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main unknown ; but the accounts and driven from his government, and which were sent of it to court having being a vassal to Catharine, as soon so disguised the facts, they were not as she heard of the condition of He. thought deserving of attention, and 'raclius, she formed the ambitious denothing more was said of the matter. sign of conquering Persia, and then

“ In the mean time the other Per- sent for the Persian prince, who had sian prince, named Sahli Khan, had been neglected so long, loaded him been received at Astrakhan. It was with presents, and treated him as a in this town he learned the fate of king soon to be seated on his throne. his brother, and the loss of his trea. A vast army was raised, and marched sures, entrusted to the same ship. Re- into Persia, but the unhealthiness of duced to distress, he wrote to the the country nearly destroyed it, and empress, to ask the restitution of his the sudden death of Catharine putu property, an asylum for his person, an end to the design, as Paul altoand vengeance for his unfortunate gether disapproved of it, and was by brother, of whose tragical death be his passion soon burried into an exrelated the particulars. Catharine pedition still more vast and remote, had yet no need of him, and the towards France and Italy. partisans of Potemkin were omnipo- Chap. 11. Finances. This chapter tent. The governor of Astrakhan, states the revenues under Catharine, the same Paul Potemkin, received and the imposts shewn to be clogs og orders to keep a watchful eye on the commerce. Assignats are introduced, prince, to prevent hiin from coming and soon fall into discredit. Foreigs to Petersburg, and to assign him a merchants are obliged to pay the dutrifling pension.

ties on their merchandize in cash. XD “ Among other maxims, from which The coin is adulterated, but not put

But the Russian government has never in circulation. To remedy the scar. departed, must be remarked the fol city of specie, an order was issued to lowing: To keep up clandestine corre- melt down the services of plate which spondence in the circumjacent countries, Catharine had given to the gover, there to foment troubles, create factions, nors of the chief towns. Each of 600 2 and, above all, 10 attract and gain over these consisted of eighty covers, and traitors and malcontents, in order to the smallest bad cost fifty tbousand make use of them as occasion might re- rubles, and those of the large towns quite. This is the reason why Sahli double. But upon receiving the plate, Khan was detained against his will at it was found too insignificant to proAstrakban.

duce any adequate supply. It was “ Exasperated at the unpunished therefore made into silver armour murder of his brother, and by no to encrease the splendour of the ap'means satisfied with the manner in which he himself had been treated, imperial chest being again exhausted,

pearance of the gendarmes ; but the he wished, at the expiration of a lit- the silver was given to the goldsmiths, tle time, to return to Persia, either to who coined it for the price of their form a new party, or be reconciled labour. Thus ended this financial ope with Mehemet; but he was detained ration. The prodigality of Paul in 17 as an instrument that sooner or later pulling down old buildings and erecto might be wanted. An opportunity ing new ones, at the most exorbitant was waited for, and it presently oc

expence, is next noticed, and the curred. Mehemet Khan having sub- chapter closes with some remarks. dued all Persia, and the flight of his Chap. III. The Kosaks, or Cos. brothers having left him master of the sacks. banks of the Caspian, and of the ad.. In this chapter we have the origin jacent provinces, he at length ap of this people, their republics, and peared in Georgia at the head of a difference from the Russians

. By formidable army. Heraclius, bending the oppression of the Russians they under the weight of fourscore years, were deprived of their independence being then summoned to acknowledge and their ancient constitution-dishim for his sovereign, and to re- persed and transplanted into other turn under the dominion of Persia, nations like slaves. They have no of which he was the first vassal, found pay, and subsist by plunder.-Theit himself under a strange dilemma.” principal weapon is a lance, which *.7-11.

they carry vertically, but upon meet The prince of Georgia was defeated ing an enemy immediately couch it:

they have also an indifferent sabre, Upon their march into Germany, the 3 brace of pistols, and a carbine, but former received their pay in paper, of these they make little use. Their which in Poland lost sixty per cent, and manner of fighting is described, as in Austria was of no value. “Suppos. also their address and sagacity, and ing that it had been regularly counted mode of plundering. The chapter out to them, it would be uiterly imconcludes with an account of their possible for them to subsist on it in defeat by the Turks at Ismael, and Germany, and especially on a march. an observation that they are by no The allowance of a captain of infanmeans formidable to the French. N.B. try is not a thousand livres (circa 42l. This was written at the time of their sterling) a year, and the subalterns marching into Germany.

are paid in proportion. As for the Chap IV. Expeditions against the soldiers, they are, as has been seen, French into Italy.

