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lerring prediction of the prophet.” The red dragon is represented as p. 96–97.

bearing those marks which particu. The three days and an half, the larly denote Rome papal; and the time predicted for the dead bodies of man child, born of the church, is apthe witnesses to lie in the street of the plied to the Gospel; the wilderness is city, is applied by the author, to the construed to mean Mohamedan sencorresponding term of three years suality, and Papal idolatry; and the and an half, reckoning from the time in heaven is referred to "the of the expulsion and last massacre of great and blessed contest and war bethe French clergy, which took place tween the Protestants, a remnant of the latter end of September 1792, to the church of Christ, and the church the time of the decree for the tolera. of Rome; in which the former emantion of all kinds of religion, which cipated berself from the ignorance was in the latter end of March 1796. and darkness of Papal idolatry by the

All that is expressed after the ele- diet at Augsburg, A. D. 1555, and by venth verse of this chapier, the author the treaty of Westphalia, A D. 1618. considers to refer to events that have The author supposes the earth into not yet taken place, and conjectures which the dragon is to be cast, and the that what is contained in the 13th inhabitants of it, against whom the verse, relates to sore judgments, which woes are denounced, to mean Revolu. will be inflicted on atheistical France. tionary France.

The twelfth chapter of the Revela- The strange countries into which tion comes next under consideration, the exiles and refugees from France in which, the Prophet resunies the ge: have fled, and where they have been neral History of the Church, in which charitably, and hospitably received, he foretels the ReFOR MA'NON. The and nourished, are denoted in the auauthor commences this part of his thor's opinion by the wilderness into work with apprehending, that, Bishop which the woman was to fly, and the Newton and others have altogether earth which was to help her. Great erred in their explication of this Britain is considered to be the remchapter, and expressing his full per- nant of the seed, against which the suasion that none of ihe prophetic most powerful and malicious efforts signs refer to events ANTECEDENT of the Dragon have been directed. to the fourth century, when the church In the comments on the thirteenth was delivered from pagan oppres- chapter we find a contrast between sion, and exalted over the Heathen the beast described in the second verse world : and that the prophet only re- and that in the eleventh, intended to sumes the history of the church from shew they represent different things. that time, for which opinion the author assigns his reasons.

THE FIRST BEAST • Rose up out of the sca: • Had seven heads: « Had ten horns :' Upon his heads the name of blas

phemy:
Upon his horns ten crowns :
One of its heads was as it were,

wounded to death, and was
healed.

THE SECOND BEAST
Came up out of the earth;'
Had only one head:
Had only two horns:'
The two horns were like the horns

of a lamb:
Upon its horns no crowns:
It' had but one head, and that was

not wounded.

The first beast is applied to the comment on the twelfth verse is thus Church of Rome, the second to Revo. expressed, “ He (the beast of the lutionary France. Some of the au-, earth or the republic) exerciseth all thor's ideas we present to the consi- the power of the first beast, (before. deration of our readers.

mentioned in this chapter, the beast In the committees of safety, insti- of the sea, or Papal Rome) befort tuted by the French republic, the au- him.To justify this interpretation, thor perceives clearly the two horns the policy and powers exercised by on the head of the second beast. His the church of Rome; and the policy

or

and powers exercised by the republic direct compliance with the predic. of France, are placed in opposite tion, she has worshiped,' or paid columns to shew their affinity. In such veneration to the policy of pathe fourteenth verse it is said, “ He gan Rome, as to revive both her civil is to exercise the power of the first and religious customs, after they had beast before him, or in his sight. Now, ceased upwards of a thousand years, when we say, an act was done before, and adopted them as her own." p. 185. or in the sight of a man, it may imply Our author thinks the bonnet rouge,' that it was done to his prejudice, and or cap of liberty,' and the tri-colourthat he did not take care to prevented cockade, corresponds with the it: this was literally the case of the mark of the beast, and as to the numpope. He saw the republic exercise ber of his name he agrees with former the same fraudulent. coercive, and commentators. blasphemous masures, which he bad For the author's opinion respecting done before. He saw. bis wealth the vials we select the following reseized, his priests murdered or ba- capitulation : “ Under the first vial nished, and millions of his devotees of the wrath of God, the judgcoorerted to atheism, and lost to all ments are foretold that should be faith in his infallibility and idolatry: poured out on revolutionary France ; and yet, to prevent these remarkable under the second vial, on papal Rome; acts of injury to his power, he re. under the third, upon papal Germany, mained, as it were, an inactive stupid under the fourth, upon the king and spectator.”

