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from moral rectitude is to be found “ It may be that he has forgotten in his history, argued in his favour. the glowing picture which the same He is compared with Minos, Numa, poet has drawn of the consequences Lycurgus, and Mahomet. The scheme of bigotry, with which the ingenuity of Jesus, if founded in fraud, proved of malevolence itself cannot slander to be less excusable than those of Christianity, as having the most rethese acknowledged deceivers, con- mote connection. It may be, that he sequently not imputable to one of his has passed slightly over a scene, from good character. The inquiry, whe- the barbarity of which human nature ther he could have been actuated by almost recoils--in which, however an any good motive to assume false infidel historian, with perfect conpretensions, answered in the nega- sistency, finds only some obscure tive.
traces of an intolerant spirit.' In chapter the seventh, Mr. God “ If, without the authority of the win's misrepresentations of the Chris. Areopagus, any one had attempted to tian Religion, and the character of introduce the worship of a strange its founder, are examined.
god, the laws of Athens assigned death A passage from Mr. Godwin's En- for his punishments. But were a si. quirer is quoted, and the charges in milar severity to be employed in a it are reduced to three beads. 1. That Christian state, it would be imputed bigotry and intolerance are encou
2 Gibbon, c. ii. note 3. raged by the Christian Religion. 2.That
3 Joseph. c. Apion ii. 37. Nópai on an improper stress is laid upon faith. 3. That there are certain moral de Twpice serà suy živox risuyorsuy Sedy wpiso
τέτο τσαρ' αύτοϊς (Αθηναίοις) κεκαλυμενον, και fects in the character and temper of θάνατος. Jesus Christ. Each of these charges See Wesseling's note on Petit's Legg. Att. is examined separately, and confuted, p. 69. Even M1. Hume has shewn his tenpartly by historical documents, and derness to the religions of antiquity, when he partly by critical enquiry into the says, that except the banishment of Prota. texts, Mark xvi. 16. and Matth. xxiii. goras, and the death of Socrates, which last 33. This writer is shewn to have event proceeded partly from other motives, misunderstood or perverted them. A
there are scarce any instances to be met with fair deduction is then made from the in amient history, of this bigoted jealousy subjects of the enquiry in favour of fected.' I readily agree, that other consi
with which the present age is so much inchristianity.
derations, beside those of religion, actuated Persuaded that our readers will be the persecutors of Socrates ; but is impiety gratified with a perusal of able and had not been made the pretext, his country, decisive arguments against such gross men would nut have put him to death; and misrepresentations of the Christian re this circumstance it became the candour of ligion, it is with pleasure we extract Mr. Hume to point out. I must further obthe following refutation of the charge, serve, that Mr. Hume passes in silence over that bigotry and intolerance are sanc the case of Anaxagoras, who certainly was tioned by the doctrines of the Chris- compelled to quit his country because he tian religion. “This author (Mr.G.)is was accused, or at least suspected of impiety. 80 eager to fix the odious charge of bi- Diogenes Laertius is content with telling us, gotry upon the Christian system, that wil rñs 81205 coutë dicepozee aéreobas; but the
číxn, whatever extent it might go, evihe seems to represent such a spirit as
dently was on account της ασεβειας αυτά. . not having been introduced into the According to Plutarch, he was not conworld, till this religion arose to dis. demned, nor even regularly accused; but by cover and to cherish it. It appears the advice of Pericles he left Athens, for the then that he is ignorant of the bi- purpose of avoiding accusation. That advice gotry of the Egyptians; between two however was given in consequence of the of whose tribes an animosity arose, law which Diopithes had proposed to the from a difference in religious senti- people; (sicayzinaccbat ads to Fric lan volta ments, which cannot be characterized Sortus,) and which alarmed Pericles for the in stronger terms than in those which safety of Anaxagoras. Vidend. Plutarch in the satyrist has employed.”
