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And twice, and twice could scarce suffice,
used to camels ; haste, expeCOWLEY. dition, in Arabic. We have the same Jucundum os oculosque suaviabor. word in English, but with an oppo
Catul. ix. 9. site meaning. Woh is the cry of the
Stratford carriers to their horses in Bihter-Better. The Persians have the English com-used it in the Two Gentlemen of Ve
order to stop them. Shakspeare has parative better, but their own super
rona, p. 11. Stevens's edition, vol.iii. lative bihterin ; just so the English
“ There is no woe to his correchave the Persian comparative bihter,
tion." but their own superlative best, which makes it difficult to decide which is end to the correction of love, the
Read woh, and explain, no stop, no the original, possibly neither one nor the other are imitators. In Persian, mighty lord. Johnson's note says, however, there is a positive bih, good; the misery of those that love, or to
no misery that can be compared to bihter, better ; bihierin, best.
the punishment inflicted by love; as Peer-- Peer.
if it meant equal to, which I do not Peer in Persian is a title of honour believe. If words of the same letters like senior, seigneur, senor; and it
mean opposite things in the same lanproperly means an ancient, or old guage, as äęyes in Greek, malum in
Latin, (See Mr. Knight's Analytical The twelve great lords of France Essay, 4to. p. 104.) à fortiori, they who are called peers were probably so may in different languages be more named, not so much from their equa. likely to have opposite senses, either lity, as from being past the middle by accident or design, either from age, and eligible on account of their ignorance or wilful perversion; the experience, senators in wisdom, and casual coincidence of letters will, it is ancients in knowledge.
true, sometimes form the same term The celebrated Timour, before any in two languages without the smallest considerable undertaking, always con- relation of one to the other. sulted his peer, looking upon him
Yekh-Ice. (Koottub ul Aktaub Sheikh Zine v'deen Aboo Bukkur) in the light of
Yekhché-Ice-stone, or hail. a ghostly father. From the word Behar Danush, or Spring of Knowa
A thaw is prettily described in the peer, we may, perhaps, derive the ap- ledge of Einaiut Oolla, translated by pellation père, (French,) a father. Dow, and much better by Mr. Scot
. Vid. Instruments of Timour, p. 5.
Waters liberated from confinement by Tariz-Tarrying.
the infuence of the sun, ran to the Tariz is alighting, and tarrying on
cypress to relate the tale of their cap. a journey. We have this word in the tivity. British Museum, Coll. HaNew Testament and in Shakspeare, milton, Plyt. xxxvi. 5564. The same but its origin was not known, “ Í author compares the brightness of ice will go drink with you, but cannot to the silver of fish, that is, to its tarry dinner;" and' in Troilus and scales, which shine like silver, scemi Cressida, “ tarry’d.”
mahi. Hail-storms are not common Jad-Jad', Dad.
in hot countries. During a fall of hail The infantine way of saying father thered it up in their hands, but soon
at Masulipatam, the inhabitants gais in most parts of the world very threw it away again, crying out that much alike, whether årta in Greek, it burnt them; and true enough, tata in Gothic and Latin, or tad in Welsh, or dad in English, or jad in
- The parching air Persian, a grandfather jed bejed, from Burns frore, and cold performs th' effect of father to son.
fire." Jefa Chafe, Trouble, injury. Fretting.
-penetrabile frigus adurit.” Chafe means a heat, a fume, a fret. “ Wolsey sent for Sir Thomas More in a chale, for having crossed his puro berries of a cloud, hybab terim.
In Arábic hail-stones are called the pose in parliament." See Camden's Remains. The etymologists get no
Yugh-Yoke. higher than the French in their derivations of this word, chafe, echauf. Greek, Latin, Dutch, English, and
This word runs through the Persian, fer, but the original exists in Arabic. Saxon languages, &c. &c. &c.
LXX. A FAMILIAR SURVEY OF well for them to know, without wait
THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, AND ing until the lesson be inculcated by, OF HISTORY, as connected with the longer experience of the world, that Introduction of Christianity, and with they have formed a scanty concepits Progress to the present Time. By: tion of the number of those who take, T. GISBORNE, A. M. Third Edi- little pains to conceal their scepticisin, tios.
or their unbelief; and that there ext;
ists in the middle and higher classes HOUGH it will not fall usually of society a large description of per-:
within our plan generally to give sons, who, without' openly rejectiug extracts from second or third editions Christianity, cao by no means be said of works, the excellence and import-. to believe it. That the number of ance of this, which escaped the no
those who do not embrace the Gospel; tice of the Editor in the former series, affords no argument, either against will be our apology in this and a few the truth of the religion, or the good other instances, for deviating from ness of God, is a fact which I have our usual rule.
