Obrazy na stronie

* In theory, the government of the cil in office for life, though for form's town is that which the antients called sake they are annually chosen. This aristocratic, but which the moderns annual choice is no more than a socontinually confound with democracy: lemn ratification. Nothing disturbs Each burgher has equal rights; and the tranquillity of a state more than the officers of administration are cho frequent elections, as the sagacious sen by their fellow citizens, among Burke, one of the greatest statesmen such as are supposed to be the most of our times, in his excellent pamcapable. The government of the phlet against the French revolution, canton is an oligarchy, which govern- has so clearly shewn. ment the moderns unjustly call ari- • Actions for debt are determined stocracy; for the country people are by the municipal court. The eccleexcluded from all share in the admi. siastical court consists of laymen and nistration. The municipality con- divines. Every other kind of suit, sists of thirteen companies, only one between burgher and burgher, comes of which is noble. Twelve men are before the little council, with an apchosen from each company, and con- peal, however, lying to the great." stitute the great council; these again p. 93-97. choose the little council, which is “ It is very difficult, and almost composed of fifty men, who are ad- impossible for a foreigner to become ded io and complete the great coun- a burgher of any canton. At Zürich, cil. The small council is most re- the first year of every century, a fospected, and may be considered as a reigner is made a burgher; but his more select body. To the half of descendants cannot be of the council the small council the administration till the century following. The preof affairs is committed, and in six sent members of the council are all months the other half comes into of- branches of families that have enfice; so that in half a year the first joyed these privileges these three burgo-master yields to the second. hundred years. Most of the burghers The election is annual, but the cus. of Zürich can boast of this honour, tom is to re-elect the same members. so few have the adınission of foreign-, The commission of some crime only ers been.” p. 99. can exclude a member of the great “ The people of Zürich have an council; but each member of the old custom, which they have progreat council has a right, when any bably derived from the wisdom of of the little council has been guilty their ancestors. If married people, of a misdemeanour to propose ano. in spite of remonstrance, persist in a ther. The proposition having been desire to separate, they are confined made, the votes are collected, and he for some weeks in a chamber of the who has a majority is chosen. Such council house, in which there is nois the confidence which these people thing but a small bed, a stool, and a place in their great council, and on table. Their food is served on one which the calm of the city depends; dish, with one plate, one knife, one for, as they trust all the administra- fork, and one spoon. Change of tion to the little council, it was wise place, privation, and the sociality to subject the powerful members thus that arises from the necessity of muannually to the superintendance of tually aiding each other, have fre

quently, before the time of probation Alliances, war, and peace, de. has expired, so reconciled them to pend upon the collective voice of the each other, that they have renounced citizens ; but they cannot assemble all thoughts of parting, and have lived without first having been summoned peaceably together till death.” p. 130. by the burgo. master. People that Leaving Zürich, the journey is purare truly free do not feel the irritat. sued by a tolerably steep road to the ing necessity to interfere upon all Albis.' ” On this hill drivers usually occasions. They know that the mind stop to give their horses breath : we of lhe mechanic is deficient in the took advantage of this, and mounted knowledge necessary for the admi- to the place called the high watch, nistration of public affairs. This dis- which stands on the top. This is one cretion, confirmed by the happy ex- of the heights from which fire signals perience of undisturbed felicity, ori- are given, a practice common in Switginates in the custom which conti- zerland on any extraordinary occa. nues the members of the great coun. sion, by which the confederates are

the great.

warned. As soon as one fire is seen, covered with verdure, grass, and folithe next is lighted; and in a few age. Here there is a spring, by the bours all the watch heights in Swit. side of which the three great men, zerland are in a blaze, so that within Werner von Staufacher,fronSchweitz, four-and-twenty hours all the levies Walter Fürst, from Uri; and Arnold of the confederates are under arms. von Melchtahl, from Unterwald, made Diligent and peaceful as bees, who a solemn oath to give freedom to extract the boney from scattered Switzerland. This oath was taken in flowers, these voble people live a- the year 1307, and in the new year's mong their inountains; but no less night of the following year, 1308, all watchful than the bee, their sting for the castles of the Zwingheria were those who disturb their nest is to be burnt. p. 171. feared. Whoever have attacked them From Lucerne the Count and his have repented of their temerity." family pursue their journey to Thun p. 131, 132.

