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system of indifference and contempt, the course of many ages. How will strich some people have so absurdly you repair the evils you have occadecorated with the name of toleration. fioned? What a terrible lesson for fu.
“The word toleration, as it relates ture generations." vol. iv p. 284. to religion, cannot have the injurious We now proceed to the conclusion acceptation which is given to it, when of the fifth epoch, or the liberty of it is employed with reference to the America acknowledged in Europe at abuses which we might be tempted to the peace of 1783, with the history proscribe, and which we consent to of the conduct of the House of Auspass over in silence.
tria towards France during the EngReligious toleration is a duty, a lish war. virtue, which man owes to man; con
The remainder of the fourth vosidered as a public right, it is the re. lume consists of eight chapters, in spect of the government to the con- which the proceedings of Austria are science of citizens, and the objects of distinctly detailed, the history and their veneration and their faith. This character of Thugut is particularly respect ought not to be illusory. It noticed, as well as the changes of the would, however, be of this kind, if in ministry in the British Court prior to the exercise of it, it produced no use- the peace of 1783.
The last chapter ful or consoling effeci." p. 44–46. contains an account of the progress
Towards the close the orator says, of the human understanding in lite" As to doctrines, the state has no rature, arts, and sciences under the right to interfere with them, provided Reign of Lewis XVI. that no inferences are drawn from Vol. V. The etchings to this vothem dangerous to the tranquillity of lume represent De Juigne, Archbithe state and pbilosophy itself has shop of Paris; Mirabeau (Viscount); no right to discuss the faith of men, Cazalès; Malouet; Dulau, Archbishop upon points involved in the mysteri- of Arles; Boisgelin, Archbishop of ous relations between God and man, Aix; Cicé, Archbishop of Bourdeaux; and thus far removed from the sphere D'Antraignes ;. Montlozier; D'Orof human intellect. The grand con- messon ;
Cardinal de la Rochefousideration is, that the laws of morality cault; Brissot; Condorcet; Servan; should be observed; and, in detach- Rolland; Claviere; and Guadet. ing men from the doctrines on which This volume consists of fifteen they found their confidence and their chapters, and an appendix containing faith, we should only succeed in political papers relating to the events weakening their motives to virtue.” noticed in the course of the volume.
The first five chapters describe the political state of France at the close of the year 1786, in its relative situa
tion with other powers, particularly LXXII. SOULAVIE'S MEMOIRS OF
the intrigues and conduct of Austria THE REIGN OF LEWIS XVI.
and her party in the French court.
The sixth chapter describes the (Concluded from page 197 of our last.)
terror of the clergy on account of HAT part of these memoirs at the prevalence of the new philosophy,
which we broke off closes with and contains a remonstrance presenta description of the character of ed by them to the king, which comNecker by the Marquis de Bouillé, plains of the liberty the protestants who defends that minister against the experienced, and prays for a restric. accusation of sedition and conspiracy; tion of their advantages, to which the yet declares him to be the author of author has added notes made by the ihe misfortunes of France, which he king in the margin, expressive of his attributes to the imprudence of his disposition to let them remain in posmeasures, to the insufficiency of his session of their privileges. knowledge, and to the application of The subsequent chapters are taken philosophical principles to politics. up with a representation of the influ.
"As to you, modern philosophers," ence which the British Cabinet is supsays the Marquis, “ your disastrous posed, by the author, to have upon doctrines bave caused more blood to the circumstances of France, and be spilt in a few years than the barba- particularly a full account of the pro. rous policy, the ignorance and fanati- ceedings at Grneva, and the interfercisid of our ancestors have done in ence of France in that revolution.
Vol. VI. Presents us with etchings nour to the queen, easily foreseeing of Gensonné, Vergniaux, Péthion, that her inistress, who had already so Fauchet, Gorsas, Rabaut-St.-Etienne, many enemies at court, would lose all D'Orleans (Egalité), Danton, Marat, respect and credit by continuing a Camille-des-Mouslins, Cloots, Chau- conduct of this nature, attempted to mette, Chabot, Fauquet-Tinville, reason with her, and repeatedly set Carrier, Vadier, Couthon, and Ro- before her view observations and exbespierre.
amples taken from history. These re. This volume introduces the sixth monstrances irritated the princess, epoch, or the birth of the dauphin, who fancied she made herself interto the death of M. de Maurepas, and esting, and, as a proof of her wit, she the influence of the queen in the af. gave to her adviser the nickname of fairs of state.
