Obrazy na stronie

these chapters takes a retrospective pity, and declared it to be the right view of India atfairs, which in the and duty of the crown to suspend the following are continued to June 1766, execution of a law for the safety of and beginning with the origin of ter. the people. ritorial acquisition in India, contain “Lord CAMDEN, in supporting the a circumstantial account of the trans. same opinion, argued strongly in vinactions in that country to the tinie dication of those, who, on an obvious specified. The whole closes with the necessity; had done an act which no augmentation of the dividends aris- existing law could be produced to ing from the prosperity of Indian justify. The necessity of a measure, affairs.

he observed, renders it not only ex. Chap. XII. 1766, 1767, 1768.-In cusable, but legal; and consequently this chapter the account of trans- a judge, when the necessity is prored, actions in America is resumed, and may, without hesitation, declare that the author states, that “ although act legal, which would be clearly ilthe repeal of the stamp act produced legal where such necessity did not much joy in that country, yet the exist. The crown is the sole execuspirit of revoit was not suppressed, tive power, and is therefore intrusted which fully appeared in many of their by the constitution to take upon itactions. On account of a scarcity of self whatever the safety of the state grain in 1766, ministry laid an en- may require during the recesso! pare bargo on ships preparing to sail with liament, which is at best but a forty cargoes of corn, for which conduct, days tyranny. He concluded by obat ihe opening of parliament, ini- serving, that the power exercised on nisters introduced a bill of in- this occasion was so moderate and demnity in favour of those officers beneficial, that Junius Brutus would who had acted under the order of not have hesitated to intrust it even council, which produced several ani- to the discretion of a Nero." p. 309. mated debates, in which their con- “ Lord Camden's expression of a duct was severely arraigned. The forty days tyranny was treated with assumption of a prerogative to dis- great severity. Forty days tyranny."' pense with an existing law, under one of the speakers exclaimed, my any circumstances, or for any mo- Jords, tyranny is a harsh sound. I tive, was derided as unconstitutional detest the very words, because I and dangerous, and tending directly 'hate the thing. But are these words to establish an unqualified and unli- . lo come from a noble Lord, wbuse mited tyranny. Those who advised glory it might, and 'ought to have the measure were no less open to beei, to have risen by sieps that licensure than the officers who carried

berty threw in his way, and to have it into execution; and therefore an • been honoured, as his country has amendment was moved, including the honoured hin, not for trampling ministers in the operation of the 'her under foot, but for holding up bill

• her head. I have used my best enThis produced a long and spirited de. deavours to answer the argument, bate, of which the principal speakers which is the foundation of the disfor and against the dispensing power • tinction to which the forty days alof the crown are named, and some of Judes, by argument founded in prin. their speeches detailed. Lord Chat- ciples. "I will now give the noble ham and Lord Camden supported lord one answer more, and it shall the measure, which was opposed by

be argumentum ad huminen. That Lords Mansfield, Temple, and Lyte noble lord has, I believe, said on tleton.

* other occasions, and he said well, • Lord CHATHAM alleged, in justi- * that the price of one hour's English fication of the ministry, that the ne

' liberty none could tell but an Engcessity of the state to which every lish jury; and juries, uuder the consideration of a mere legal nature must bend, required the measure. • have estimated it very high, in the

guidance of a certain poble lord, The act itself, he contended, was wise • case of the meanest of the subjects, and necessary, and the prohibition ' when oppressed only by the servants a legal right of a legal prerogative... of the state.

But forty days ty; ... He maintained, that neither he ranny over the nation by the crowo! nor his colleagues needed an indem :-who can endure the thought?

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be so.

«Mylords, less than forty days ty- power unconstitutional, and destruc

ranny, such as this country has felt tive of the vitals of the constitution;
in some times, would, I believe, they must excuse others for holding
bring your lordships together with up the barrier agaiost such a power,
out a summons, from your sick beds, and defending the constitution. I
'riding even upon post horses, in 'think prerogative is a power, and it
'hot weather, laster than our great is a duty also to protect the people;
patriots themselves to get a place .but I think a dispensing power is no

or a pension, or both; and for ought part of the prerogative, and equally
'I know, make the subject of your against the duty of the prerogative,
. consolations that appeal to heaven and the safety and protection of the
* which has been spoken of. Yet 'people; and I am astonished how a
establish a dispensing power, and • house of lords could have patience
* you cannot be sure of either liberty 'to sit and bear so much of it. The
or law for forty minutes'.