already had occasion to explain. The Chap. I. Summary view of the stale evidence which God has supplied on of mankind from the creation of the behalf of the religion of his son is svetlá 10 the calling of Abraham.-II. wisely adapted to the situation on Summary view of the origin of the Jew. moral agents, of beings in a state of ish race, and of the history of that people trial. It is not instantaneously overto the death of Moses.-II. Summary powering, irresistibly bearing down view of the history of the Jews from alike the assent of the prejudiced and the death of Moses to the present time. the candid, of the careless and the IV. On the books of the Old Testament., considerate. It solicits examination ; -V. Or the books of the New Testa-' it demands fair enquiry : and the fair ment.-VI. Summary of the evidences enquirer it rewards with convictionet of the Christian Religion.–VII. On the, They who will not enquire, or who enleading doctrines of the Christian Reli- quire not humbly and devoutly, ragion.-Vill. On the character of Jesus tionally and fairly, deservedly remain, Christ.-IX. The history of Christian." in their blindness. This observation ily to the subversion of the Western Em- belongs to the persons recently det pire.x. On the history of Christianity scribed as not openly rejecting Chriërs from the subversion of the Western Em- tịanity, no less than to its avowed op pire 19 the end of the thirteenth century. posers. They came forward into lile, --XI. Continuation of Christian History as you perhaps are coming, fogwarch, for the present time.—XII. On forms of with an extremely superficial know++ Church Government and Ecclesiastical ledge of their religion, but without Establishments.-XIII. Conclusion. any doubt of its divine authority. In
no long tiine they began to hear indir CHAP. XIII.
rect cavils, and witty sarcasms aimes PAGE 510.
against detached passages in the Scrips
tures; intimations, dropped with a Christian Faith and Christian Practice, significant air of sagacity about priest.
" I. Young persons who, though crast, and expressions of wonder that little if at all instructed in the evi- the indulgence of natural inclinations dences and ground work of Christi- should ever be a sin. Their ears, at anity, have been accustomed, during first a little shocked, soon becaine fatheir education, to the society, the miliar to the sound, and learned by language, and the public worship of degrees not to be olfeuded at plainer Christians, usually come forth into ac- language. Direct charges of absur. tire life, not only with full persuasion dity, alsehood, and imposture adof the truth of their religion, but with vanced, first against the Old Testascarcely a suspicion that there can be ment, then against the New, though many persons in this country who they did not produce conviction, were doubt or disbelieve it. An avowed heard without emotion. In the mean, sceptic, or unbeliever, is in their eyes time the prejudices of ed
on in a phenomenon like a comet; and favour of religion, for in these perevery one who is not a notorious scep- sons, uninstructed in the grounds of tic or unbeliever they regard, as in Christianity, belief was nothing more faith at least, though perhaps not in
than a prejudice, were gradually, practice, a good Christian. It may be loosened.' Habits of life too, perhaps& VOL. I.
were formed, which rendered the encouragement to use them? He lived truth of Christianity, and the conse- in an enlightened age, in a protesquent certainty of future punishment tant country; he lived where the for vice, highly undesirable. How. Scriptures are open, and enquiry free ever that might be, the man grew ab- to every man; where the most emisorbed in the business or the trifles of nent learning and talents have dethe world. Political pursuits, profes- voted themselves to the defence of sional occupations, his regiment, or Christianity; where religion is publicly his vessel, or his compting-house, or reverenced, and genuine piety the his shop, or his hounds and horses, most honourable distinction.