Madame Etiquette. This appellation, In this division of the memoirs are which was in fact dishonourable to the sixteen chapters, in the first of which queen and honourable to Madame we have three historical periods of de Noailles, remained with her; and the life of Maria Antoinetia, consivery shortly, the post of lady of hodered as dauphiness; as queen of nour being no longer tenable, MaFrance prior to the birth of the dau. dame de Noailles resigned, and left it phin; as mother of the heir apparent, to ladies of less rigid principles." p.8,9. and the object of hatred to the par
The inconsiderate conduct of the tizans of the French revolution, from queen is evinced in the following the 14th of July, 1789. It also enu- anecdote: merates the different factions against “ The famous horse races, and bets her, her struggle for power and her of the princes, are fresh in the meimprudence. From this chapter we mory of every one. The queen on present our readers with the following her side also engaged in scenes of this extracts.
kind, and commanded a jack-ass race. “Instead of the ceremonial of the The populace of Paris, accustomed queens of France, which was strict, to the sight of the queen only when though not despotic, she substituted surrounded with all the pomp of granthe familiar manners of a citizen's fa- deur, hastened in crowds to see her mily, that she might abandon herself mounted on an ass.
One day hapto a free and dissipated life; and she pening to slip off, she thought that she would even take an airing or pay vi- displayed on the occasion much ready sits, accompanied by one or two la- wit, and made an observation that dies of her choice, rather than those would ever be memorable, when she appointed by the state to attend her. said, “Go and fetch Madame de Noshe would without ceremony dine ailles: she will inform us what the with the princes, go out at all hours, • laws of etiquette demand when the even in the evening, to walk in the · Queen of France does not know park, and would diligently and pub- how to sit on her jack-ass.” p. 12. licly elude her husband's search after Several subsequent chapters contiher, by sleeping out of her own cham- nue a detail of the queen's conduct ber, in contempt of the established and influence, and the characters of rules prescribed to the two apart- her favourites : particular notice is ments. An ecclesi tic, respectable taken of the injury which the manu. for his age, bis virtues, and his repu- factory of Lyons sustained by the pretation in a branch of the hcaling art, ference the queen gave in her dress to being, sent for by her, found her the manufactures of Germany, her stretched at her length in a bath : the purchase of St. Cloud, and the looseold man drew back ; but she called ness of her morals in her nocturnal him to her, questioned him, and he walks on the Terrace and the revels was compelled to remain in a situa- of Trianon. Notice is taken of the tion, where he might admire the most influence of impostors and empirics perfect frame that nature had ever upon the minds of many persons at formed. It was in this attitude that Paris, which introduces the story of she had her picture drawn, with so lit. the diamond necklace, from the actle regard to decency that the public, count which
contains the correspondshocked at the indelicacy of the ence of M. De Lainothe. We give the painting, obliged the government to following history of the transaction, remove it from the exhibition," taken froin the Journal of the De
" Madam de Noailles, lady of ho. bates.
“ The year 1785, the 15th of Au- quality, named the Countess de La gust, the Cardinal de Rohan was ar. * mothe, who brought me a letter rested at Versailles.
! from the queen; and I thought I “Bohmer, jeweller to the crown, was obliging ber majesty by taking had presented to the queen a dia- 'the charge of this cominission." mond necklace of exquisite beauty, Here the queen interrupted him. which he valued at 1600,000 livres; How could you think, sir, that I the queen not chusing it, the jew- should have chosen you, to whom I eller was endeavouring to find a pur. have not spoken these eight years, to chaser in a foreign country, when negociate such an atfair, and that by a lady, who called herself the Countess means of such a woman;'- I plainly de Lamothe Valois, went to his house, 'perceive,' replied the cardinal, that and told him, that the queen had I have been cruelly deceived; the changed her mind; that she would desire I had of pleasing her majesty have the necklace, for wbich he fascinated my senses :
saw no de. should be paid at stated periods ; *ception in it, and I am sorry for it.'but that she required that the transac- . But sir,' rejoined the king, present. tion should be kept very secret: at ing him a copy of his letter to Bohmer, the same time she shewed him a pre- did you write a letter like this?' tended letter from the queen. Boh- The cárdinal, after casting his eye over mer, not thinking these assurances it, I do not recollect to have written sufficient, required some more solid 'it.'-—' And if the original letter were proof
. Madame de Lamothe then shewn you, signed by yourself?'- IP promised to send him one of the first the letter be signed, it is true.' inen at court to terminate the agree. Explain to me what is meant by all ment, which she certainly did, since this business with Bohmer, these Cardinal Rohan went to Bohmer's promises, and these notes.' The house, and concluded the arrange- cardinal visibly turned pale, and leaoment for fourteen hundred thousand ing against the table, said: • Sire, I livres.
