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Hollanders began to send vessels to and French navies, in the wars be. Scotland, in order to purchase her- tween those countries, until the death rings. This practice continued until of William III. the fourteenth century, when being Book IV. comiences with the at enmity with the Scots, they pro- state of the English marine at the ceeded to take the fish themselves. death of William III. and proceeds Since that period the fisheries in- to the history of the war undertaken creased so rapidly, and their profits by Queen Anne against France ; became so great, that they were con- with a particular account of these sesidered as the chief source of the veral wars in which Great Britain riches 'of Holland. It became, to was engaged with France in the speak metaphorically, the cradle of reigns of her successors, concluding her marine, and the nursery of her sea- with the various important operations men. The above, and indeed, all the of the respective powers, and the other fisheries, in which the subjects progressive state of the naval power of the United Provinces are engaged, of Great Britain, with its influence on fourished considerably at the acces that of France, is regularly considersion of JAMES I. * which circum- ed until the period of the American stance naturally revived the former revolution, on which event the Aus jealousies of that prince.
thor offers some observations, and * When king of Scotland, he ex- addresses the people of Europe. erted bimself to secure to his subjects The next subject is, observations so productive a branch of industry upon the most inaterial articles of the and commerce, on their own coasts. Navigation Act, which is followed by He restrained the Dutch from fishing an appendix, containing papers relawithin the distance of eight miles tive to politics, and circumstances at. from the coast. On succeeding to tending some of the naval actions re. the throne of England, be interdict- corded in the body of the work. ed the fisheries on the coasts of his From the appendix we present our three kingdoms to foreigners, declar- readers with the account of the ad. ing, that he would oppose all who vantages the Dutch derived from the should attempt to usurp, or to par- herring fishery. take of this right; regarding it as the “ We may form a judgment of the most essential, as well as the most flourishing state to which the Dutch obvious right of his crown, on ac- fisheries had arrived at the comcount of the sovereignty which he mencement of the reign of James I. claimed over all the British seas. by the details we find upon this subHe appointed comunissioners at Lon. ject, in a memoir presented in 160+, don and Edinburgh for the regula. to the council of Madrid, and which tion of these matters, and charged we have extracted from valuable col. them not to grant the liberty of lections in MS., of the learned and fshing but for certain pecuniary con- laborious Peiresc. We shall considerations.” p. 105, 106.
tent ourselves by giving, in this place, Book III. contains a description of a succinct detail of this article; the the great maritime power and com. Author arranges all their fisheries into mercial prosperity of the Dutch, with five principal divisions. the attempt of CROMWELL to re- ist, That of the fresh-herring duce them. The particular circum- fishery, in which six hundred vessels stances of the several actions during are employed, with a complement of the naval wars between the English ten men each, and carrying from ten and the Dutch, which continued un. to twenty-five lasts, each estimated. til an advanced period of the reign of at two tons, or four thousand pounds CHARLES II. when the Dutch sued weight, and containing twelve barrels for peace. It also gives an account of one thousand herrings; this emof the weak state of the French ma. ploys and maintains six thousand rine, during the minority of Louis XIV. and the great exertions made ** 2nd. The great herring-fishery, under that prince for its re-establish- in which three thousand vessels are inent, and concludes with detailing employed, of thirty and forty lasts, the various operations of the English the former manned with ten men, and
the latter with fifteen, employing * See justificatory document, in the Ape thirty-seven thousand five hundred peadix, No. i.
« 3d, That of chub-fish, of sal- STATE
ENGLISH MAmon, &c. called the winter fishery, RINE AT THĘ DEATH OF QUEEN occupies six hundred barks, of from ELIZABETH. ten to fifteen lasts, with a complement of eight men each, of which the total
Tons. amount is four thousand eight hundred men.
“ 4th, That of dried herrings, in Elizabeth Jonas 900 460 40 which a thousand small vessels, of Triumph
10001 460 40 four lasts, are employed, of six men White Bear... 900 460 40 each, maintaining six thousand men. Victory ......
800 368 32 “ 5th, The inland fishery upon Le Marie Honora 800 368 32 the lakes, rivers, &c which takes up Royal Ark... 8001 368 32 six hundred boats with five men each, St. Matthew........ 1000 460 40) and employs annually three thousand St. Andrew......... 900 368 32) persons.
700 320 30 “ The sum total of those who gain- Garland.....
700 270 30 ed their livelihood by the different
600 270 30 fisheries, amounted then, in 1604, to Le Marie-Rose ... 600 220 30 fifty seven thousand three hundred
600 220 30 men. The revenue which the re.
600 220 30 public gathered upon their produce,
500 220 30 amounted at that time to four mil. Nonpareil.... 500 220 30) lions nine hundred and forty-two Defiance
5001 220 thousand five hundred florins; a sum Rainbow.....
