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chieftains and gentlemen, who were him both at home and abroad: the many of them stock farmers and gra- sons of the most respectable persons ziers, though much better accommo- of the name lived a great part of the dated than their inferiors, occasionally year at his house, and were bred up lived like the common people *, and with his children. To bind the kincontended with them in hardiness, dred faster together, the cord of inmaintaining that it was unworthy of terest (in the most ordinary sense of a Highlander to stand in need even of the word) was drawn strait between oatmeal to discharge the prime duty them : the lands of the chief were let of a man, and fightior his chief.” to his nearest relations upon very easy
“ In these words, which are their terms; and by them parcelled out to own t, the Highlanders expressed their friends and relations, in the same their opinion of themselves, and their manner. That consanguinity, the enthusiasm for clanship. As that sin- great principle of clanship, might not gular institution formed and stamped
lose its force by being diffused amongst the peculiar character of the High- a multitude of men, many of whom landers, I shall endeavour to explain were far removed from the chief, there the principle of the domination of were intermediate persons called the chiefs, which now exists no more." chiestains, through whom the inferiors
“ The Highlands are divided into looked up to their chief. Every clan a number of territories or districts, consisted of several tribes, and the separated by rivers, lakes, or moun- head of each tribe was a representatains, sometimes by ideal and arbi. tion of a family descended from that trary boundaries. Each of these dis- of the chief. His patronimick (which tricis, called by the natives a country, marked his descent) denominated the was the residence of a clan or kin- tribe of which he was chieftain, and dred, who paid implicit obedience to his lands (for every chieftain had the Cean Cinne or bead of the kin- some estate in land) were let to his dred. This person (known in the friends and relations in the same manEnglish language by the name of ner that the lands of the chief were chief) was the hereditary magistrate, let to his friends: each chieftain had judge, and general of ihe clan: he a rank in the clan regiment, accord. determined all disputes that arose ing to his birth, and his tribe was his amongst bis people, and regulated company. The chief was colonel, their atlairs at bis discretion. From the eldest cadet I was lieutenant cohis judgment there was no appeal: lonel, and the next cadet was major. to decline the tribunal of the chief, In this state of subordination, civil and apply to any of the king's courts and military, every clan was settled for redress against one of the same upon their own territories, like a sekindred, was considered as highly parate nation, subject to the autho. criminal, a kind of treason against the rity of their chief alone. To his coun. constitution of clanship, and the ma- sels, prowess, and fortune, (to bis au. jesty of the chief. The sirname of spices,) they ascribed all their sucthe chief was the name of the clan, cess in war. The most sacred oath and the title which he bore constantly to a Highlander was to swear by the reminded the Highlanders of the hand of his chief. The constant exkindly origin of his power; for the clamation, upon any sudden accident, Cean Civne was the kinsman of his was, May God be with the chief, or, people, the source and fountain of May the chief be uppermost. Ready iheir blood. His habitation was the at all times to die for the head of place of general resort, the scene of the kindred, Highlanders have been martial and manly exercises : a number of the clan constantly attended * In settling the rank of their officers, the
same rule was not observed by every clan * The Highland gentlemen used to niake that took arms in the year 1745. In some hunting parties, and go to the hills in time of regiments, the eldest cadet was lieutenant frost and snow, where they remained several colonel, and in others the youngest cadet. days. They carried with them no provisions The Highlanders say, that according to the but bread and cheese, with some bottles of original customs of clanship, the eldest cadet whiskey, and slept upon the ground, wher- ought to be next in command tu the chief, ever night overtook them, wrapped up in and that the appointment of the youngest catheir plaids.
dei to the lieutenant colonel, was an innova+ The words of Sir Ewen Cameron, often tion introduced by these chiefs who had great quoted by his countrymen.
known to interpose their bodies be- assumed the musket instead of the tween the pointed musket and their bow, and, under the smoke of their chief*, and to receive the shot that fire, advanced to close with the enewas aimed at him."