dispensing and suspending power, " Adverting to the defence which and the raising of money without ministers offered for their conduct, consent of parliament, were declared it was said: “The noble and learned ' to be precisely alike, and standing 'lord speaks of meritorious crimi- upon the very same ground ; they nality as strange; and it would were born twins ; they lived togea

But meritorious illegality is ther, and together were buried in not so strange, or an action meri- "the same grave, at the revolution, 'torious in itself, and happy in its past all power of resurrection. Ifa 'effects, though against law. The difference were made between rais* merit consists in running the risk of 'ing money, and the suspending or the law, for the public good, as in the dispensing power, the suspending and 'instance alluded to by the other no. dispensing power must be considerble and learned lord on the cross ed as the most dangerous, as that bench, of the Roman general, who ' which might do most universal mis. 'fought against orders, and was re- ·chief, and with the greatest speed, "warded for saving his country. On as it includes the whole. Rashly 'the other hand, if an act is autho- • and wiliully to claiin or exercise, as ‘rized by law, there can be no such prerogative, a power clearly against

risk, or consequently any other me, law, is too great a boldness for this ‘rit, than that of doing one's duty. I 'country; and the suspending or disagree with the noble lord who holds

* pensing power, that edged tool which the seals of secretary of state, that 'has cut so decp, is the last which he would be a poor minister indeed, any man in his wits would handle who would not run such a risk, ' in England ; that rock which the when the safety of the state re- • English history has warned against quired. I will say, that without • with such awful beacons; an attempt being a minister, as an inferior ma. • that lost one prince his crown and gistrate, or even as a private sub- « his head; and that at length exject, I should not hesitate, upon 'pelled their family out of this land good ground of public safety, to of liberty to the regions of tyranny, stop, if I could, any ship from sail- • as the only climate that suited their ing out of port, to the destruction temper and genius; a power, the of the state, although no embargo

exercise of which branded, as the “subsisted ; and in this case, il minis- subversion of the constitution, in the "ters had held to the justification of ' front of that truly great charter of " the particular act upon the circum- your liberties, the bill of rights. A * stances they had done well. But "ininister who is not afraid of that they have justified the act by main power, is neither fit for the sovereign "taining a power which I cannot ac- nor the subject.” p.311-314. knowledge. I blame not the crown, The next subject noticed is the nor the advisers of the crown, for discussion of India affairs in parliadispensing good, nor do I wish to ment, after which is an account of the hold out to the people a violation of new duties laid on exports to Amethe constitution, but I will blame rica, and the arrangements for a new ministers for asserting a prerogative administration, with the characters of in the crown, which, instead of dis- Charles Townsend and Lord North. pensing good, would dispense much Chap. XIV. 1767, 1768-Contains evil; and if they will hold out a a description of the character, power,


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and total suppression of the Jesuits, May. The SUMMER commences in State of France-The war in Cor- June, and continues three months. sica, and between the Turks and Rus- AUTUMN takes its beginning with sians-Affairs of America,stating many. September, and only extends to the acts of opposition to the authority of end of that month. Great Britain-The affairs oi Ireland, “2d. The greatest cold in winter in which the residence of the Lord is in January, and the greatest heat Lieutenant is made obligatory, and in summer commonly towards the the passing of the bill for ociennial end of July. parliaments.

“3d. The MIDDLE TEMPERATURE Chap. XV. 1768, 1769– This chap- for the whole year, if we except the ter is nearly filled with the transac- periods when ihe seasons exert their tions that occurred relative to Wilkes particular influence, is about the freeze upon his return to England, with the ing point of the thermometer, or, in tumults that were excited by his par- other words, constant winter, tisans, concluding with the affairs of " 4th. The night frosts are someAmerica, the discharging of the ar- times pretty sharp, especially from rears of the civil list, and the agree- about the loth to ihe 20th of August. ment for five years with the East July 25th, 1785, several things in the India Company

kitchen garden were bit by the frost; Chap. XVI. 1766-1770.-The first for example, the potatoes (solonum subject in this chapter is on the affairs tuberosum) and the beans (phaseoof India, and contains an account of lus). difficulties, and of the war with Hyder • 5th. However short the summer Ally and its effects— The Middlesex may be in this part of the world, the and London Petitions, praying for grass and corn nevertheless grows sufthe dismission of his majesty's minis- fciently ripe. There have been inters are next noticed. The subjects stances that the corn was sown and of Junius's Letters, published at this brought in quite ripe in the space of time, are described ; and in detailing forty-two days." P. 265. the affairs of Ireland, with which this Chap. XIX. The situation at Ulechapter closes, the rejection of a mo- aborg proved so agreeable as to inpey bill, with the lord lieutenant's duce the travellers to stay for some protest, is particularly noticed.

time. (To be continued.)

