reach of art.' This Fin

(Concluded from page 437.)

S a farther ber ungenial climate, discovers all the warmth of the poetess of Lesbos. exordium and analysis of the sixth I shall lay before the reader two traus- Sermon, with the two first heads of lations of this song, the one in prose,

Discourse. the other in verse.

“ The following prose translation is The Gospel demands and deserves as near the original as the English

Attention. language can approach the Finnish. If any Man have Ears 10 hear let him

hear. Mark iv. 23. 1. Oh! that my beloved were now • here ; that his well known figure

“The sages of autiquity delivered · were but before me! How should I much of their knowledge in compre• fly into his arms, and kiss hin, hensive sentences. Each of the wise

men of Greece was distinguished by *though his face were besmeared with the blood of a wolf! How should

some aphorism. All nations have had • I press his hand, even though a snake rality of mankind are much more in

their peculiar proverbs. The gene' were twisted round it!

fluenced by detached and striking 2. • Alas! why have not the winds phrases, than by long addresses, or understanding? And why is the laboured reasonings, °which require • breeze bereft of speech? The winds

more time and application than they • might exchange sentiments betwixt

are either willing or able to afford. “my beloved and me. The breezes

The words of the wise are as goads, might every instant carry my words

• and as nails fastened by the master to him and bring back his to me.

of assemblies.' The good effects of 3. · How then would the delicacies preaching are commonly produced by of the rector's table be neglected! particular expressions, which leave How inattentive should I be to the something for our minds to develope

SERMON VI.

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or enlarge, which please the imagina- both his subject and his audirace tioa, which are easily remembered, were completely under his manageand which often occur. This method ment. of instruction our Lord and Saviour “ He had all the authority which adopted : we often read of his say- is derived from unimpeachable recti• ings;'. and there is no sentence, tude. This gives a speaker peculiar which he so frequently repeated, as firmness and force. A consciousness the words which I have read. This of vice, or even of imperfection, bas alone should powerfully recommend a tendency to make hiin partial or them to our regard; but they have timid. And where is the teacher, higher claims, and we shall view who is sensible of no failings; who them, I. As implying the authority exemplifies universally those high inof the Speaker. 11. As suggesting structions he delivers? • lo many the importance of the subject. III. As things we offend all.'-He alone appealing to impartial consideration. could say, which of you convinceth IV. Aş demanding practical improve "me of sin”. It debased none of his ment. He that hath ears to hear, actions, it mixed with none of his . let him hear.'

motives. His tempers were all hea" 1. Here is implied the authority of veniy; his example embodied and the Speaker. And who can advance enlivened every doctrine he preachclaims on our attention equally nu- ed. In him were none of those omismerous and powerful with his ? sions which call for the proverb, • He entered into the synagogue, Physician, heal thyself;'-he spake and taught. And they were asto- fearless of the reproach of his hearers, nished at his doctrine : for he and unchecked by the reflections of * taught them as one that had authori. his own conscience.

ty, and not as the scribes.' He pos- "He had all the authority fowing sessed every thing from which a from · miracles, and wonders, and teacher could derive influence. "signs.'-Think of a speaker, who

" He had all the authority which is could call forth the powers of heaven derived froin knowledge. Religion and earth, and establish his doctrine was the subject he came to teach by their testimony-who could end he knew the whole, and the whole his discourse, and say-all this is true; perfectly. With all the case of in- witness, ye winds and waves-and telligence, he speaks of things which they cease from their raging.' Witwould swallow us up—they were fa- ness, ye blind-and they receive miliar to him. He speaks of God “their sight.' Witness, ye deadwithout any embarrassment-He and · Lazarus comes forth.'—Rabbi, • was in the bosom of the Father.' " we know thou art a teacher sent He speaks of heaven without any " from God: for no man can do these emotions of wonder--it was his Fa- ' miracles which thou doest, except ther's bouse. He mentions the * God be with him.' treachery of Judas without any sur- “Consider his uncontrollable domiprise--" he knew from the beginning nion. There is no place where liis