fed and clothed, but they receive This chapter begins with a descrip- only about twenty-four livres (twenty tion of the policy of Catharine, and shillings) a year in specie.” p. 169. her preparations agaiust France, which " There are in the regiment assowere suspended by the accession of ciations, independent of those of bat. Paul to the throne, who refused to talions and companies, Walled artel, ratify the treaty concluded with Mr. which form a sort of common stock, Pitt, and actually counterianded where every recruit, on arriving at the orders which the armies had re- his corps, deposits the money that ceived to march towards France and he has remaining, and the value of into Persia. Paul, however, from a the clothes he sells on receiving his natural aversion to the French, the uniform. The few moveables of a progress of its armies, the solicita. comrade dead or killed likewise fall tions of the British court, and the of- into it. In time of war the produce fers of English gold, soon restored the of pillage or booty, which each memcoalition, and equipped an army to ber brings to it pretty faithfully, still operate against France. The author increases this stuck, which amounts bere gives an account of the Russian sometimes to a no inconsiderable officers and soldiers ; informs us of the sum. It is generally entrusted to old complaints made from all quarters, corporals, at the choice of the solen account of the violences of the diers, and these treasurers, called arRussian army, and in a note relates a telchiki, have frequently the talent of circumstance which shews the dispo- making the most of these funds, and position of the officers. “ Among increasing them. The Russian sol. the great number of extortions com- dier, being enlisted for life, having mitted by the Russians on their no longer any other interest, nor any march, those which the officers took private inheritance to expect, accus-, the liberty of practising at the post- toms himself to place all his hope in houses of the empire were the more this sort of community, from which he conspicuous; as in Germany the post- frequently derives assistance. On a masters are themselves rude and im- march, and in all extraordinary wants, posing towards foreigners, while in recourse is had to the artel, whether Russia they are, perhaps, too much for purchasing a horse which draws abandoned to the direction of the the baggage, or to procure some promilitary, who ill treat them, and visions when bread runs short, or to especially their postillions, who are refresh bimself after some great fagenerally slaves. Some Russian offi- tigue, or some scarcity, by a glass of cers, crossing the Austrian territories, brandy or a piece of bread; for in in order to join their army, exasper- the provisions distributed to the Rusated at the tardiness with which they sians are included only rye-tour, were driven, beat a post-master and peeled barley, and salt *. With these killed a postillion. On being arrested provisions, generally very ill condifor this murder, they asked how much a postillion cost in Germany; that they soldier every month in kind. To each is

* These provisions are distributed to the would pay for him, in order that nothing given his paiok or bushel of Huur, his garnitz more might be said of the matter.p.165,

or measure of barley, and'his little allowance 167.

of salt The captain, who makes this dis An account is bere given of the cir- tribution to his company, also gains in the cumstances of the Russian army, as it measure wherewith to feed his horse and his respects the pay of the otiicers and men. dogs.

tioned, the soldier himself prepares be on a very good footing, was not to his fancy, with po small dexterity, eager to conform to the orders of the bread, biscuit, or a sort of mess called emperor, and indulged himself in kascha, which he thinks himself happy pleasantry when he received them. in being able to season sometimes 'This was wounding to the quick with hemp-oil, a bit of candle grease, Paul I. who gloried in reforming and or an onion : he does more, with a improving, in his way, his military little fermented four, or the remains establishment, and discoursed about of his biscuit, he makes besides a the button of a gaiter, and the queue drink called quass, which he prefers of a soldier, as of things the most to plain water, but which would ap- important to the glory of his arms. pear detestable to whoever was not He immediately sent orders to the accustomed to it. This is all the food old general to resign the command, of the Russian soldier in the field : it and to quit the army without delay. does not cost the crowo five livres a The Russian soldier, who, like the month for a man, and never is any French, is a songster, had already thing more added to this less than turned into a song the bon mots of frugal fare." p. 169-171.

Suvarrof, which contributed not a As Suvarrof made a conspicuous little to throw ridicule on the new figure in the late war, we presume regulations. the following account of that general * We have said above, that Surarros will not be uninteresting to our rea- was a barbarian and a buffoon, but he derş " At the time of Catharine's was, perhaps, the fittest general for decease, Suvarrof, at the height of the genius of the Russians; the sol. favour and fame, was at the head of dier loved him, and the officer, though a powerful army, which occupied all he regarded him as a burlesque chathe south of Poland, and extended racter, fought under his orders with to the shores of the Euxine. Paul confidence. If Paul, in dismissing had never been partial to this bigot him, had considered only his natural ed, restless, volunteering, enterpris- cruelty, or his folly, real or affected, ing general, who was an enthusiastic perhaps the measure would have beeu admirer of Catharine, and her gigan- applauded; but he appeared to aim tic projects. On his part, Suvarrof, at punishing the man devoted to his a Russian in the full import of the mother, and the thwarter of bis mili. terin, and consequently an enemy to tary innovations, which were too that minute and pedantic German abrupt and 100 ill directed. When discipline with which bis future em- old Suvarrof received the order to peror was so infatuated, had never resign his command, he chose to comcultivated his good graces. The corps municate it himself to his army, which he commanded, so far from which he drew up in order of battle. being remarkable for exact order and in front of the line rose a pyrainid of rigorous precision in the use of their drums and cymbals. Dressed as a simarms, were almost always at the ex- ple grenadier, but decorated with all treine borders of the empire, em- his orders, with the portrait of the ployed in fighting, and distinguished empress and that of Joseph II. Suthemselves only by that sort of dis- varrof harangued his companions in order wbich characterises the soldier arms, and bade them a very pathetic in the time of war. Paul, however, farewell