500 220 30 with which, says our Author, the Dreadnought 400 180 201 rebels so powerfully supported the Antelope
350 14+ 16 war against their king.”.
400 180). 20 On the subject of the two tables Swallow......
3301 144 16 subjoined, the Author in an adver- Foresight............. 300 144 tisement prefixed to the work, ob- La Marée
250 108 12 serves, whatever the accuracy of Crane................. 2001
88 12 those statements may be, the interest Adventure
250 108 12 of a comparison between them and Acquittance ....... 2001 88 12 the English marine at the death of Reply
12 Queen Elizabeth, is not diminished. Advantage
2001 S8 12 In that view we have placed the list Tiger.........
88 12 of the ships of that princess (as stated Tramontain......
62 8 by Sir William Monson) before the Scout.........
1201 58 8 table of the British naval force from Achates.......
1001 52 1688 to 1777. In the former, the
701 - 39 ordnance is not specified, but the
60 35 number of artillerists will suffice to Advice ..
50 35 give an idea of its amount.
50) 35 In the latter table we have pointed Merlin........
42 out by two asterisks in the column, Sun
401 26 those periods in which we have found Cygnet...
201 it impracticable to gain accurate in- George (Hoy)...... 10 formation of the number of ships on the Penny-rose (Hoy)
801 stocks or under repair.
TABLE OF THE NAVAL FORCES OF ENGLAND, FROM THE YEAR 1688 TO
THE YEAR 1777.
In the Reign of
in 1777. All on the stocks, and of which five were three-deckers, seventeen two-deckers,
and five frigates.
XLI. THE NECESSITY of the Abom these questions he argues in the ne
suion of Pluralities and Non-resi- gative; that it is not agreeable to desce, cuith the Employment of Substi- the laws of the gospel, he infers, first, thies by the Beneficed Clergy; de- from the nature of the Christian miPoastrated in an Enquiry into the nistry ; 2d, from the various characPrisciples and Consequences of the ters which the ministers of the gospel Establshment of Curates. 8v6. pp. sustain in Scripture, as shepherds,
watchmen, &c. and 3d, from the
personal account which they must N the introduction to this work, one day render to their judge.
the anonymous author briefly con- That the establishment of curacies siders the importance of an establish- is not agreeable to the antient cone order of men, i. c. the clergy, for ' stitution of the church of England, he the propagation and preservation of endeavours to prove from the history Christianity. The work is then di- and canons of this church. About vided into three parts.
the close of the sixth century, Austin In part 1. the writer enquires, and his clergy were established at " Whether the use and establishment Canterbury, on the principle of equal of Curates or substitutes among the duty and provision; constantly iticlergy, be agreeable to the laws of nerating in their respective circuits, the gospel relative to its ministers, and being supported by a common and to ihe primitive constitution of fund: and as Christianity spread tbe church of England?" On both through the heptarchy, this writer VOL. I.
contends the same plan was adopted their labours, it must have seemed to in the other provinces, no church them equally unjust to receive the being appropriated to any particular reward without performing the offices minister, except the cathedral, where for which it was designed and apthe bishop statedly resided and offi- pointed. ciated. At length, when the whole “ The laws of the church, prior to country became Christian, it was the Norman conquest, are founded found, that by this method the re- on these obvious principles of commote districts were but irregularly mon equity and reciprocal justice beand imperfectly supplied with the tween the clergy and laity, and were means of public worship, and to re- conscientiously acted upon and obmedy this, stated ministers were ap- served by both parties. The infespointed to the various churches, which ence, therefore, manifestly deducible laid the foundation for dividing the from this view of the primitive concountry into parishes at a subsequent stitution of the clergy in the English period. At first, however, our Au. church is this ; that the use of subthor insists on it that they were all stitutes by the beneficed clergy is so supplied from the public stock, so far from receiving any support from that the ministers of the poorer dis- it, that it is directly repugnant to its tricts were assisted from the income design and end, and to all the laws on of the richer. In process of time, which it was founded, and that the however, as the nobility built and establishment of curates has no preendowed churches, they insisted that cedent to sanction it in the history of the priests who supplied them should the clergy for nearly a thousand years enjoy the fruit of their respective la- from the first promulgation of Chrisbours, and that their endowments tianity." should be confined solely to their Part II. contains “an enquiry into own ministers. “ And conformably the causes which first induced the to this design and end,” says our clergy to the employment of substiAuthor, no clergyman before the tutes, and into the principles on period of the Norinan conquest had which the establishment of curates more than one church; this he was was founded.". The causes are here to consider and love as his lawful stated to be, 1. “The appointment wife, and thereat he was obliged to of foreigners to English benefices," reside and officiate till death. He in consequence of the Norman conwas not allowed to resign or relin- quest. 2dly, “ The institution of quish it; nor could he be removed clerks in inferior orders to ecclesiastifrom it, unless the bishop, for some cal benefices,” when they were not very particular reason, should permit qualified to officiate themselves. 