who would betray him.' Nothing voice does not reign. He causes the in the behaviour of his enemies, or of most insensible creatures to hear it.his friends; nothing in the denial of in the original creation " he spake, Peter, or dispersion of his disciples and it was done ; he commanded, astonished him he knew what was • and it stood fast. • He appointetla • in man.' He was fully acquainted the moon for seasons, and the sun with the capacities and dispositions • knoweth his going down. The day of his bearers. He knew how much is his, the night also is his :'' he has they were able to bear-when it was 'made suminer and winter :' and necessary to produce evidence, or to when he calls for them, they never leave obscurity - how to touch by refuse to come. Even the unruly sea suitable motives all the hidden spring's acquiesces in his mandate ; hitherto of action--and by appropriate illus- shalt thou come, and no further; tration, to remove prejudices, and and here shall thy proud wares be dissolve doubts, and satisfy desires “stayed. The earth obeys the laws concealed in the minds of the own. which he impressed upon it-The ers, who finding the secrets of the 'voice of the Lord is powerful: the • heart made manifest,' were filled 'voice of the Lord is full of majesty : with admiration, and exclaimed .ne. • the voice of the Lord breaketh the ' ver man spake like this man'-Thus cedars: the voice of the Lord di.

videth the flames of fire : the voice the orders of a master? Thy Teacher of the Lord shaketh the wilderness.' -and shall disciples refuse the inMarvel not at this: for the bour is structions of their teacher? Thy Be. coming, is the which all that are nefactor and have loving-kindnesses in their graves shall hear his voice, and tender mercies no claims :and shall come forth.' -Obeyed by wonderful beyond degree !--- Thus all creatures, he approaches, and ex. .saith the Lord’ should bring forth a pects your submission. Would you listening world ; fathers and chilbe the only rebel in the universe dren, princes and people, the wise Unlike all other beings, would you and the unlearned, the rich and the Swerve from your station, and re

poor - and

none appears -- He nouace your allegiance: Harder than speaks, and we are regardless, rethe rack, and more senseless than gardless of a Speaker clothed with the dead, would you refuse to hear every kind of authority--who also his voice ?

speaks on our behalf, for our welfare, "Consider the dignity of his cha- and whose language is hear, and racter. Where the word of a king your souls shall live.' This brings * is there is power, and who may say us from the authority of the Speaker, unto him, what doest thou ?" The to consider what is equally included most magnificent titles are not too in the address, glorious to discriminate the Son of "11. The importance of the subGod. He had on his vesture, and ject-- He that hath ears to hear, let on his thigh, a name written, · King him hear.' Soinetimes speakers of kings, and Lord of lords.' Was promise their hearers more than they Isaiah mistaken, when he said of the can perform, and excite expectations Child born, and the Son given,' which they are unable to realize "the government shall be upon his Jesus Christ is not afraid to awaken shoulder, and his name shall be attention; he knows he can more called Wonderful, Counsellor, the than repay it; he knows we can neMiglity God, the everlasting Fa- ver raise our minds to the grandeur 'ther, the Prince of Peace ?' Did he of the subject. He does not trifle ; exceed his own claims when he said, his instructions are unspeakably in'I am Alpha and Omega, the Begin- teresting and important. In order to

ning and the Ending, saith the this, they must be true. And, my Lord, which is, and which was, and brethren, you cannot but acknow. which is to come, the Almighty?' ledge that the reality of these things "And does he not stand in relations is possible--sometimes they strike the most intimate and affecting : you as probable, and much more He made us placed us so high in frequently than you are willing to the scale of being-—endued our na- alow; hence your uneasiness, and ture with reason and immortality. hence your eagerness to bring forHe sustains us— in him we live, and ward your opinions to make prose• *move, and have our being' - his lytes, and to embolden your tremare all our possessions; and if there bling faith by placing numbers around be a day, or an hour, in which he is it. We attirm that these things are regardless of you, you shall be inat- true and observe where we stand tentive to him. His demands are when we affirm it--within view of founded in the sun which shines upon evidences, numberless and convinc10u—in the friends you enjoy-in ing. There we appeal to a series of the bread which nourishes you—and prophecies ; and here to a train of above all, in the salvation you desire. miracles. There to the sublimity and He addresses you from the garden holiness of the doctrine; here to the

Shall his voice be competency and goodness of the lili heard ? Shall such an authority be writers. There to the success of the despised: Will you stand with Pha- gospel, destitute of every worldly reraoh, and impiously ask, Who is commendation, and in the face of the

the Lord, that I should obey his most powerful opposition ; here to * voice ?'-Why. He, in whose hands the blood of the best of men, and the thy breath is, and whose are all thy consent of the wisest men-for we ways' -- He who remembered thee stand not only near the fishermen of in thy low estate' -He who gave Galilee, but a multitude of pre-emi' his life a ransom' for thee-He is thy nent genius and learning, when we master—and shall servants disobey say we have not followed cunning,

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and the cross.

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