Vit. Pericles. See also the whole chapter
of Josephus above cited, in which many inInter finitimos vetus atque antiqua simultas, stances of intolerance among the antients, Immortale odium, et nunquam sanabile and particularly the Athenians, are stated vulnus
and commented upon. Respecting the charge Ardet sadkact:
brought against Anaxagoras, consult Mil
ford's History of Greece, cap. xxii, sec. 3. Jurenal, Sat. xv. 33. See xv, 78, &c. Vol. v, p. 141, 8vo.
not merely to the policy of govern- pose the statement of his zealous coors, but to the temper of priests. The adjutor in the cause of infidelity. Mr. odious bigotry of Antiochus Epi- Gibbon admits, that the religious pophaness, will not easily escape the licy of the ancient world seems to recollection of any, but of those who have assumed a more stern and into. will impute no fault, nor arraign any lerant character, to oppose the procrime, except it be found to involve gress of Christianity. About four. in its consequences the friends of re- score years after the death of Christ, vealed religion. Had the law which his innocent disciples were punished was inscribed in the xii tables, Pere- with death by the sentence of a progrinos Deos ne colunios, been consi. consul of the most amiable and philodered as the edict of a Christian sophic character; and according to prince, we should probably have the laws of an emperor, distinguished heard the loudest complaints against by the wisdom and justice of his gethe spirit of bigotry by which it was neral administration. The apologies dictated : and if the demolition of which were repeatedly addressed to the temple of Seraphis and Isis liad the successors of Trajan, are filled been etfected by the order of an ec with the most pathetic complaints, clesiastical synod, instead of a hea- that the Christians, who obeyed the then senate, it would doubtless have dictates, and solicited the liberty of been styled an atrocious outrage upon conscience, were alone, among all the the unalienable rights of private judg- subjects of the Roman empire, exment, instead of being represented as cluded from the common benefits of proceeding from the use of a com- their auspicious government? mon privilege,' and ascribed to the “ So far a check is put upon the • cold and feeble efforts of policy 6.' assertion of Mr. Godwin with reBut it is particularly remarkable, that spect to the introduction of bigotry. a spirit of intolerance should be re- But the zeal of the historian does not presented as owing its introduction allow him to continue long the adyo. to Christianity, when the violent vocate of the church, since he imme. means which were adopted for the diately seizes the opportunity of makpurpose of crushing this very religion ing the following observation : • From at the time when its professors are the time that Christianity was inuniversally acknowledged to have vested with the supreme power, the been inoffensive and unambitious, governors of the church have been are too well known to be controvert- no less diligently employed in dised. The force of historic truth is in playing the cruelty, than in imitating this instance too powerful to be sup- the conduct of their pagan adversapressed, or evaded : upon this occa- ries!' sion, therefore, the historian, who Still, however, the historian does would gladly co-operate with any not keep pace with the philosopher, plausible attempt to injure Christia. Consistently enough with their difnity, must be brought forward to op- ferent provinces, the former satisfies
himself with diligently remarking the 4 1 Maccab. i. 41. I am unwilling to
facts, which in his opinion disgrace urge the conduct of Cambyses, when he sabe the cause of Christianity, while the bed Apis, and ordered the priests to be latter more boldly aims his attack at scourged, and put the leading men at Memphis io death. See Herodot. b. iii. c. 29. its very principles, and at once en"The vexations of Cambyses from his misfor- deavours to strip it of all pretence to tunes probably produced a phrensy, and that divine origin, by declaring that the phrensy burst out in acts of violence, where odious spirit, of which he complains, is intolerance was plainly mixed with im- countenanced in its doctrines. Upon piety and revenge. It is however impos- this ground also we are ready to meet sible to exonerate the Persian Magi, or Xerxes, him; and here it is obvious to rewho acted under their direction, from the mark, that he has been led into the charge both of intolerance and fanaticism.' vulgar error of confounding the priuNec sequor magos persarum; quibus auctoribus Xerxes inflammasse templa Græciæ ciples of the Christian docirine, with
the mistaken notions and corrupt dicitur. Cic. de Legg. lib. ii. sec. 10. Edit. Emerti.
practices of some, who have professed 5 Separatim nemu habessit Deos ; neve no
themselves bound to obey that docvos, sine advenas, nisi publice adscitos, pri- trine implicitly. That too many in. vatim colunto. Cecer. ibid. sect. 8.