am too much affected to be able to " The necklace was delivered to "answer your majesty.'— Recover Madame de Lamothe, on her present yourself, sir ; and if our presence ing pretended notes from the queen,
embarrass you, go into the adjoinpayable at stated periods; the first ing cabinet : there you will find pen, was for four hundred thousand livres, ink, and paper, and write what you and became due on the first day of have to say in your justification. August. The cardinal having neg
“ The cardinal withdrew into the lected to pay at the expiration of this cabinet, and about a quarter of an term, Bohmer complained of it to a hour atterwards presenied what he person belonging to the queen's house- had written to the king. It consisted bold. He produced his proofs, among of a few lines as enigmatical and conothers a letter written by the cardinal fused as what he had spoken. The timself, in which he tells Bohmer king then said, “Withdraw, sir; and that the necklace had been delivered. let the Duke of Villeroi have imSo extraordinary a scheme appeared mediate notice. The cardinal ininconceivable to the queen, who was stantly quitted the cabinet with the ten days in arranging and assembling Baron Bretueil, and was arrested by the proofs
, before she mentioned it to the Duke of Villeroi, captain of the the king.
body guards, who gave him into the " The 15th of August, the cardinal custody of the Count d'Agont, adjubeing arrived at Versailles to fulfil bis tant major, who conducied his prifunction of grand almoner, was sent soner to the Bastile. for at midnight into the king's cabi- • Madame de'Lamothe was arrested net, where he also found the qucen. at Bar-sur-Aube, at her husband's As soon as he entered, the king said, seat, who was already gone to Eng.
You have purchased some diamonds land. At first she denied any knowof Boomer'?' - Yes, sire.'-What ledge of the affair for which she was have you done with them?'- I arrested, and asserted that they would thought they had been delivered to gain much more light on the subject the queen.'—. Who employed you from Cagliostro, ai whose house she ' in this commission?' _. A lady of had lived in the street Saint Cloude.
The latter was arrested at the very * About £. 58,333.
moment of his departure for Lyons,
whither he was going to establish an The seventh epoch consists of Egyptian lodge. This famous empi- fourteen chapters, and contains the ric, who boasted very seriously of hav- administration of M. de Calonne, and ing been present at the marriage of the first assembly of the Notables. Cana in Gallilee, had acquired such During the administration of M. de power over the cardinal's mind, that Calonne, a secret deficit of a hundred he actually persuaded bimat different millions is announced, which causes times that he was supping with Vol- universal discontent; the assembly of, taire, Montesquieu, &c. The day be, the Notables and Parliaments are asfore his being arrested, Cagliostro had sembled; the clergy present their last permitted him to sup with Henry IV. remonstrances to Lewis XVI.; the
" The king in the following Sep- obnoxious ministers are removed, and tember sent letters patent to the par M. Necker is recalled, upon which liament, acquainting them with the the people express their satisfaction affair. These letters breathed the by illuminations &c., which proving greatest degree of displeasure. They disagreeable to the king, the military began thus ; • The king, penetrated are ordered out, and cominit manyex• with the utmosst indignation at ob cesses; a description of some of the • serving the means wbich, from the characters belonging to the court, and cardinal's own confession, have been an account of the influence of Dr. employed to criminate our dear Mesiner's tenets and increase of bis and honourable spouse and compa- disciples, close this period. • nion,'
Eighth epoch, the second adminis. " The trial took place in the be- tration of Mr. Necker, or fall of the ginning of the year 1786. The car- French monarchy. During this pedinal was honourably acquitted, and riod the different acts which hasten was released from the Bastile the first the revolution are particularly noof May; but it was only to go into ticed in eight chapters. banishment at his abbey of Chaise. The ninth epoch describes the pare Dieu. Madame de Lamothe was ties of, and transactions connected scourged, and branded with a hot with, the ephemeral establishinent of iron, the 21st of June, the same day, the constitutional monarchy of 1789, that the king set out on bis journey to comprising six chapters. Cherbourg. Cagliostro was banished The tenth epoch, or the French from France; and as to the necklace, republic and the death of Lewis, con• it had been divided into many por- taining six chapters, which detail an tions, and sold, partly in England, account of the establishment and the and partly in flolland.