my: As to their dress, or Highland " In such communities the king's garb (for so they call it at this day), peace and the law f of the land were which, like every thing unusual in not much regarded : beyond the ter- war, had an effect of terror in the last ritories of each clan, the sword was rebellion, it is needless now, when so the arbiter of all disputes : several of many battalions of the king's troops the clans bad inveterate quarrels, and wear it as their uniform, to describe a deadly feuds; they weni to war and dress which is to be seen every day fought battles. Rapine was often in the streets of London and Edina practised under pretext of reprisal burgh; but it seems necessary to menand revenge ; and in those parts of tion, that the target was no part of a the low country that bordered upon Highlander's accoutrement, except the Highlands, depradation and ra- in the day of battle; and in those pine were often committed without battles that were fought during the any pretence at all : bence, fierce- rebellion, most of the men in the front Dess of heart, prompt to attack or den rauk of every clan regiment, besides fend, at all times and places, became his other arms, had a pistol; though the characteristic of the Highlanders. in the present times, neither the 42d Proud of this prime quality, they al. regiment, renowned for valour, nor ways appeared like warriors, as if any other Highland regiment, has any their arms had been limbs and mem- arms but the musket and bayonet." bers of their bodies; they were never
“ Such were the arms and accou. seen without them: they travelled, trements of the Highlanders when they attended fairs and markets † ; they went to war,
Order and regunav, they went to church with their larity acquired by discipline, they broad swords and dirks; and in latter had little or none; but the spirit of times with their muskeis and pistols. clanship, in some measure, supplied Before the introduction of fire arms, the want of discipline, and brought the bow, the broad sword, and target them on together; for when a clan with the dirk, were the weapons of- advanced to charge an enemy, the fensive and defensive of the High- head of the kindred, the chief, was in landers
. When the use of fire arms his place, and every officer at his post became common in the kingdom, they supported by his nearest relations and
most immediate dependants. The Examples of this sort of enthusiasm private men were also marshalled acare handed down by tradition, and preserved cording to consanguinity: the father, in the memoirs and manuscript histories of the son, and the brother, stood next the Highland families. A low-country man, each other. This order of nature not many years ago, expressing his admira
was the sum of their tactic, the whole tion of one of those commoners who sacri.
of their art of war.” p.5-12. ficed himself to save the life of his chief, a The author then states the affecHighland gentleman said, that he saw no
tion of the Highlanders for the Stuart reason to admire the action so much, that the man did his duty, and no more; for he was a
family, and narrates the different revilain and a coward who in the same circum.
bellions in which they have engaged, Stances would not do the same.
concluding the first chapter with an † The chiefs sometimes went to law with account of the discovery of the last one another; but the decisions of the court rebellion before it broke out by Dunof session, and the judgments of the privy can Forbes, who warned government counsel, were not of much avail, unless the and proposed a plan to prevent it. party #bo had obtained judgment in his fa- Chap. II. Describes the conspivour was more powerful than his antagonist, racy to restore the family of Stuart, of beiter supported by his neighbouring with the negociations between the chiefs. Locheil and Mackintosh were at law Jacobites, the Pretender's son, and and at war for 360 years. In those days, that is about 150 years
the court of France, which produce ago, a clergy man in the Isle of Skye; this design is frustrated by a storm,
a determination to invade England ; went to church with a broad sword at his side, and his servant walked behind him and Charles, without any troops acwith his bow and quiver full of arrows. - companying him, lands in the HighLailes tivia the Isle of Skye, Appendix, Jands, and engages the Highlanders in Ne axvii.
Chap. III. Charles abode a little peared suitable, I have inserted them time at Boradale, where he saw se- in those places, where, according to veral of the chiefs, and having erected the passages prefixed to each of the his standard, commences hostilities, articles, ihey ought to stand. This and is successful. The rebels take method I apprehend to be new, and possession of Perth and cause great not before attempted, but I hope will aların at Edinburgh, where the inha- prove both agreeable and useful. As bitants petition for leave to take arms, it is the avowed intention of each are which is granted.
ticle to explain some passage, it is Chap. IV. Gives an account of the proper that it should be inserted at preparations made to defend Edin- length, and in a manner so conspi. burgh, with the occurrences which cuous as at once to attract the attentook place upon the arrival of the re- tion of the reader. bels, who take possession of the city,
“ To the materials collected from Chap. V. Relates the arrival of Mr. Harmer, have been added some Charles at Holyrood-House, and the very important remarks from Sbaw, proclaiming of his father at the cross; Pococke, Russel, Bruce, and other the account of the proceedings pre- eminent writers. It is admitted that vious to the battle of Preston, with many of these things have repeatedly the manœuvres of both armies, and passed through the press; but as the the success of the rebel army at that valuable observations which have been place.
made by travellers and critics lie inChap. VI to X. Give accounts of terspersed in separate and expensive the proceedings of both armies, and publications, a compendious selection the battles fought during the rebel- of them appeared very desirable, and lion, which is terminated at the battle is here accomplished. of Culloden, by the dispersion and “ But many of the following ob. defeat of the rebels.
servations are original : they are Chap. XI. Details the proceedings not however particularly distinguished of Charles after the battle of Cullo- from the rest. I must here avail den, to the time of his embarking in yself of an opportunity to acwith some of his friends for France; knowledge my obligations to Mr. Gil. his many difficulties and narrow lingwater, of Harleston, in Norfolk, escapes from danger are particularly for the very liberal manner in which noticed and described.
