Obrazy na stronie

for dividing the fluid by either of its work. There is much similar infor. extremities indifferently. We shall 'mation. We shall just state the mecease to be surprized that, since they thod, and mention the remaining subare acquainted with the hatchet, jects. which seems to afford both facility The first volume is divided into six and dispatch, they have not preferred chapters; the first contains the dethe use of it to the laborious and long parture from Marseilles, and arrival proceeding which they continue to at Santa Christina. The second gives employ, if we do not forget that fire a general description of the Marquehas the property of hardening, the sas, and a particular one of Santa wood to which it has been applied, Christina, taken from accounts of the consequently of procuring it greater Spaniards, English and French; the density, and of rendering it more im- accounts of the soil, productions, pervious to the water. It cannot be manners, &c. of this place, are very doubted that they have discovered in copious and particular. In the third fire this property of rendering wood is a description of a newly discovered more compact, and of prolonging its island, at a short distance from the duration when it is to be exposed to Marquesas, with an account of its inmoisture, since, when they make a habitants, and the run of the ship point to a stake which they intend from thence to the North-west coast to be driven into the ground, they of America. take great care to harden, by ineans In the fourth chapter is given an ac. of fire, all the part that is to be bu- count of their arrival at the Northried.” p. 234.

west coast, and their putting into In the account given of their man- Dixon's Norfolk Sound, with the ners, it is worthy of observation, that events during their stay; their traffic “the men appear to have for the wo- with the natives for furs; and a partimen the regard and attention which cular account of the place and the their weakness claims; they are not people. The fifth contains their deseen here, as among most of the sa- parture from Tchinkitanay, discovery vage nations of AMERICA, charged of three good harbours on the coast, with the rudest labours, and frequently and the directing of their course to treated no better than our beasts of China, it being the object of this burden. The men have reserved for voyage to obtain furs from the norththemselves every laborious occupa- west coast of America to dispose of tion, hunting, fishing, and the prepa- in India. The sixth chapter conration and cooking of meat and fish. cludes this volume, with offering conThe employmenis of the women con- jectures respecting the manner in sist in cleaning the skins from their which the north-west coast of Amelast grease, and sewing them and rica may have been peopled. mahing them into dresses. Their dif- The second volume contains three ficulty in walking, and their embon- chapters, and considerable additions point announce that their life is very to the work. In the seventh chapter sedentary. They were seen some- is described the passage from the times to handle a paddle, but in cases north-west coast of America to the only when they were alone in the Sandwich Islands, where they obtain canoe, or when the men were not in refreshments, and make for Macao sufficient numbers to manage it. They through the Archipelago of the Mary appear very subordinate to their husAnne Islands; the introduction of furs bands ; but the latter have for them into China, by the southern ports, had the greatest respect; and they sel- just been prohibited. In the eighth dom take the liberty of concluding a chapter the passage of the China Sea bargain without consulting them. The is described in their departure from women eat in compon with the hus Macao, with the pass through Garband and the studien; and it is well par's Strait, and the navigation from known, that among the greater part thence to the Isle of France. In the of the tribes which occupy the islands ninth chapter is the departure of the of the GREAT OCEAN, and among voyagers from the Isle of France; they some of those of the continent of pass the Isle of Bourbon, stop at St. AMERICA, the men never admit the Helena, and from thence return to women to their table." p. 242. Toulon, after an absence of twenty

From the foregoing extracts our months. readers may form an estimate of the The design of the voyage, in point of trade, was totally unsuccessful, ow- We then find 274 pages occupied ing to the prohibition abovemen- with results of the observations for tioned : and as the cargo was sent to the latitude and longitude, made in Lyons with the hope of an advan- the course of the voyage, serving to tageous market, but arriving just be- determine the changes occasioned by fore the destruction of that place; the the curreats in the apparent course furs were seized, and being forgotten and rate of sailing of the ship, in the under the seals, notwithstandir.g the different tracts of the sea which she remonstrances of the proprietors, crossed, as well as the error in the through delay they became a prey to calculation of the dead reckoning in worms and were lost.

the interval of the observations, and The chapters are succeeded by vo- at the period of each land-fall. cabularies of the languages spoken in The whole work concludes with a some of the islands which they visited, journal of the voyage. and additions to the narrative of the voyage.