company at home, his vi: “ To set before you this example sits abroad, filled up the whole of his is to warn you against its dangerous time. Religion grew more and more contagion, and to impress you with foreign to his thoughts. Not that he the duty of warning on fit occasions, decidedly disbelieved it. He felt, and with the earnestness of a Chriswhen it crossed 'his mind, doubts of tian, those whom it may be likely to its truth, and a secret wish that it infect. might not be true: he felt the most “ As long as you remain upon earth, preposterous of all persuasions, (for a scene of probation, it is reasonable in any person, who calls himself a be
to expect that your faith no less than liever in Christianity, no other per- your conduct should be subjected to suasion can shew equal ignorance of trial. When you have been convinced its nature and its evidence) that pos-- on rational grounds that Christianity sibly there might be something of truth is true, be not hasțily staggered by in it, but that certainly there was slight difficulties which providence much less than was represented: but allows to exist, probably for the very he had not thought on the subject suf- purpose of exercising your faith. ficiently to disbelieve it altogether, or do not mean that you should neglect to have any clear opinion. Yet per- them. Bring them to the test of en. haps he was now and then seen at quiry. Count as nothing the perempchurch, at least in the country, when tory assertions, with which they are he had nothing else to do: for he was advanced; the conclusions sophistidesirous of preserping à respectable cally and dogmatically deduced from appearance; and he was convinced them; the sneers and the contempt that religion, true or false, should be aimed at all persons who acquiesce encouraged among the lower people not in those conclusions. Examine to keep them in order, particularly in the difficulty itself with care. Cons these days of jacobinism. Suspicions sult those who are most conrersant too of the possibility of the truth of with the subject. You will either Christianity til lung about him, and find the difficulty vanish, perhaps that at times he had half intended to exa- it even affords a new attestation to mine into the matter. Once or twice Christianity, or that whatever may a fit of sickness, or a domestic afllic, yet be unexplained to you weighs tfon, had increased' his surmises, and less, when compared with the evi, he had determined that at some fu; dence of Christianity, than a grain of ture convenient opportunity he would sand in the balance against a moun. endeavour to satisfy himself. But the tain convenient opportunity never hap: On the subject of faith I have pened to arrive; days, months, and yet to submit an additional observayears found him occupied as before, tion. You will meet among believers and death surprised him at last in his in Christianity with persons who apgrey hairs, uncertain of his faith. I pear to think, that 'if by forced exdo not speak lightly, when I express plavations they can represent some my apprehensions, that of the leading scriptural narration as an allegory, features in this picture many originals or pare away the corner of a miracle, are to be found. The guilt of such they lighten the difficulties of religion conduct, like all other guilt, may be to reasoning believers and unbelievers. diminished or aggravated by attend- The attempt, however wellintended, is ant circumstances. How is it in the palpably most absurd. Miracles are present case? was the object in ques. the foundation of Christianity. The tion unimportant ? the eternal sal. scriptural history is a history' of mivation of the individual was at stake. racles. What if one cuiracle out of a But bad he means of information, and hundred could be solved into natural
causes? Would those who were stag- and full of glory;' with the peace gered by a hundred be more willing, of God which passeth all underis it reasonable that they should be standing. But do you forget that more willing, to credit the ninety- there will be intricacies, craggy obnine ! Receive with submission the stacles, and thorns? Do you imagine history of mankind as it is in Scrip- that after all that Christ has done, noture, and the Christian faith “as it is thing on your part is necessary for the
Jesus. In your present stage of ex- attainment of salvation ? Or do you istence there will necessarily be parts think that whatsoever you may have of the divine councils and dispensa- to do, the divine grace promised to tions, which you see as through a humble and fervent prayer will ena
glass darkly', Why Deeds your ble you to perform without difficulty? faith to be troubled, be the amount Why then do the Scriptures speak of somewhat less or more?
the life of a Christian as a warfare ?
Why do they speak of denying II. “That practice is Christian 'yourself,' of taking up the cross, practice which proceeds from Chris- of crucifying the filesh with its affectian motives. He, who performs the tions and lusts, of wrestling against duties of morality, because he sees it principalities and powers of darkis the custom to perform them, is a ness,' 'of putting on the whole arpunctual imitator, and may be des- mour of God that you may be able titute of religion. He, who performs 'to stand against the wiles of the de. them for the sake of worldly interest, • vil.' If with the assistance which is a prudent man, and may be an un- God has promised to afford, you will principled hypocrite. He, who is ob- not manfully “fight the good fight of servant of such of them as the laws of faith;' if you will not watchfully honour condescend to sanction, is 'a pursue, through whatever intricacies,