and Berne, and having travelled to The places on the road to Lucerne Zofingen, is engaged by the appear. are particularly described, with the ance of the fertility of the country, manners of the people, whose hospi- observing that “the country round tality and generosity are noticed in Zofingen is famous for meadows. Neterms of bigh commendation. Much ver have I beheld the art of watering is said in this letter concerning the meadows brought to so much per celebrated William Tell, whose name fection as here. An acre of meadow is still in the mouths of children, land is generally sold for a thousand and whose memory is perpetuated rixdollars. A good soil, industry well by the erection of a chapel in the directed, and freedom enjoyed, unplace where he escaped from the ty- der a government wise, mild, and fapt Gesler ; another where he shot limited by fixed laws, raise the peohim, which has these lines over the ple of Berne to a high degree oi vi. entrance :

sible prosperity:

" Farmers of most countries, are re. "Here the arrogant Gesler was shot by proached with an obstinate perse.

Tell: And the noble freedom of Switzerland touk lage, however bad, after a better has

verance in their old method of tilbirthi. But how long will it endure?

been discovered. In Switzerland the For ever, did we but resemble our forefa. practice is the reverse. They exathers.”, p. 158.

mine the nature of the soil, and how

it will be most productive ; and, as and another at Bürgli, the place of his they sow and reap only for them. residence. Over the entrance is an selves, and are unrestrained and free inscription thus translated : « On the from the resation of taxes, which place where this chapel stands, for other farmers think would be equally merly lived William Tell, the true reasonable and natural, they can wait saviour of his country, the honoured the result of any new experiment. author of its freedom. In thankful. Hence it follows that they have more ness to him, and in honour to God, understanding than the farmers of this chapel was built. It is dedicated other countries. But does it not liketo Saint William of Roehli and Saint wise follow that other farmers are Sebastian. On each side are the fol, misled by those oppressions from lowing:

which the first are free? Whoerer "Let us be just, united, and virtuous, would contemplate the blessings which and our freedoin will be secure. result from the full enjoyment of the

“Thankfully, and for ever, remem- produce of the earth, must visit the ber the day that made you free. fertile districts of Switzerland." p. 176,

" In the chapel, over the altar, the 177. dial plate of a clock is painted, with a The following description is reprehand, which is significant of concord, sented by an engraving. pointing to the hour one, under which “ As soon as we came to the vil. are these lines: Freedom will endure lage of Lauterbrunn, we alighted and as long as it shall be one o'clock by went to the Staubach. This waterfall this dial." P. 168, 169.

rushes down a wild rocky declivity, Prefixed to this letter is an engrav- nine hundred feet high, which is overed view of the Grütlin Matte, a steep grown with brushwood. Here the place on a height beside the lake, full stream rolls tempestuously. As

it falls, the pillar of water disperses Here the Count 'had an interview into a fine rain, which does not de- with Necker, of whom he says “he scend perpendicularly, but yields a said little, but the little he did say little to the wind. It then meets with was worthy of himself. A few excela projecting scaffold of rock, and a lent remarks concerning his enemies part ruos down its sides in single, escaped hiin; but they were delistreams, while another part dashes vered in a mild, moderate, and noble below in clouds, and covers the greca manner, though without any shade turf with its spray.

of affected forbearance. A gentle “ The path is somewhat difficult, glow, though scarcely visible, more from the water overflowing the stone, than once overspread his counteand from the black fints. The morn- nance. It was a beam from the warm ing sun formed a broad rainbow - in and intelligent heart of a great man, the nether cloud of the stream; and a spark of that fire which gives imas we came nearer we saw a round mortality to his fame, his writings, and complete circle, which beamed and the violence of his enemies." with all the colours of the iris."' p. 193, p. 322. 194.

We cannot dismiss the accounts of Arriving at Bernie the Count details this place without extracting the its history, constitution, and customs, following remarks: “When I was and passes on to Lausanne, from first at Geneva, sixteen years ago, whence he continues his journey to the spirit of republicanism would not Geneva. The history of this place, endure any theatre in the city. In and its struggles for liberty, are par: the year 1782, the constitution being ticularly specified, its constitution de- very aristocratic, France had suffiscribed, and from the account of the cient influence to introduce a commanners and customs of this place pany of players. Since that time we notice that “ manners here are cards have likewise become common. likewise comparatively pure. The Both ate continued, though the old young men are well informed; the constitution is restored; bui both draw education of the women is no less the attention of the citizens from the carefully attended to; and they are discussion of the principles of freeas celebrated for their «real merit as dom." p. 324. for their charming manners, At Ge- “ Unhappy people ! how are they neva, it is almost become proverbial continually turned aside from the to say, “ happy the children who have truth, by the cold rules and institutes a woman to instruct them!'. of their philosophers, poets, and play

" There is an excellent law of the ers! among whom the tender 'feelrepublic which deserves notice. If ing soul of Racine hinself is often a son do not pay his father's debts, untuned, who, thinking themselves which the law cannot oblige him to possessed by the spirit of freedom, do, he is excluded from ihe enjoy- prattle of moral and political regement of every public office.

neration; and whose lawgivers, leav" The same prohibition extends ing Fenelon and Montesquieu in negto all who have not paid their own lect, erect statues to the memory of debts when demanded.” p.313,314.