XLVIII. SOULAVIE's MEMOIRS OF The fifth chapter describes the inLEWIS XVI.

surrection of the Americans, the op(Continued from page 156.) 1 position in the British Parliament as

favourable to the colonies, and the Fourth Epoch, or the Liberty of Ame- character and portrait of Lord Chat

rica; preceded with the History of the ham, called by the Author, the soul Causes of the War against England. of the opposition, and the idol of

England. HE first second chapters

chapter informs

Thentaine aan account of the tres conduct of friander under these cire

mote and immediate causes of the cumstances, with the representation American war, between France and made by Count Broglio to Lewis England; to which Lewis XVI. was XVI. of the hostile designs of the Dol inclined, as appears from the fol- English. The seventh contains the lowing note written by him, in the opposite opinions of the British gomargin of the ministerial papers : vernment, and the opposition re" What a situation is mine! Why specting the Americans; the portraits should I be obliged, by reasons of of Lord Chatham and Mr. Burke ; state, and the pretext of a great mili- the celebrated speech of the former tary operation already entered upon, in favour of the Americans, with his to sign orders which' my heart con-, hatred against France, and the edudemns, and to which my opinions are cation of Mr. Pitt, his son, in his adverse?”

own sentiments. The third chapter shews the flou. In the eighth chapter is recorded rishing state of England after the the manifesto of France against Great peace of 1763, the dissatisfaction of Britain, with the notes of Lewis XVI. the Americans, and the clandestine printed in separate columns. As the succours granted by France to the notes of the king to this manifesto English colonies.

appear to us highly interesting, partiIn the fourth chapter is a descrip. cularly as they display the disposition tive portrait of the character and vir- and sentiments of that prince, we are tues of George III. and of his queen, prompted to transcribe a part as a with an account of the persons who specimen. composed his cabinet.



LEWIS XVI. “His Majesty plainly declared to “ We have done more, we have the King of England, that he was not, pronounced them a free people ; we and did not pretend to erect hiinself have cominunicated to them existence into a judge of the quarrel between as a nation ; a claiın which, when it Great Britain and ber colonies; nor is disputed by the power which is in did he pretend to avenge any sup- possession of the sovereignty, cannot posed injustice of England.

be confirmed but by the recognition of foreign powers. "It is this act of recognition into which we have en. tered, which we are bound to prove

to be an act legal and just. “ His majesty has been under the “ As this tyranny is the true and necessity of inviting the Catholic only.cause of the hostile proceedings King to upite with him, by virtue of of France, I conceive, that an exact their engagements to redress their representation of the English empire, respective grievances, and to set and the use they make of it, is abso bounds to the tyrannical usurpation lutely necessary, as a justifying docuwhich England bas entered into and meni in behalf of all the measures we persists in, in all affairs of a maritime may take against Great Britain. nature.

“ The King might devote to silence “ i ought not to impute to the King and oblivion the calumnies and mis- of England the possibility of having takes, on which the king of England calumniated me; according to the founds his defence; and it is with most notorious principles of English the greatest repugnance, that he feels law, he cannot be guilty of a calumpy. himself obliged to take some notice His ministers are universally responof them.

sible; they are alone held to be guilty; and it is to them we ought to attribute the calumnies of which we may have to complain. This remark

as of essential importance. “ He remained a tranquil specta- “ It would be difficult to persuade tor of the contest between Great Bri- the French nation, the English, og tain and her colonies; and the utter the people of Europe, that France aversion he felt for every thing which has taken no part in the troubles of could excite the slightest suspicion of the English colonies; it would, therehis taking any part in the business fore, be better not to utter afsyllable has prevented him from entering into on this subject; since, true or false, correspondences of any sort with the our asseveration will scarcely be bea insurgents of America.”