he favoured me with the use of his The Appendix contains a number manuscript papers. They consist of of letters and papers relating to the additions to, and corrections of Mr. rebellion, with which the work con- Harmer's observations, and were comcludes.
municated to that gentleman with a view to assist him in the farther prosecution of his work ; but it was too
late, as the fourth and last volume LI. ORIENTAL Customs; or an was then nearly completed at the
Illustration of the Sacred Scriptures, press, and in a single instance only by an Explanatory Application of the towards the close of it was any use Customs and Manners of the Eastern made of these materials. Froin this Nations, and especially the Jews, collection I have made many ex. therein alluded to; together with Ob- tracts, and have enriched this volume servations on many difficult and ob- with several new articles on subjects scure Texts, collected from the most which had not before been discussed. celebrated Travellers and the most in the progress of my work I have eminent Critics. By SAM. BUKDER, also derived very considerable assiste
ance from many valuable books fur. HE author explains the plan and nished by James Brown, Esq. of St.
nature of his work in the pre- Albans, for which I acknowledge myface, from which the following is an self greatly obliged, and especially extract:
for his very careful correction of the “I have endeavoured to select from manuscript before it went to the Mr. Harmer's observations whatever press.” appeared important and interesting. As specimens of the work itself, This has not indeed been done in the (which makes an 8vo. vol. of 400 paform of a regular abridgment; but ges) we give the following articles : after extracting such materials as ap- « No. 45. Exodus xxiii. 19. Thos
thalt #of serth a kid in his mother's milk.] • walk several times over the fire. AfCUDWORTH (on the Lord's Supper, 'ter the ceremony, the people press p. 14.) gives a very curious account of to collect some of the ashes to rub the superstition, on account of which their foreheads with, and obtain from he conceives the secthing of a kid in its the devotees some of the flowers with dam's milk to have been prohibited. which they were adorned, and which * It was a custom of the ancient hea. *they carefully preserve.' thens, when they had gathered in all “ No. 55. Levit. xxvi. 26. Ten wo. their fruits, to take a kid, and boil it men shall bake your bread in one oven.] in the dam's milk, and then, in a ma. An oven was designed only to serve a 'gical way, to go about and besprinkle single family, and to bake for them
with it all their trees, and fields, and no niore than the bread of one day. * gardens, and orchards; thinking by This usuage still continues in some this means they should make them places, and gives peculiar force to *fructify, and bring forth fruit again these words. Harmer, vol. i. p. 259."
more abundantly ihe following year. “No. 113. 1 Kings ji. 9. Now, there• Wherefore God forbad his people, fore hold him not guilless; for thou art a * the Jews, at the time of their in- wise man, and knowest what thou oughtest * gathering, to use any such supersti- to do unto him ; but his hoary head bring tious or idolatrous rite.'"
thou down to the grave with blood.] * No. 54. Levit. xviii. 21. Thou shalt David is bere represented in our xu let any of thy seed pass through the fire English version, as finishing his life * Moloch.) Horrid as is the practice with giving a command to Solomon prohibited in these words, we have to kill Shimei; and to kill him on irresistible evidence of its prevalence, account of that very crime, for which The manner in which it was per. he had sworn to him by the Lord, he formed has been variously described, would not put him to death. The especially by the rabbins. Sonnerat behaviour thus imputed to the king (Trav. vol. i. p. 154) gives the foland prophet, should be examined lowing account of this custom : “A very carefully as to the ground it still more astonishing instance of the stands upon.' When the passage is superstition of the ancient Indians, in duly considered, it will appear highly * respect to this venerated fire, remains probable that an injury has been done * at ihis day, in the grand annual fes- to this illustrious character. It is not 'tival holden in honour of Darına Ra- uncommon in the Hebrew language jah, and called the FEAST OF FIRE, to omit the negative in a second part in which, as in the ancient rites of of a sentence, and to consider it as Moloch, the devotees walk barefoot, repeated, when it has been once exover a glowing fare, extending foriy pressed, and is followed by the confeet
. It is called the feast of fire, be- necting particle. The necessity of so cause they then walk on that ele. very considerable an alteration, as ment. It lasts eighteen days, during inserting the particle not, may be which time, those who make a vow here confirmed by some other in
to keep it, must fast, abstain from wo- stances. Thus, Psalm i. 5. The un'men, lie on the bare ground, and godly shall not stand in the judgment, Falk on a brisk fire. The eighteenth NOR (the Heb. is nd, signifying and day they assemble, on the sound of not) sinners in the congregation of the * instruments, their heads crowned with righteous. Psalm ix. 18.; xxxviii. 1.; fowers, the body bedaubed with saffron, lxxv.5.; Prov. xxiv. 12. If then there and follow in cadence the
figures of Dar- are in fact many such instances, the ma Rajah, and of Drobede, his wife, question is, whether the negative, toko are carried' there in procession. here expressed in the former part of
When they come to the fire they stir David's command, may not be un‘it, to animate its activity, and take a derstood as to be repeated in the lat"little of the asbes, with which they ter part; and if this may be, a strong rub their foreheads, and when the reason will be added why it should be * gods have been three times round it, so interpreted. The passage will run They walk either fast or slow, accord- thus : Behold, thou hast with thee Shi
ing to their zeal, over a very hot fire, mei, who cursed me, but I sware to him 'extended to abont forty feet in length. by the Lord, saying, I will not put thee * Some carry their children in their arms; to death by the sword. Now iherefore *and others lances, sabres, and stan- hold him not guiltless, (for thou art a "dards. The most fervent devotees wise man, and knowest what theu oughta:
est to do unto him) but bring not down this; it was however general as to all his hoary head to the grave with blood persons, though it received very parNow, if the language itself will admit ticular attention, as far as it concerned this construction, the sense thus given their kings. It is thus described in to the sentence derives a very strong Franklin's History of Ancient and support from the context. For how Modern Egypt, vol. i. p. 374.