people of France; under the fifth, up“This conduct in the papal church on the republic and people of France reminds me of the heathen maxim, in her atheistical state, and under the (for beathens who believe in God can sixth, upon the Othmàn empire, or be authors of truth) Quos deus vult Mohamedan apostacy. After this we "perdere, prius dementat. •To those read no more of the powers of Paganwho wantonly refuse the instructions ism, Mohamedanisin, Papacy,

of his revealed word, and even pre- Atheism, acting in their separare casuine to blaspheme bis holy name, pacities, and of their distinct opera

God sends a strong delusion;' that tions against the church of Christ; is, he leaves them simply to their fallen, but, on the contrary, we find that the frantic nature, by righteously with prophet, under the seventh vial,' beholding from them his gracious mer: gins the history of a new future power, cies. Indeed it seems to have been and grand confederacy of all of them the divine will, that the power of the together, for the purpose of the utter church of Rome should be destroyed destruction of the truth, and the word by the same kind of fraudulent policy of God. This subject he introduces and force, by which she had been esa in the last verses of the sixteenth tablished, and by which she had done chapter.” p. 284. so much mischief in the world; and The remainder of this work is ocmoreover, that she should be made cupied by the following subjects : sensible of this rule of divine justice, The imprisonment of Satan, and the

Nec lex est justior'ulla, quam necis ar- first resurrection and reign of Christ. 'tifices arte perire sun.' * Nor is there The restoration of the Jews. Satan 'amore perfect rule of justice, than released, and his last impious effort that he who contrives the means of to destroy the kingdom of Christ. destruction, should perish' himself The defeat of Satan, with bis eternal by the same means : or, to quote a condemnation, and the utter destruchigher authority, · If any man will tion of God and Magog and their hurt them (oppose his divine will), mighty host. The destruction of the 'he must, in the same manner, be kill world, the last resurrection and the

ed t;' and be that leadeth into last judgment, and the blessed state 'captivity shall go into captivity; and of the righteous in a life to come. In * he that killeth with the scuord must be three separate chapters arguments are killed with the sword' t." p.181,182. used to prove that former commentaThe interpretation of the latter part tors have been mistaken in their of the twelfth verse may be discerned sentiments respecting the Man of Sin, in the following passage : “ Thus, in spoken of by St. Paul; the Little Horn,

of which Daniel prophesied; and * 2 Thess. ii, 11.

+ Rev, xi. 5. Antichrist; and that there is in each Rev. xii, 10.

of them an exact representation of

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atheistical France. The work closes ought always to be obvious, even to with an appendix, containing a list the most careless and inattentive reaof the most prominent, unforeseen, der; so that it may strike his mind, and most extraordinary events which as the light of the sun strikes our eyes, have come to pass in the course of though they are not directed towards the providence of God, within the it. We must study, not only that last twenty years.

every reader may understand tis, but that it shall be impossible for bim not to understand us. If we are obliged to follow a writer with much care,

to pause, and to read over his sen. LVIII. THE ELEMENTS OF ENG

tences a second time, in order to COMPOSITION, containing comprehend them fully, he will never Practical Instructions for writing the please as long as mankind are too inEnglish Language with Perspicuury dulent to relish so much labour. They and Elegance; and designed, in the

may pretend to admire the author's Progress of Education, to succeed 10 of the Latin and Greek Classics. By inclined to bestow upon his work a the Study of English Grammar, and depth, after they have discovered his

meaning ; but they will seldom be DAVID IRVING, A. M.

second perusal.”