6 Gibbon, Vol. I. p. 33. and note 15. 7 Vol. I. p. 519.
dividuals, and even parties, styling partakes of a desire to prevail with themselves Christian, have deviated any other weapons than those of truth from the spirit of their religion so and reason. Far from requiring ascompletely, as to encourage bigotry sent to assertions destitute of proof, and practise intolerance, is certainly far froin expecting conviction withtrue ; but that such doctrines or prach out the legitimate means of enforcing tices are authorized by scripture, we it, Jesus supported his claim to the are warranted by its whole tenour in character be assumed, by a series of denying. If Mr. Godwin will take close and connected reasoning !0, which the pains to learn to recollect what prejudice indeed did resist, and sothe national spirit of the Jews was, phistry may still elude, bụt which and what their inveterate prejudices, can never be addressed in vain to before Jesus appeared among thein, men of sober and dispassionate judgand will then remark all that he did ment. The instruments which reason to enlarge their minds and purify is accustomed to use in the search or their hearts; that his doctrines were the defence of what it conceives to be those of the most unbounded philan- truth, were employed by Jesus to thropy, and his life one uniform scene confound the petulance, to correct of benevolence; Mr. G. will blush the mistakes, and to enlighten the un. at the charge he has adduced against derstanding of his adversaries. Inthe Christian religion and the charac- deed it is impossible for the most ter of its founder. Jesus, who first pro- captious infidel to suggest any fair nounced a blessing upon the ner and adequate mode of demonstrating ciful and peace-makers, who incul- his divine mission, which was not at cated the return of good for evil; some time or other produced in the who enforced in the most authentic sight, and in the hearing of the Jewish and persuasive manner, the virtues of people. The disciples exacted not a humility, mutual forgiveness, and uni- blind obedience from those whom versal good-will, could not preach a they addressed; but they reasoned religion of bigotry and intolerance. from the prophecies contained in the He, who rebuked his disciples, when Scriptures, and enforced their arguthey would have called 'down fire ments by the evidence of facts. With from heaven upon the inhospitable great power gave the Apostles witSamaritans; who himself healed the ness of the Lord Jesus.'— And wound, which had been inflicted in Paul, as his manner was, went in his defence by the unseasonable zeal "unto them, and three sabbath days of one of his followers 8 ; he, who • reasoned with them out of the Scrip. taught the rejection of the Jews, and 'tures, opening and alledging that admission of the Gentiles into the • Christ must needs have suttered, and Messiah's kingdom; he, who breathed ‘risen again from the dead.' Normust out a prayer for his murderers, when we forget the generous encomium they were piercing his body with the which is passed by the sacred histoinstruments of torture"; he, surely, rian upon the Jews of Berea, not for has thus taught the most effectual acquiescing without examination, nor lesson against every species of bigotry for assenting without enquiry, but and intolerance. Nor is it merely by because they received the word with the force of his example, and the all readiness of mind, and searched obvious sense of his precepts, that he 'the Scriptures daily, whether those fully repels the odious imputation; • things were so 11.' To the same effect but the manner in which his religion are many passages in the Epistles of was offered to the acceptance of man the first propagators of the gospel. kind, both by himself and by his disciples, abundantly shews how foreign 10 In the sermon on the mount, Mati. cap. from its nature is every thing which v. vi. and vii, are many admirable specimens
of close reasoning and logical interence, as Compare Luke xxii. 51. with Matt. xxvi. also in the 12th chapter of the same evan52: “ Christianity,” (observes Newcome) gelist. In St. John, however, are to be “is very far from prornising a special pro
found the greatest variety of instances, in tection to those who have recourse io violence
which the force of argument is directly apand arms, in support even of truth and right." plied to establish the divinity of Christ's P. 283. How different is this from the spi- mission. See chapters iii. 11–20; v. 31, rit of Mahometism and of Popery!