"As did Solomon understand this charge? 'soon as a man was dead, he was did he kill Shimei in consequence of 'brought to his trial. The public acof it certainly he did not. For af- cuser was heard. If he proved that ter he had immediately commanded 'the deceased had led a bad life, his Joab to be slain, in obedience to his "inemory was condemned, and he was father, he sends for Shimei, and know- "deprived of the honours of sepulture. ing that Shimei ought to be well Thus, that sage people were affected watched, confines him to a particular with laws which extended even bespot in Jerusalem for the remainder 'yond the grave, and everyone, struck of his life. (Kings ii. 36-42. Ken- with the disgrace inflicted on the nicott's Remarks, p. 131."
dead person, was afraid to reflect dis“No. 137. 2 Chron. xxviji. 27. And honour on his own memory, and that Ahaz slept with his fathers, and they bu- of his family. ried him in the ciiy, even in Jerusalem ; • But what was singular, the sove. but they brought him not into the sepulchres 'reign himself was not exempted from of the kings of Israel.] The Israelites "this public inquest upon his death, . were accustomed to honour in a pecu- “The public peace was interested in liar manner the memory of those kings 'the lives of their sovereigns in their who had reigned over them uprightly. 'administration, and as death termiOn the contrary, some marks of post- ‘nated all their actions, it was then humous disgrace followed those mo- . deemed for the public welfare, that narchs who left the world under the they should suffer an impartial scrudisapprobation of their people. The tiny by a public trial, as well as the proper place of interment was in Je- 'most common subject. Even some rusalem. There, in some appointed of them were not ranked among the receptacle, the remains of their 'honoured dead, and consequently were princes were deposited: and, from deprived of public burial. The Israthe circumstance of this being the elites would not sutier the bodies of cemetery for successive rulers, it was some of their flagitious princes to be said, when one died and was so bu- 'carried into the sepulchres appropriried, that he was gathered to his fa- ‘ated to their virtuous sovereigns. thers. Several instances occur in the “The custom was singular : the etect history of the kings of Israel, wherein, 'must have been powerful and influon certain accounts, they were not ential. The most haughty despot, thus interred with their predecessors, who might trample on laws human but in some other place in Jerusalem. 'and divine in his lite, saw, by this so. So it was with Abaz, who though 'lemninvestigation of human conduct, brought into the city, was not buried that at death he also would be doomin the sepulchres of the kings of Is- 'ed to infamy and execration.' What rael. In some other cases, perhaps to degree of conformity there was be. mark out a greater degree of censure, tween the practice of the Israelites they were taken to a small distance and the Egyptians, and with whom from Jerusalem. It is said that Uz- the custom first originated, may be ziah was buried wish his fathers in the difficult to ascertain and decide; but field of the burial which belonged to the the conduct of the latter appears to kings; for they said, he is a leper. be founded on the same principle as (2 Chron. xxvi. 23.) It was doubtless that of the former, and as it is more with a design to make a suitable im- circumstantially detailed, affords us pression on the minds of their kings an agreeable explanation of a rite while living, that such distinctions but slightly mentioned in the scripwere made alter their decease. They tures." might thus restrain them from evil or No. 245. Isaiah xxi. 5. Anoint the excite them to good, according as shield.] As the Israelites were usually they were learful of being execrated, very careful of their armour, so parti. or desirous of being honoured, when cularly of their shields. Upon these they were dead. The Egyptians had their names and warlike deeds were a custom in some measure similar to generally engraved. These they