Voltaire !". p. 325. The remarks upon the state and From Geneva the Count pursues manners of Geneva are thus closed. his journey to Turin, entering the " To those who estimate the import datchy of Savoy about a quarter of a. tance of a state by the extent of ter- league from Geneva. He gives a deTitory, Geneva will be deemed insig- scription of the accommodations in nificant, but not to the philosopher. Savoy, and says, “ The industry with The proportion of men and states which the fields of Savoy are cultito win, is frequently in an inverse rated is wonderfully contrasted with ratio : the more nearly a state ap- the uncleanliness of their inns. That proaches to the condition of a family, which was found in the evening, at the more powerfully is its character La Chambre, was rather more ununfolded, and the more pure is the cleanly than is usual, even in this “play of the springs by which it is country. The staircase that leads to moved. Rome lost itself in its own the chambers is usually narrow and magnitude. Athens and Sparta gave dirty ; and the chamber itself genelaws to THE GREAT KING, before rally contains large stoves, with three they extended their own territories.” canopy beds, the dust of which does P.315.

not appear for years to have been

disturbed. You shrink back with dis- been condemned to the gallies for gust when you look at the old tat. their crimes are much more rigorously tered dirty-coloured coverlid ; and treated than the Turks, who are justly the rest of the furniture corresponds considered only as prisoners of war; with that of the bed. A large chim- the latter therefore can only purney is the most agreeable thing in the chase their redemption; the others apartment. Fortunately the cooking are sentenced to the gallies for a cer. is not so bad as might be expected. tain number of years, equivalent to If, however, you wish to eat with an the greatness of the offence. None appetite, you must take care not to but great criminals remained fettered cast your eye toward the kitchen on board the gallies. Six months in Neither will you be much tempted to the year the prisoners are at sea. They examine the waiting maid, who is are, beyond all comparison, better generally as like the Spanish beauty, treated thay the galley slaves of the Maritornes, which Cervantes has de- French. I spoke with several of scribed, as one drop of foul water is them, and the only complaints I to another. However, they are very heard were of their cold stations in diligent, and do any thing they are winter nights on board the gallies, bid with a good will." p. 331. and of their food. Their daily al.

Genoa is the next place noticed. lowance is two pounds of bread and The Count, as in all the places through three ounces of large beans. which he passed, notices the history, During the six winter months government, buildings, &c.; and in they are in harbour, and often have viewing the paintings of the palace, an opportunity of earning some trifle introduces a view in which the mind in the city. They are seldom, and but is relieved in the survey.

for a short time, put to labour at “ The whole haven, and beyond public works. The Turks do not that the Mediterranean, are seen from easily obtain their freedom; probably a high and large balcony of this pa- because they have no intercourse lace. The roofs of the houses of Ge- with their relations, or that they noa are not flat, but are covered with want connections in Genoa. They slate a little elevated. The palaces purchase their own redemption with have open large balconies, on which the money which they earn during the possessors may enjoy the fresh their imprisonment. Some of them air, surrounded by flowers and orange have been prisoners from thirty to trees. After having been examining forty years, and these must either numerous pictures, the quick succes- have been indolent or ignorant of sion of which is injurious to the plea- trade.” p. 410_412. sure they give, you feel a desire again Of the number of beggars in Genoa to taste undisturbed the fresh air; and it is remarked, “ I have no where seen the prospect of great nature, as she is, such a multitude of beggars as in Gerevives the heart. Of her we were noa. What is most remarkable, they not easily wearied. We returned from scarcely ever address themselves to the works of art, like a child from its the Genoese, but to strangers only. doll to the arms and lap of a kind The number of the lame and blind is caressing mother.” p. 103.