39; vii. 18; viii. 46-54.; X. 25-34; xiv.
10-29; xv. 24. 9 See Newcome, pp. 390, 439.
11 See Acts iv. 33; xviii, 2, 3. and 11 Vol. I.
St. Paul, after enjoining his proselytes thought no one could refuse such a to examine themselves whether they cause the hearing, and still less object be in the faith, openly makes this ac- to it as containing in its principles knowledgment; we can do nothing the odious spirit of intolerance.
against the truth, but for the truth.' " Whether therefore we look to the In the character of a Bishop, drawn doctrines of the Christian religion, as by the same Apostle, he is described published by its author, or as enforced to be, ' holding forth the faithful by his friends and followers; or whe• word, as he hath been taught, that ther we consider the manner in which • he may be able by sound doctrine those doctrines were offered to the ** both to exhort and to convince the general acceptance of mankind; it 'gainsayers 12. St. Peter also exhorts is surely impossible not to acknowto the same etfect : • Be ready always ledge, that the charge of introducing 'to give an answer to every man bigotry into the world is directly con
that asketh you a reason of the hope tradicied by the most unequivocal " that is in you with meekness and testimony that history can supply: and • fear 13.
with respect to the charge of perpetu“ Thus we see that Jesus and his ating it, I scruple not to assert, that disciples, in publishing the gospel, there is not, in the whole compass of proposed and adopted the criteria, to the New Testament, a single passage which recourse must be had in the upon which it can be founded, withinvestigation of all truth. They ap out bidding defiance to all the estapealed to the convincing evidence of blished rules of accurate interpretafacts, and enforced that appeal by tion. Such is my conviction upon the powers of reasoning. They brought the question of fact; and it well deforward testimony, which it was com serves to be remarked, that, having petent to their antagonists to dis so few worldly means for propagating prove or object to, if there had been his religion, Jesus would have acted any grounds of objection ; and they a most unwise and inconsistent part, reasoned in defence of the conclusions in encouraging that intolerance, which they formed from sources, which it must have alarined his hearers for the was equally in the power of their safety of his own favourite tenets, and hearers to examine and to under determined to resist, even with vio. stand. And as if for the express pur- lence, the introduction of any other." pose of guarding against a too hasty PP. 288 to 300. assent, they urged their investigation The eighth and last chapter exhiof those sources of information, and bits a view of the defects of the evi. praised as noble the conduct of those dence in favour of the Mahometan menwho searched the Scriptures daily, religion. whether those things were so. Now Aller shewing the connection of the surely no conduct can be more free proposed inquiry, with the design of from the suspicion of artifice, or the the work, the situation of the Roman imputation of bigotry. To lay your and Persian empires; and the genius claims to assent fairly and fully before and temper of the Arabs, the author the world, to desire that they'rnay be proceeds to relate the pedigree, pascrutinized with all possible exact- ironage, qualifications, pursuits, and ness, and to expect acquiescence only influence of the impostor, and other as you have the means of enforcing things relative to the opinions of his conviction, is a proceeding so equi- followers. The claims in favour of table and reasonable, that it might be the Koran refuted; the deficiency of its
evidence proved; and the chapter 12 Mr. Wakefield's translation of this verse closes with an appeal to infidels in expresses the sense of the original still mure
behalf of our holy religion. clcariy, “Keeping to the true doctrine which At the end of the illustrations are he hath been taught, that he may be able to two Latin pieces. The first is a encourage some by wholesome instruction, Thesis, Nequit per se humana ratio and contute others who contradict." The cognitione satis plenà et certà assequi, words to W.5726yr, appear to me to mean,
quo potissimùm modo Deus sit co. that series of facts and doctrines, which lendus, quæ sint hominum officia, vita formed the substance of the apostles' preach- denique lutura sit; necne, æterna. ing, and was entirely worthy of credit.