. He then stripped himself was afraid of this popular general, of his helmet, his coat, his sash, his who was beloved by the troops; but musket, and all the marks of effeche'at tirst kept terms with him, and tive service, which he deposited on confirmed him in all his commands; the pyramid, in the form of a trolie afterwards sent him orders to esta: phy:. Comrades,” says he, there blish the army on another footing, * will come a time, perhaps, when and to carry into execution the new • Suvarrof will re-appear among you; military regulations. Suvarrof, who "he will then resume these spoils was attached to the old Russian in- which he leaves to you, and which stitutions, and even to those of Po. he always wore in his victories.' temkin, well adapted to the national The soldiers were moved with indig character, with which he was per nation and grief; they murmured and fectly acquainted ; Suvarrof, per- lamented. Suvarrof quitted them in suaded that the troops, which had this manner, leaving the command to ever been victorious, could pot but his lieutenant general.

He retired to a small house, which reading the direction ; . If Suvarrof be had at Mosco; but a man so fa- were field-marshal, he would not be mous and so popular, whose dismis- banished and guarded in a village ; sion, after such signal services, caused • he would be seen at the head of a general sensation in the empire, the armies.' The courier, stupified, gave umbrage to Paal in that capital in vain said and repeated, that he where he was going to be crowned, had orders to deliver this letter to and he issued an order for Suvarrof bis excellency. However he was to be sent away from Mosco. A ma- forced to carry it back sealed to jor of the police entered one day into the emperor. On receiving it Paul the retreat of the old warrior, and manifested no vexation ; but Supresented to him this order, which varrof from that time was guarded banished him to an obscure village. inore strictly. Thus it is that a celeWith an air somewhat indifferent, brated man, confident in his fame Suvarrof asked how much time was and the public opinion, can somegranted him for settling his atfairs? times brave a despot." p. 181-188. * Four hours,' replied the officer. The officers of the Russian army Oh, this is being overkind !' ex. were by no means such as satisfied claimed the general; · an hour is the coalesced powers; they had ex• sufficient for Suvarrof.' He imme- pected the command would have diately put his gold and his jewels been given to Suvarrof, and at last into a casket, and went out. A tra. Paul complied with the solicitations velling coach was waiting for him at made to him, and that general was the door. Suvarrof going into ex. placed at the head of the Russian

ile, said he, has no peed of a army. This chapter details the bat. coach; he can repair thither in the tles in which it was engaged in 'same equipage that he made use Italy. . of to repair to the court of Catha- Chap. V. Expeditions against the