Animal magnetism has in this country several advocates. In this chap

ter is an account of some experimenis, CXI. ASCERBI's Travels through the manners of the inhabitants of this

which closes with describing some of Sweden, Finland, and Lapland.

town. (Concluded from puge 420.)

“ The taste for social entertain

ment at Uleaborg is not very geHAP.XVIII. The travellers hav- neral. The merchants are a distinct

ing passed through Brakestead, class of themselves, whom you never we here find them ai Cieaborg, si- meet in other company; these are tuated on the river Ulea, the navi. the most unfavourable to friendly ingation of which is attended with par- tercourse, and also the least informed. licular danger. Such is the velocity The persons who compose the usual with which ships perform their course socieiy of the place, are such as are in down this river, ihat they generally the employment of government, from Tuin six English miles in the space of the governor down to the judges of twenty minutes. The salmon fishery the tribunal. The governors of prohere is very considerable, and the vinces, in Sweden, are instructed to salmons of Cleaborg fetch a higher invite and entertain at their houses price at Stockholm than those of any all strangers of any distinction. Geother place. This town is situated peral Curpelan not only obeys his in 65 degrees north latitude. Its sea- instructions, but adds to the offices sons are thus described in the follow- of politeness and hospitality the most ing general remarks.

flattering marks of personal friend. " Ist. The Winter begins in Oc. ship, insomuch that he offered to actober, and lasts full seven months, or commodate us with lodgings at bis till the end of April. The spring is own house. We chose, however, tu short, and is over with the month of remain at the house of a inerchant


called Feldman, who did every thing great variety of different species, to in his power to oblige us, and under which the inhabitants of Italy are whose roof we found all that could total strangers.p. 279. contribute to render our residence They were still more attached to agreeable. The manvers of the Ule- their residence in this place from aborg society have a great resem- “ meeting with two gentlemen, lovers blance to those of the capital. The of music, one of whom played the viopeople have the same inclination to loncello, the other the alth, thus, says play, and are fond of pompous enter the author, with the assistance of Mr. tainments, and of formality. As the Skiöldebrand, my travelling compastranger is always the principal per- nion, who played the violin, and myson in company, they are at pains to self, who played the clarinet, we were consult his taste, and do every thing in condition to perform a quartetto they fancy will be most agreeable to tolerably well. A quartetto at Ulehim. The young ladies are exceed- aborg was a phenomenon, no less ingly pleased to be introduced to out of the ordinary course of things strangers, and study to profit, as much than the appearance of the most astothey can, in a becoming manner, by nishing meteor. There were not ten their visits among them. When you persons in the town who had ever have been invited to sup at a gentle- heard music in four parts ; nor, proman's house, it is a custom (which I bably, from its foundation to the day cannot say is extremely gracious), as of our arrival, had a quartetto been soon as the entertainment is over, ever executed within its bounds. The for all the ladies, young and old, who reader will easily conceive the pleawish to testify the pleasure they have sure we derived from the simplicity enjoyed in your company, to give of those good people, who looked up you a slap with the hand upon your to us as the gods of music, as well as back, when you least expect it; and the satisfaction we enjoyed from a it is established as a rule, that the sympathy with their feelings.” p. 281, more forcibly the hand is applied, the 282. more emphatic is the lady's declara.' • The inhabitants of Finland have tion in

your favour." p. 275, 276. certainly a very sensitive turn both Chap. XX. The cheapness of liv

for music and poetry. Indeed it ing, and opportunity of shooting, in- should seem that these two arts go duce the travellers to continue at together; but the Finlanders have not Uleaborg.

The season for the plea- made the same progress in music as sures of the chase was night. The in poetry, on account of the imperwriter thus describes the way of fection of their national instrument, spending their time in this place. and the attachment and veneration " The nights, equally fine and clear with which they have preserved it. as the day, enabled us to prolong the “ The harpu consists of five strings ; pleasures of the chase. We used to and here we may observe the first dine, have our party at music, sup, step in the origin of the arts. They and at ten o'clock in the evening had no idea of giving it more chords set out, and continue our sports in than there are fingers on the hand. the field till about two o'clock in the The chords are a, b, c, d, e; and a morning. The light of the night was being flat, the instrument becomes even more friendly to our pursuit turned in a minor, the favourite note than that of the day. The solar rays of all the northern nations. The did not make the same strong impres- chords are of metal, and not, like sion on our eyes, and still we had those of the violin and guitar, suslight enough for the purpose of shoot- ceptible of being modulated by the ing: The birds in the course of the fingers of the left hand. The whole night were much more quiet, the compass of their music consists of wild ducks flocked from the sea on five notes, and with these five notes their