The second, Concio ad Clerum*. 13 Sec 2 Cor. xii. 8. Tit. i. 9. 1 Pet. iii. 15.
* Judic xi. comm. 39.
Expletisque duobus mensibus re. agriculture. The only commodity of versa est ad patrem suum: et fecit ei the country that fetches money is sicut voverat, quæ ignorabet virum. cattle; and the chief employment of
the inhabitants is to take care of the herds of their black cattle, and to
wander after them among the moun. L THE HISTORY OF THE REBEL- tains."
LION in the Year 1745. By JOHN “ From this account of the High, Home, Esq.
lands, it is manifest that the common
people, earning little, must have fared HIS work is dedicated to the accordingly, and lived upon very lit. Scotland, a bust of Charles Edward how they really did live, and how Stuart, engraved by Fittler; and plans they endured the want of those things of the batiles of Preston, Falkirk, and which other people call the conveni. Colloden.
ences, and even the necessaries of The Introduction commences with life. Their houses scattered in a glen a description of the country and man. or strath t, were usually built of sod pers of the Highlanders, on which or turf, sometimes of clay and stone, subjects it is observed, “ Scotland is without lime, In such habitations, withdivided into Highlands and Low. out household stuff, or utensilswrought lands : these countries, whose inha- by an artificer, the common people bitants speak a ditferent language, lived during the winter I, lying upon aad wear a different garb, are not se: boards, with heath or straw under parated by friths or rivers, nor distin- them, and covered with their plaids guished by northern and southern la. and blankets. For a great part of titude : the same shire, the saine pa. the year, they subsisted chiefly upon rish, at this day, contains parts of whey, butter, cheese, and other preboth; so that a Highlander and Low- parations of milk, sometimes upon lander (each of them standing at the the blood of their cattle §, without door of the cottage where he was much grain or animal food, except bom) hear their neighbours speak a what of the latter they could procure language which they do not under by fishing or hunting, which, before stand."
the late rebellion, were free to people "The Highlands and Islands make of all ranks, in a country where the nearly one half of Scotland, but do rivers and lakes swarmed with fish, not contain one eighth part of the in. and the hills were covered with gaine. babitants of that kingdom. The face Making a virtue of necessity, the of the country is wild, rugged, and Highlanders valued themselves upon desolate, as is well expressed by the being able to live in this manner, and epithets given to the mountains, which to endure cold and hunger to a degree are called the grey, the red, the black, almost incredible. In those days the and the yellow mountains, froin the colour of the stones, of which in some + A glen is a narrow vale with a rivulet, places they seem to be wholly com- and hills on each side. A strath is a valley, posed, or from the colour of the moss with its hills and a river. which in other places covers them
The winter town, as it was called, conlike a inantle.” p., 5.
sisted of a number of such houses, and some
times a better one belonging to a gentleman "In the Highlands, there are no
or farmer. In summer the Highlanders left cities nor populous towns * ; no trade the winter town with their cattle and servants, or commerce, no manufactures but and went to the hills, (for to each of the winfor home consumption; and very little ter towns belonged a considerable tract of
land in the adjacent hills.) There they built * There are several royal boroughs in the temporary huts in the shylings, or best spots Highlands, that make a part of the different of pasture, removing from one shyling to districts (each of which districts sends a re- another, when the grass failed. About the presentative to parliament). Some of these end of August they left the hills and returned boroughs lie near the line of separation, and to the winter town). are inhabited by a mixed race of people, The first thing the Highilanders did when Highlanders and Lowlanders. In the bus they went to the hills, was to bleed all their. Fough of Nairne, at the time of the rebellion, black cattle, and boiling the blood in ketiles, the inhabitants of one side of the town spake with a great quantity of salt; as soon as the English, and their neighbours on the other mass became cold and solid, they cut it is side spake Gælic,
pieces, and laid it up for food.