rive, or to the head of the armies French into Helvetia--the vast en. '-Bring me a cart!' His will must terprizes of Russia-her four armies be obeyed, and the officer was forced the march of the second-its leato perform with the old field-marsbal ders, and the private motives of Paul, a route of 500 versts in a kibitka : in are specified in this chapter. The summer, this carriage is the inost in battle of Zurick and deleat of the convenient that can be imagined; Russians particularly noticed, after bat Suvarrof was accustomed to it, which " the army, exhausted by hun. travelling only in this manner, laid ger, fatigue, and a thousand priva. on a mattress, and wrapped up in tions, contemplated with despair those his cloak. Having arrived at the summits covered with snow, which village appointed, he took up his it was still necessary to reach. The quarters in a wooden hut, under the soldiers murmured, stopped, and resuperintendance of the major and fused to go farther. Suvarrof caused some subaltern officers of the police. a grave to be dug in the road, and No one durst see him or write to laid himself in it: . Cover me with him; and the veteran, habituated to earth,' said he, 'and here leave your the tumult of camps, and to a life the 'general: you are no longer my chil. most active and bustling, saw himself dren; I am no longer your fałher ; ! all at once completely insulated. have nothing more to do than dic !' Reading, and the reflections which Whereupon his grenadiers hastened he bad time to make during this dis. round him, requesting with loud cries grace, had no small influence on the that they might scale the summits of remainder of his life. At last his St. Gothard, and thence dislodge the daughter, married to a brother of the French." p. 269. favourite Zubof, was permitted to The particulars of this march are pay him 2 visit, which was short, but detailed. Suvarrof repels Lecourbe, at which count Suvarrof seemed af- recals the Russians to battle, and refected. The emperor, on his return treats. His singularities are describto the residence, appeared also to ed, as also his chagrin at the repulse relent by degrees, and wrote to bim. he met with, Reinarks upon his re* A courier arrived, and delivered his cal and death. dispatch; on the cover was, in large The catastrophe in Holland is inletters - To FIELD-MARSHAL Su, troduced, and an anecdote of a young VARROF. This letter is not for Russian officer is inserted in a note, * nie,' said the old warrior coolly, on well worthy of notice. “In one of the battles that were fought in Hol- 'nate, because they are very poor, Jand, an ensign fell wounded, defend- ' and have nobody to give thein a ing his colours, and wrapped himself bit of dinner. The empress immeup in their folds. On coming to him. diately sent an aid-de-camp to the self, his first thought was to secure director of the school to enquire into them from the enemy. He tore them, the matter, and on learning that a and concealed them in his bosom. teacher had just died, leaving his Picked up as a prisoner on the field wise and children in the greatest of battle, he carefully preserved this distress, she sent instantly by the emblem of honour entrusted to his little boy three hundred rubles to the valour, and carried it back to Russia. widow, with an order to the head Paul, getting the better by degrees of master to have the three orphan his passion, and informed of this ac- children brought up at the expence tion, rewarded him, by reinstating in of the crown. Here we see the heart his rank this brave officer, who had of Catharine : thus it was that innobeen excluded from the service like cence sometimes brought her the all the other prisoners. Several had complaints of suffering humanity, and the same claims to the gratitude of that she hastened to afford it suctheir sovereign, and, on their return, cour.” expected nothing more than exile, or some other punishment. The Rus

Catharine's chemical Knowledge saves sian columns, on crossing the Rhine, the life of some innocent Sailors. received the account of the death of “ It is well known that an artifcial Paul, and the accession of Alexander; cold may be produced by the mixtheir joy was inexpressible ; then only ture of snow and salt of nitre; a heat, was it that the officers rejoiced in and even an artificial fire, may likethe expectation of seeing shortly their wise be obtained by the mixture of country.” p. 293, 294.

spirit of nitre and oil of turpentine : From the Historical Anecdotes we those two substances take fire as soon select the following:

as they are mixed, as well as several

others, by a chemical process suffi. The Rust of Catharine II. ciently known. Some years ago 2 “One day Catharine was told that fire broke out on board a frigate in her bust, in Parian marble, carefully the harbour of Cronstadt, and had preserved in a crystal glass in one of like to have burnt the vessel. Inthe apartments of the Hermitage, quiries were made to discover the had just been found painted. Great cause of this unfortunate accident endeavours were made to irritate her which was attributed to some ill dis. against this insolence, and to cause posed person. Several sailors even its authors to be sought after in order were apprehended on suspicion, and to punish thein severely for this in- endeavours were employed in vain sult to her imperial majesty. Catha- to make them confess the crime. rine II. without appearing either in- The empress, being informed of this censed or surprised, contented her- affair, said to the reporter, . But, sir, self with saying, llis, probably, one • it seems to me that I have learnt in of the pages, who wanted 10 rally me my youth, that the mixture of some on the habit I have of wearing rouge.

coid substances produces fire spon. The only thing to be done is to wash • taneously : perhaps this fire' bas my busi'.p. 368, 369.

'been occasioned by an unlucky ac. ** The empress had harboured and 'cident, and it would be a sad thing adopted a litile boy, whom the police to have the innocent punished. bad found abandoned in the streets : She appointed a commission to exshe sent him daily to take lessons at amine the frigate,' and seek out the the German school. One day the causes of the fire. Kraft, the prochild appeared on his return less fessor of experimental physics and gay than usual. Catharine took him chemistry to the young grand dukes, on her knees, and asked him the was of this comniission, and it was cause of his grief. : Ah, mamma,' discovered that the fire had prosaid he, I have cried sadly; our ceeded from a bottle of oil, which had

master at the school is dead; his been thrown down on a heap of soot • wife and children cry a great deal; in the corner of the chimney. This every one is dressed in black, and was at least what was conjectured,

they say that this woman and and what was reported to the em• her children are extremely unfortu. press, who ordered the parties ac

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