way to the lakes and rivers, and they play, they dance, and recite sometimes passed directly over our their poetry or verses. It is easy to heads. The rivers and lakes, as well imagine the melancholy and monoas the marshy ground in their vi tonous effect of their music, as well as cinity, swarmed with ducks and snipes the impossibility of improving it, unof all descriptions. Our pleasure as til they shall abandon this five-stringsportsmen was not greater than what ed instrument. But barbarous and we enjoyed as naturalists, from the civilized nations are no less frugal of Vol. l.

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enjoyments; they can dispense with trance of his den, by which he endeathe refinements of music as easily as vours to irritate and provoke him to they are reconciled to simplicity and quit his strong hold. The bear hesi. uniformity in their diet and mode of tates, and seenis unwilling to come life." p 283, 284.

out; but continuing to be molested Chap. XXI. The influence of the by the hunter, and perhaps by the northern climate upon the manners barking of his dog, he at length gets and habits of the people is noticed, up, and roshes in fury from his cawith the bardsbips of living in the The moment he sees the pea. north, when compared to the southern sant, he rears himself upon his two countries, and the occupations of the hind legs ready to tear him to pieces. Finlanders in winter. Their methods The Finlander instantly puts himself of catching fish is described to be in in the attitude which is represented the following manner : " A couple of in the annexed plate ; that is to say, openings are made in the ice, and by he brings back the iron lance close means of ropes and long poles, they to his breast, concealing from the bear then contrive to pass their nets froin the length of the pole, in order that one opening to the other; the draw. he may not have time to be upon bis ing out of the nets is attended with guard, and consequently to parry intinite labour. They have another with his paws the mortal blow wbich inethod of fishing on the ice, which the hunter means to aim at his vitals, seemed to me extremely curious, at The Finlander theu advances boldly least the novelty of it excited my towards the bear, nor does he strike surprise. It is in catching fish by a the blow till they are so near each stroke of a mallet or club. In autumn, other that the animal stretches out when the frost begins to set in, the his paws to tear his antagonist limb fisherman courses along the rivers, from limb. At that instant the peaand when he observes a fish under .sant pierces his heart with the lance, the ice in shallow water, he takes a which, but for the cross-bar, would violent blow with his wooden mallet come out at his shoulder; nor could perpendicularly over the fish, so as he otherwise prevent the bear falling to break the ice. The fishi, stupified by upon him, an accident which might the blow communicated to it by the be bighly dangerous. By means of water, in a few seconds rises quite the cross-bar the animal is kept upgiddy' to the surface, where the inan right, and ultimately thrown upon seizes it with an instrument made his back; but what may seem to for the purpose." p. 287, 288. some very extraordinary is, the bear

The manner of encountering the feeling himself wounded, instead of bear next follows : the description of attempting with his paws to pull out which is accompanied by a plate. the lance, holds it fast, and presses

“ It is but very lately that some it more deeply into the wound. few individuals have begun to use tire. When the bear, after rolling upon the arms in this chase ; but there are snow, ceases from the last struggles still many among the peasantry, par- of death, the Finlander lays hold of ticularly in the inland part of the him, and calls for the assistance of country, who will not expose their bis friends, who drag the carcase to life to the uncertain shot of a musket, bis hut; and this triumph terminates which is so liable to be prevented by in a sort of festival, where the poet damp, nor be possessed of an instru. assists, and sings the exploits of the ment which they think too costly, hunter." p. 288. even when of a very ordinary quality, There is also an engraving to reThe favourite weapon of the finai- present the Finlander's method of der, in hunting the bear, is an iron shooting squirrels, wbich is with blunt lance fixed at the end of a pole. At about the distance of a foot from the Chap. XXII. This chapter conpoint of the lance is fixed a cross- tains a description of some of the bar, which prevents the instrument manners and customs of Finlandfrom penetrating too far into the body Their modes of courtship and mar. of the bear, or passing through both riage-The use of rapour baths, of sides. When the Finlander has dis. which the following account, accomcovered where the bear has taken up panied with an engraving, is given. his winter quarters, he goes to the ** Another particular, that appeared


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