circumstances leading to, and imme. “'There were many other persons diately connected with, the death of concerned in this trial, the principal Lewis XVI. of whom was Madame Oliva, who In this work many conversations resembled the queen both in gait and are inserted of a political nature, and height, and who played the chief part several analytical tables, one exbion the Terrace of Versailles. Ma- biting at one view the increased gra dame de Lamothe wishing to prove to position to Mr. Necker's plan of di. the cardinal that the necklace bad dance; another, she wing the mechanbeen safely deliverel, told him that ism of the ancient government of the queen would give him a token of France, and three others, presenting her being sati.fied. They went toge- to the reader a methodical view of ther to the Terrace at eight o'clock; the revolution to the consulate. the pretended queen passed immedi. ately after, and gave a rose to the cardinal, which he received with all LXXTU. THE DETECTOR OF Quack. the satisfaction imagivable." p.77-81, ERY; or, Analyser of Medical, Phi. The remaining chapters of this
losophical, Political, Dramatic, and epochi contain a view of the republic
Literary Imposture. Comprehending a of letters, and the interior disputes
Sketch of the Manners of the Age. By with wbich it was agitated prior to the
John Corry, Author of " A Sa. revolution; the disputes and factions tirical View of London," Bi. Second which exited among the clergy of,
S nearly one half this pocket vo-
Medical and people of France.
Empiricism," that subject claims our
principal attendance; and here, Doc- frippery of novels and romances, the tors Solomon and Brodum very pro- perusal of which contines the mind to perly occupy very conspicuous situa- girlish attainments, ferments impure tons ; but with what propriety Mr. desires, and inflates female pride. Perkins is added, who was the son of “One characteristic of the wives and physician, and received a regular daugliters of the citizens is, the freeeducation, we leave to the judgment dom with which they analyse the acof our readers: the farce related, p.44, tions of their neighbours. They libe. in which Farmer Wilkinson was prin- rally censure each other, not from any cipal perforiner, tends equally to ri- gratification which they receive from dicule the profession of medicine, as satire, but purely for mutual edificathat of quackery. Few will respect tion. This love of scandal, which só the judginent of a man, who when ill generally prevails among the natives refused to take medicine, because a of London, is cherished by their cirpoet happened wittily to say, God cumscribed situation : great minds never made his work for man to mend.' like theirs, unwilling to remain ivacThe concluding retlections on tempe: tive, must have some interesting obrance, however, are certainly just and ject to contemplate and expatiate on. unexceptionable, though most of them " In this point of view, every teaquotations from Arnistrong, Addison, table conversation may be considered and Hoffman.
as a lecture of moral philosophy, lu his second part the Author re- where the auditors are instructed in viewswbat he calls Philosophical Quack- the best mode of tracing the defects of ery, in which we are sorry to see the others. names of Rumford, Beddoes, Colqu- “ With respect to the modish part houn, and some other benefactors of of the pedestrians of both sexes, they man, whom we consider as deservedly appear as inuch under the influence high in public estimation : here, how- of frivolity as ever. Their ablutions erer, the Author intermixes reflec- at Brighton and Margate during the tious of a moral and religious ten, summer, has prepared them for the dency.
resumption of their hyemal pursuits ; Mr. Corry next presents us with a such as theatricals, masquerades, gam" Sketch of Modern Manners,” from ing, and intrigue. which we shall transcribe an extract “The beaux, indeed, are not altoas a specimen of his favourite talent- gether so etfeminate as they appeared Satire; in which our wit indulges Jast winter. The trowsers are not so himself at the expence of the worthy complete an imitation of the loose citizens of London.
drapery of the petticoat as formerly; “ While the citizen beholds men of nor are their collars stuffed so full as various nations throng to London, his to give the appearance of a crick. estimation of himself, and his con- They have not, however, divested tempt of the adventurers who come themselves of that ridiculous severity to partake of his bounty, are both of look, which they assume in order raised to the highest pitch. On the to appear men of spirit and consequence; other hand, the ingenious and the or that conceited air, which seems to koavish who assemble here, are at.. say, 'I'm a very elegant young fel. tracted by the fame of the metropolis, low, an't I?' and consider the natires as a dull, "But the ladies, notwithstanding plodding, mercantile race, who are the return of peace, seem determined incapable of generous sentiments, and to continue hostilities against the other must be duped by a variety of arti- sex, and have actually opened the hces.
campaign in a manner which does " Their wives and daughters often honour to their spirit, though it leads visit the theatres, where they make a us to 'question their prudence. For Tapid progress in refinement. Wonder- instance, they wage war like the anful, indeed, must be the improvement cient Gauls, exposing themselves, al. of our youthful females who frequent most naked, to the rigour of a wintry those elegant temples of the Graces, atmosphere. They also paint, prowhere nonsense is too often substituted bably in imitation of the savage na. for wit, and pantomime for tragedy. tions, who stain their bodies with dif. Yet these are the places where our ferent colours, ili order to lerrify the gay young women obtain refined sen. enemy. This mode of defence has a timents, still further cherished by the very different effect among us, for it