uncommonly great. A foreigner is The Count visited the gallies, of followed by beggars in every street; which and the slaves he says, “ We and he meets them again in the have visited the haven where the gal. churches, and on the steps before the lies lie, beside which there are shops, church. It is no uncominon thing where the Turks, who are enslaved, to find in the church a beggar, all in send all kinds of wares; coffee, choć rags, who will name you the master colate, sugar, distilled water, pipes, who painted each picture, point out tobacco, slippers, and straw mats. the best place from which you may They are suffered to go free in the examine it, nay, frequently detail the haven, but must not walk through subject of the painting, and relate its the city, except chained two and two, whole history.' and under the guard of an overseer. This volume contains thirty-six In this manner they offer their wares letters, in the last of wbich we find to sale in the city, and particularly the Count at Pavia. p 413, 414. red and yellow slippers. At night

(To be continued.) they are obliged to sleep on board the gallies. Those prisoners that have

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of sin-at other times as exercising CVIII. Sermons. By WILLIAM faith on our Lord Jesus Christ.--You JAY, 8vo.

have lately seen him rejoicing in the

• hope of his calling.'-This morning Ne author of these sermons is, he appears among his brethren and

we understand, the same gen- •companions in tribulation, distintleman whose name was honourably guished by the possession and trimentiones, in the Notices to Corre- uinphs of patience. Here is the spondents, in the last number of the patience of the saints.' We shall British Critic, as a respectable Dis- delineate the character of saints, senting Minister at Bath.

explain the connection there is beThe subjects of these discourses tween saints, and patience, and speare as follow:

cify some cases in which their pa1. Mistakes concerning the Num- tience is to be rendered illustrious, so ber of the Righteous, Rom. xi. 2-4. as to produce the exclamation

_JI. The 'I'riumphs of Patience, Here is the patience of the saints'." Rev. xiv. 12.---I11. Vows called to p. 31, 32. Remembrance, Gen. xxxv. 1.-3.- As a specimen of the author's taIV. Nature of Genuine Religion, lents we give the third part of this Ezek. xi. 19, 23. — V. The Young discourse. admonished, 1 Kings xviii. 12.- ** Part Ill. To specify some cases 11. The Gospel demands and de- in which the patience of the saints is serves Attention, Mark iv. 23.-_- to be rendered illustrious and strikVII. The Sutferings of our Saviour ing. We shall mention three. The necessary, Heb. ii. 10.- VIII. The first concerns provocation-theseCondemnation of Self-will, Job xxxiv. cond affliction--the third delay: here 33. — IX. The Secure alarmed, patience is necessary; and here we Amos vi. I.--X. On Progress in are to behold its triumphs. Religion, Josh. xiii. 1.----X1. Privi- “ First, it is to be displayed in bearleges of the Righteous, Ps. Ixxxiv. ing provocation, It must needs be 11.-XII. Conditions of Christians that offences will come. Our opiin the World, John xvii. 15.

nions, reputation, connections, offiOur extracts will be taken from ces, businesses, render us widely vulSermon II. and VI.

nerable. The characters of men are

various, their pursuits and their inThe Triumphs of Patience. terests perpetually clash. Some try Here is the Patience of the Saints, us by their ignorance, some by their Rev. xiv. 12.

folly, some by their perverseness, "Did you ever observe, my bre- some by their malice : there are to thren, the exclamation of David ? be found persons made up of every Mark the perfect man, and behold thing disagreeable, and mischievous, the uprighi, for the end of that man born only to vex, a burden to themis peace'-A religious character is selves, and a torment to all around an object truly wonderful, and inte- them --Here is an opportunity for resting; there is something in him the triumph of patience: here is a orthy of peculiar notice and regard. theatre on which a man may exhibit David indeed fixes the mind on one his character, and appear a fretful, article only, and calls upon us to con- waspish reptile, or a placid, pardonsider bis end—but his way is as ing God We are very susceptive of remarkable as his end; his life is as irritation; anger is eloquent; redeserving of attention as his death; venge is sweet : but to stand calm and it is pleasing and useful to ob- and collected--to suspend the blow, Serve him in every relation, to pursue which passion was urgent to strike him through every condition-and to to drive the reasons of clemency as admire those excellencies which un- far as they will go-to bring forward fold themselves, and operate as proofs fairly in view the circumstances of of his origin, and pledges of the mitigation-to distinguish between glory, and honour, and immorta- surprise and deliberation, infirmity lity,' to which he tends.'

and crime-or it an infliction be " Hence we endeavour to excite deemed necessary, to leave God to you to contemplate successively his be both the judge and the execuvarious features. Sometimes we have tioner-This a christian should laplaced him before you as convinced bour after..



Vol. I,

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