lieved.” p. 398—401,

The ninth chapter contains consi- themselves called upon to expose derations on the effects of the alliance their lives in the maintenance of opi. of France with America; in which it nions of such a nature as, at all times, is remarked, that, “ The French and in all countries, have given a conmonarchy was indebted for its splen- cussion to the human mind; have let dour to the submission of its inhabi- loose the passions of our species ; have bitants, to the directing and absolute placed governments in the most pericontroul of their government; and fous situations, and have utterly annithe troops of the king went, sword in hilated all those whose genius and hand, to support at Philadelphia the force were inferior to the genius and doctrine of the act of American inde- force of the people who attacked pendence, which maintained, ex- them." p. 414, 415. pressly and unequivocally, that the It is therefore argued by the Aujust power of governments could only thor, that the nobility who abandonbe derived from the consent of the ed their order in 1789, performed people." p. 413, 414.

their revolutionary, studies in the “In fine, Lewis XVI. sent to Phi- United States; and that the interladelphia the flower of his troops, ference of the French in the Americonducted by young officers, who, can contest was one great mean of when they quitted Paris, carried with producing a republican government in them the manners of Frenchimen, and France. a disposition strictly conformed to The tenth and last chapter in this despotisin and the Court of Ver. volume gives the sentiments of the sailles; but who, when they arrived opposition in France relative to the at the place of their destination, found American war.

At the end of this volume are some Necker, which he addresses and preofficial papers, relative to the admini- sents to the king. It gives great of strations of Turgut, Malesherbes, and fence, and the ministers use their ut. St. Germain.

most endeavours for the proscription Volume IV. The etchings prefix of the work and its author. ed to this volume represent the fol- This period concludes with the lowing persons : Rousseau, Buffon, thirty-sixth chapter, giving a defiAbbé Mably, D'Alembert, Diderot, nitive analysis of public opinion, Abbé Raynal, La Fayette, Bailly, Mi- which is discomposed in proportion rabeau, Beauharnais, La Rochefou- as the revolutionary spirit divides, cault, Talleyrand Perigord, Menou, Deutralises, or changes itself. Ræderer, Barnave, the brothers La

(To be concluded in our next.) meth, Lally Tollendal, Lebrun, Cambacérès, and Defermont.

The first chapter in this volume introduces to notice the Marquis of Pe- XLIX. ILLUSTRATIONs of the Truth zai, friend of M. Necker, who, by his

of the Christian Religion. By EDteinerity, and the coquetry of his sister, Madame de Cassini, was ad

WARD MALTBY, Ž. D. Domestic

Chaplain to the Bishop of Lincoln. Fanced to the favour of the king; and in the space of a few months made by his influence two ministers, THE intention of this work is to

establish the truth of the New and procured for himself the office of Testament, for which purpose the auInspector-General of the coasts of thor produces the following arguthe kingdom. In the fifth chapter is ments. given an account of the fate of this The first chapter discusses “the marquis by the stratagems of Messrs. internal evidence of genuineness and Maurepas and de Sartines, who de authenticity in the books of the New signed and accomplished his ruin. Testament, by a brief statement of

The second, and thirty following external evidence, and a particular chapters, contain the particular plans enquiry into the proof arising from formed by M. Necker, and the events internal marks: such as, Ist. The of his administration, being a Ge- style and idiom : 2. The minuteness aevese, and a Protestant, his elevation of detail : 3. Absence of all party gave great offence, and the clergy in spirit : 4. Candour of the writers in particular murmured at the choice; relating their own failings: 5. Agreewe meet with an anecdote on this ment of the facts, with the supposition sobject worth preserving : “ I will of a miraculous interference : 6. Unihave done with bim," said M. Mau- form preservation of character; and repas to an archbishop offended at 7th. Various proofs arising from a his nomination, “ if you will engage comparison of the genuine scriptures to pay the national debt.". In these with the apocryphal books.” chapters are, the observations made The second chapter exhibits, “ the upon his plans of finance and refor- proof arising from the nature and mation of abuses; an account of his strength of the prejudices of the enemies, and the causes of their op- Jews.” This is instanced in the “peposition; a description of his cha- culiarities of the Jewish people. The racter by his enemies and his friends, prophecies concerning the Messiah, with that of his wife ; and the parti- and expectations formed in conseculars and manner of the resignation quence of them-The appearance of of his office.