On the subject of purity of style is O enable our readers to form an

the following description : “ Purity book, we give the author's own ac- words and such constructions as becount of it." In the following pages," long to the idiom of the language, he says, “ the reader need not expect which we use in opposition to words to discover any originality of obser- and phrases which are imported from vation. I desire to be regarded in no other languages, or that are obso. other view than that of a mere compi- lete, or new coined, or used without ler. Concerning every critical subject proper authority Propriety of style that has fallen under my review, I have consists in the selection of such words, endeavoured to collect the most ra.

as the best and most established tional opinions of writers distinguished usage has appropriated to those ideas, for their learning and judgment. For which we employ them to express. any valuable instruction which this It implies the correct and happy apcompilation may chance to exhibit, plication of them, according to that the reader is principally indebted to

usage, in opposition to vulgarisms, or Blair's Lectures on Rheioric, kames's low expressions; and 10 words and Elements of Criticism, Melmoth's Ler. phrases that would be less significant ters of Fitzosborne, and Lowili's Intro- of the ideas which we intend to conduction to English Grammar. To other vey." p. 6, 7. occasional sources of information | The 'Vin Chapter exemplifies prehave been careful to make the proper cision of style; and the Vth treais of references; but when I availed my. synonimous words, concerning which self of the treasures amassed by these the Author says, “ As they are like excellent writers, I forbore lo quote ditterent shades of the same colour, their names; not that I might ap- an accurate writer can employ them • propriate their labours or usurp to great advantage, by using them so their honours, but that I might spare as to heighten and to finish the picà perpetual repetition by one ge- ture which he gives vs. He supplies neral acknowledgment'.” Preface, by the one what was wanting in the

oiber, to the force, or to the lustre The materials used in good com- of the image which he means to exposition are in this work analyzed, hibit. But, with a view to this end, desined, and illustrated by a number he must be extremely attentive to the of well choseu examples under each choice which he makes of them ; for particular head. This book is di- the generality of writers are apt to vided into thirty chapters, the first of confound thein with each other, and which contains an introductory dis- to employ them with a promiscuous course, the second and third describe carelessness, merely for the sake of and exemplify purity and propriety filling up a period, ‘or of diversifying of style ; on the importance of which the language. By using them as if it is observed “an Author's meaning their signification were precisely the

P. vii.

same, they unwarily involve their dress and the character or rank of ideas in a mist.

the person who wears it. The same Froin the many examples to illus, is the case with regard to figures and trate these remarks we select the fol- sentiments. The excessive or unsealowing signification of the synonimous sonable employment of figures is mere words, io avow, acknowledge, confess. foppery in writing. It gives a puerile -Each of these words signifies the air to composition, and diminishes affirination of a fact, but in very dif- the dignity of a subject, rather than ferent circumstances. To avow, sup- exalts it. For as, in real life, true poses the person to glory in it; to dignity is founded on character, not acknowledge, supposes a small degree on dress and parade, so the dignity of delinquency, which the acknow- of composition must arise from senti. ledgment compensates; to confess, ment and thought, not froin ornasupposes a higher degree of crimi- ment.” p. 127, 128. nality. A patriot avows his opposi- It is also observed that “every metion to a corrupt ministry, and is ap- taphor should carry the appearance plauded ; a gentleman acknowledges of having been led, not of having his mistake, and is forgiven; a pri- forced itself into the place of that soner confesses the crime of which he word whose rooin it occupies : it stands accused, and is punished. should seem to have come thither of 31, 32.

its own accord, and not by constraint. The tive following chapters dis- All allusions, which point to the more course on the structure of sentences, abstruse branches of the arts or sciand the clearness and precision, the ences, and with which none can be unity, the strength, and the bar. supposed to be acquainted, but those anony, to be regarded in the forma- who have penetrated far into the

tion of sentences. Figurative lan- deeper studies, should be carefully guage in general is next considered. avoided, not only as pedantic, but as Pissing by the figures, personification, impertinent : Uey pervert the use of apostrophe, hyperbole, and compa- this figure, and add neither grace nor rison, we notice on the figure méta- force to the idea they would elucipågr the following description : "A date. The most pleasing metaphors, metaphor differs from a simile io form therefore, are those which are de only, not in substance : comparison rived from the most frequent occuris the foundation of both. In a simile, rences of art or nature, or the civil the two subjects are kept distinct in transactions and customsof mankind." the expression, as well as in the p. 129. thoughts; in a metaphor they are From metaphor the author passes kept distinct in the thought, but not on to allegory, and then describes in the expression. A hero resembles and exemplifies the ditferent qualities a lion; and upon that resemblance of style in the following order: the many siniles have been founded by concise and the diffuse, the nervous Honier and other poets. But let us and the feeble, the veheinent, the call in the aid of the iinagination, and plain, the neat, the graceful, the to. figure the hero to be a lion instead of rid, and the simple and attected styles. only resembling one : by that varia- Then follow critical examinations of tion the simile is converted into a