man of honour,' and may be a vil. the path of duty; if you will not lain. He, who in conformity to the strenuously labour to surmount the dictates of custom, or of prudence, (I obstacles which impede your Chrisspeak not of honour for it meddles tian course, if you will not patiently Dot with the subject) attends to the and cheerfully sustain the thorns with outward duties of Christian worship, which the ways of religion are strew. has no claim to the reward of a Chris- 'ed; if you will not endure hardness,' tan, the gist of eternal life. Num- call not yourself ' a good soldier of bers belong to one or other of these "Jesus Christ'-" The captain of your descriptions you will hear celebrated salvation was made persect through in the world as most respectable per sufferings.' He suffered for you, 1995 ; as men as good as any that exist; leaving you an example, that you so excellent that they cannot be bets should follow his steps. He may call ter : for, ‘man looketh on the out. you as he did his priinitive servants to ward appearance, but the Lord look, • resist' his enemies, and those of 'eth on the heart.' Leave such cha- your soul, even unto blood.' You racters, for even yet they may be are not the faithful servant of Christ, awakened and reclaimed, to the for- unless you are wholly his servant, bearance and mercy of an offended prepared to relinquish all things, to God; but make it the business of your bear all things for him. He calls you, life not to be like to them. Love and and every one of his servants, to regratitude to God and your Redeemer sist and overcome the world,' its rimust be your ruling principle, if you dicule no less than its applause, its are really a Christian. Every duty smiles no less than its frowns, its alwhich you perform on that principle, lurements no less than its indignation. yonr God and Redeemer will reward. Try then habitually the principles on For any duty which you perform on which you act, the line of conduct some other principle, on what pre- which you pursue, the ends at which tence can you expect a reward from you aim, not by the rule of worldly
custom, of worldly interest, of worldly " The ways of religion are ways praise, but by the Gospel of Christ. of pleasantness, and all her paths are Ask yourselt with respect to every
Unquestionably they are. undertaking, with respect to every They may be intricate and craggy, mode of proceeding, and every dispostrewed with thorns: but they are sition of heart with which you prosesurrounded with joy unspeakable cute that undertaking, whetber Christ
on his throne of judgment will ap- from the following extract, which is prove it? If you cannot answer that thus introduced. question to the satisfaction of your “ When we contemplate certain conscience, desist : whatever advan- virtues, it seems as if we beheld a ray tage you abandon, whatever detri- from heaven enlightening the earth. ment, whatever scorn you incur, de- What then ! shall we make preten. sist. io What shall it profit you if you sions to the preservation of the vir
gain the whole world,' all its wealth, tues, hy destroying the source from all its honours, all its pleasures, all its whence they flow? Let us not deceive praise, • and lose your own soul?' ourselves. There is nothing but reliWould you confess Christ in the face gion which can fill up the vast space of persecution and death! confess that exists betwixt the Deity and the himn in the face of smaller evils, of human race. smaller sacrifices. Hear, and remem- “It might be supposed that go. ber throughout life, bis own words: vernment did enough in allowing free • Whosoever shall confess me before course to religious opinions, and in • men, bim will I confess also before ceasing to disturb those by whom they 'my Father which is in heaven. But are professed. • whosoever shall deny me before * But I ask, whether a measure of
hiin will I also deny before my this kind, a measure which accom'Father which is in heaven'." p. 527. plishes nothing positive, but is in a
manner of a negative kind, could ac.
complish the object which a wise go. LXXI. THE CONCORDAT BETWEEN
vernment ought to have in view. BONA PARTE AND POPE PIUS VII. have acquired, and the philosophy
“ Unquestionably, the liberty we Concluded from page 24e of our last.) which enlightens eis, are wholly irreCitizen Portalis proceeds:
concilable with the idea of a predomorals, is it not the Christian minant religion in France, still less
religion which has transmitted to with the idea of an exclusive religion. us the whole body of the law of na- I call that religion exclusive, the pubiture? Is it not this religion which has lic worship of which is authorized to pointed out to us whatever is just
, the prejudice of every other. Such whatever is holy, whatever is amiable was amongst us the catholic religion Above all, by recommending to us the in the later periods of the monarlove of mankind, and clevating our chy. thoughts to the Creator, has it not "I call that a predominant religion established the principle of all that is which is the more intimately connectexcellent in conduct? has it not dis- ed with the state, and which in the orclosed the true source of purity of der of political institutions enjoys manners? If the great body of the certain privileges wbich are refused to people, if individuals the most simple other forms of worship, the public and the least instructed, entertain exercise of which is nevertheless aumore fixed opinions than ever So- thorized. Such was the catholic recrates and Plato possessed of the ligion in Poland; and such is the grand truths of the unity of God, of Greek religion in Russia. But a reli. the immortality of the soul, of the gion may be protected, without ren. existence of a state of future retribu- dering it either predominant or exclution, are we not indebted for them to sive. To protect a religion is to place Christianity?"
it under the shield of the laws; it is “ This religion promulgates some to prevent it from being molested; it peculiar doctrines, but these doc. is to guarantee to its professors the en. irines are not arbitrarily substituted joyment of the spiritual privileges in the room of those which sound me. they expect to derive from it, in as taphysics have demonstrated. They complete security as that which apdo not usurp the place which reason plies to their persons or their proforinerly occupied. They only fill perty. In the simple system of prothat space which reason had left void, tection, there is nothing either exclu. and which unquestionably the imagi. sive or predominant. Protection may nation could not so well occupy." extend to many different religions, it p. 41-42.
may extend to all. The situation in which religion is • I allow that the system of proplaced in France may be learned tection differs essentially from White