false prophets. A short view of the M. Necker is succeeded in office conduct of some of them, and of their by M. Joly de Fleury, and M. de Or- pretensions, is introduced, to mark nesson, whose characters are given distinctly the difference between them in the thirty-third chapter, in which and the true Messiah.”. The next We find the result of M. Necker's topic is to shew“ in what manner operations. M. de Castries proposes Jesus appeared in the character of to the king to restore that minister. the expected Messiah," with a lively This and the following chapter gives and pathetic description of " his conthe sentiments of Lewis XVI. of M. duct and doctrine," and the manner Necker.

of preaching the gospel after his death. The thirty-fifth chapter contains Arguments are urged to prove that an account of a work written by M. the christian religion is not founded in imposture, or enthusiasm, and the with the reasons assigned for it, and actions of Jesus are considered with reflections upon the subject. The a reference to each of these supposi- uniformity of the divine dispensa. tions. Jewish zealots are described; tions considered, which is followed an inference is drawn from the fore- by the result of this enquiry, proved going facts, and the chapter closes to be favourable to the truth of our with a recapitulation of the subjects holy religion and the vindication of it contains.

the Apostle's character, with which The third chapter represents, “The the chapter closes. conduct of the Disciples ;” and is in- Chapter the fifth describes the troduced with shewing how far they scheme of the Gospel. In this chapresembled their countrymen'; who ter the difference between the mode they were; and the nature of the ad- and extent of Christ's preaching and dress Jesus delivered to them after that of the Apostles is stated, which they were chosen. Their conduct is is observed to be made the ground of exemplified in their ignorance of their an objection by infidels ; this objecMaster's real office, and distrust of tion is refuted by the author, who his power. Their behaviour at the shews the design of the gospel, that it transfiguration is considered as an evi- was offered to the Jews first, but indence of their disposition to interpret tended from the first to comprehend the prophecies literally, which is con- the Gentiles, and offers various proofs firmed by the dispute among them of this intention. The rejection of who should be greatest.

the gospel is shewn to be foretold by The candid representation of their our Lord, as well as the destruction own conduct is urged as a proof of of the Jewish polity. It is argued, their veracity. The triumphant en- the Disciples acted in conformity try of Jesus Christ into Jerusalem; with the views and directions of their the occurrences in the garden, and Master; and if they had made any apprehension of Jesus ; with the sen- alteration, it would have been of a timents and conduct of the disciples very different kind from that imputed at that event, are introduced and fol. to them, as no motive can be assigned lowed by the circumstances attending for their conduct in this particular, the Resurrection, upon which the Dis- but their well grounded confidence ciples are convinced, and boldly in the pretensions of Jesus to the title preach a crucified Messiah. How of Messiah, and the improbabilities this change is to be accounted for is of any other supposition. next considered. The author then The character of Jesus is described shews that they retain some remnant in chapter the sixth. This chapter is of their old prejudices and mistakes, introduced by describing the maliginstanced in the circumstances at- nity and extent of the charge urged tending the conversion of Cornelius; by unbelievers against the Christian the relation of which is accompanied Religion, particularly as it affects the with some reflections. The Edict at character of Jesus; an objection against Jerusalem is the last incident noticed producing the testimony of his friends in this chapter, which finishes with is obviated in this place. Concesthe conclusion warranted by these sions of his adversaries ; some of the. facts and others harmonizing with most considerable infidels are named, them.

and objections extracted from their The miracles wrought by the Dis- works, which are here obviated ; and ciples during the Life of our Lord, are after answering the enquiry, what the considered in the fourth chapter. intentions of Jesus must have been

In discussing this subject the Au- according to the assumptions of his thor adopts the following plan. In enemies, the author shews their own the first place he proposes to shew, concessions to be at variance with that the extraordinary power of work- these assumptions. The ditferent ing miracles was really conferred ; grounds of argument taken by unbeand secondly, that it was as certainly lievers is examined, and the imputaexercised ; thirdly, he considers the lion of imposture shewn to be inconpurposes for which it was bestowed; sistent with the character of the vir and lastly, the effect it seemed to have tues they allow him to have possessed. upon the minds of those to whom it The near inspection to which the was imparted. One instance against conduct of our Lord was subjected; the exercise of this power examined, and yet no instance of any deviation

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