passages in the writings of Addisoit, metaphor, which is carried on by de- Swift, Harris, and Robertson. Achap scribing all the qualities of the lion ter on the method of attaining a good which resemble those of the hero. style, and examples to illustrate the The poet, by figuring his hero to be progressive improveinent of English a lion, proceeds to describe the lion composition, with observations on e. in appearance, but in reality he is all pistolary writing, close the work. that while describiog the hero; and bis description becomes peculiarly beautiful, by expressing the virtues and qualities of the bero in terms which properly belong, not to hiin, but LIX. AN ADDREȘS 10 Instructors to the lion." p. 125.

and Parents on the right Choice In the directions for the use of this. and Use of Books in every Branch of figure, it is remarked that figures are Education, pointing out their respective the dress of our sentiments. " There Meries, and the order in which they is a natural congruity between the should be successively adopted. In. scribed to the London Society of School- great events which History has remasters, to aid whose excellent de- corded, or with the times and characsign the Profits of the Publication will ters of distinguished personages, be annually appropriated. By JOSHUA would at present be treated with ridiCOLLINS, A. M. Rector of Newport, 'cule even among the common classes and late Master of the Grammar of life. becoines, therefore, the inSchool in that Town.

telligent tutor, as well as the affection

ate parent, to take care that the НЕ

Jittle work is to present instruc- they are interested, be properly intors of youth with appropriate books formed in whatever is necessary to fit for the use of their pupils, in the va- them for the present improved and rious branches of education, and to still improving state of society. guard against all such as have a ten- Among the books which abound dency to taint the minds of youth. on the subjects connected with educaHe freely exposes the dangerous ten- tion, and professedly adapted to the dency of some already in use, which use of young persons, are some which, he recommends tutors to expunge, if thoroughly examined, will be found and proposes such as are free from to have a pernicious tendency, as beany immoral tendency. Our limits ing written with a view to disseminate will not allow us to give the lists of corrupt notions, while many contain books recommended by this Author, very indelicate descriptions and vul. which are accompanied with suitable gar expressions. observations; but as it appears to us It may happen, and doubtless it to be a useful directory, and is to be oftentimes does, that books of this purchased at a very low price, we sort are made use of, while the parents refer our readers to the work itself. and tutors are unacquainted with the

On the improving state of educa- offensive matter which they contain, tion the Author observes :

because they do not take the pains to “Weare now ready to admit into the examine them. Great care should be course of our practice, as tutors, books taken that the moral tendency of of taste and composition, which once every book put into the hands of would have been proscribed with a young persons be strictly pure; and rigorous severity, as having a ten- that there is nothing in it which may dency to divert the youthful from the have the most remote tendency to essential course of learning. This weaken the influence of religion upon must be regarded as one of those im- the mind." p. 16—19. portant improvements which promise As the author professes to write to be of the greatest advantage to the with a design to promote universal state of society, when the generation improvement, we insert the following so instructed shall have risen to matu- remarks on circulating libraries. “ It rity, and when the practice shall have were, therefore, to be wished, that all become inore universal. In teaching parents and instructors of youth, of children to read, it was formerly the both sexes, would establish it as an custom to put into their bands only immutable law, that none under their books of mere dry moral and abstract care do subscribe to, or borrow books precept; but as too many facts cannot from, circulating libraries. be impressed upon the young mind, “ The good, which may have reand we have books elegantly written sulted from these institutions, has upon almost every subject, it is clear been greatly counterbalanced by an that while the pupil is learning to overflowing mass of pestilential error. read, he may at the same time be The far greater part of the contents initiated into various branches of use- of every circulating library consists of ful knowledge.

trash, which has a direct tendency to “ Education formerly went little fur- poison the mind with false principles, ther than to inculcate an acquaintance or at least to weaken its energy, and with words, but it now happily begins give it a wrong direction. Large librato extend itself to a knowledge of ries, such as are to be found in cities things.

and great towns, may indeed contain “Thus to be ignorant of the situa- many valuable and instructing works tion and condition of different coun- in history, philosophy, morals, and tries, and the position of particular the sciences; but the more numerous places, to be unacquainted with the libraries consist almost wholly of no

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