3dly, it; and if, on some extraordinary ac- • The appropriation of churches" to count, the bishop granted any clergy- the various societies of the religious, man leave to remove to another to collegiate bodies, and laymen; church, he did not think of retaining and 4thly, Pluralities and non-sesihis foriner benefice along with it, and dence, which were the last, and biring another in his room to perform now remain the only cause of a pror its duties, whilst he himself received and stipendiary clergy." Under this the revenues. Such an idea never section the Author gives a history of entered the minds of the English the rise and progress of these evils, clergy of these ages; and such a de- and of the various attempts that have sire or attempt would have been con- been made to check or remedy them. sidered as criminal as adultery, fraud, Part II. contains an "Enquiry, and oppression. Every priest deem- whether the employment of substied himself bound in duty to perform tutes, or curates, by the beneficed his sacred function, and considered clergy tends to promote the interests the benefice as inseparably connected of religion and virtue ?" with the office. They thought them- The first ground on which the selves justly entitled to reward from writer argues is, that a sufficient and the laity, in consideration of the reli- liberal support is necessary to the gious services which they rendered respectability of the order, and that ibem; and if, after the performance this has not generally been afforded of such services they would have he otiers evidence both before and thought it unreasonable and unjust to since the Reformation. He informs be denied the due recompence of us, that “ during the reign of Henry
Under the government of Eliza. THE exile of this celebrated dra
VIII. Edward VI. and Mary, many extraordinary Events which happened curates were bired for twenty and to him in Russia. Written by himthirty shillings with meat and drink, self. Translated from the German some for meat and drink only, and by the Rev. B. Beresford. 3 vols. others were obliged to put themselves 18mo. (ll'ith a Portrait by Hope into gentlemen's houses, and procure wood, and other Plates) aboui 850 pp. a pittance there by the performance of secular and servile offices.
HE exile of this celebrated dra.
matic writer is an event noto. beth and James, the people always rious to all Europe; and these vocomplained of having very siinple lunes contain its history. In April, curates for their religious instructors, 1800, Mr. von Kotzebue set out for men who did not pretend to preach, Russia, accompanied by his wife, who who could scarcely read, and were was a native of that country, on a cautent to serve for ten groats a year, visit to her relatives and friends, but and a canvass doublet; procuring at Polangen he was arrested-his their living by some secular art or trunks sealed--and his papers foroccupation. For the patrons of be. warded to government. To satisfy nefices would hire a poor yngram soul the public that they contained no suí. to bear the name of a parson for ficient reason for his arrest, the writer twenty marks, or ten pounds, a year, gives a ininute detail of their con. whilst they themselves took up for tents, being letters, medical receipts, their snap-share as good as a hun, dramatic sketches, and private me. dred, by which means learning was morandums. On one of the articles decayed, England was dishonoured, he has the following remarks. " A and honesty not regarded,"
Weimar almanack interleaved. I had In the next reign, though the acts imitated the idea of Franklin's, which, of the usurped powers were declared if I am not mistaken, had been pube null and void, something was thought lished in the Berlin Journal. This necessary to be done for the relief of great man had scrupulously examinthe officiating clergy, and though the ed, and made a kind of table of all parliament declined, the king issued his failings, with a firm resolution by several injunctions in their favour. degrees to amend them; devoting Still, however, complaints were made every evening to this plau of self-exin parliament, that " mean and sti- amination, he became wiser and ferdiary preachers were entertained better, till, at length, he acquired an to serve the cures in many places,” entire controul over his passions. At and the Author endeavours to shew, whatever distance I remained from that notwithstanding all the measures my model, I had at least endeavouradapted in subsequent reigns for their ed to execute his wise and good inrelief
, the same evils remain, and the tentions, and I can declare with truth same complaints exist, even in the that the expedient was attended with present day; and thus, he says, “ the considerable success, I can even renational establishment of curates, from coinmend this method from my own its first foundation to the present rno- experience to every man who dias his mest, presents one uniform system of moral improvement at heart. He injustice and oppression." p. 354.
will insensibly feel a kind of terror Our Author' next considers the on examining his almanack; he will scandal occasioned to the laity by dread to find the leaves too full of this partial and unequal establish. self-reproaches, and oiten, very often ment of the clergy—the occasion it will check the passion ready to obtain bas given for the reproach of infidels the mastery over him, on the recol. the indolent habits it has intro- lection thai, at night
, it will be neces. duced—the check it gives to clerical sary to put down the particulars faithcharity and hospitality
and the de. fully on the paper." gradation it puts upon the sacred
Upon arriving at Mittau, Mr. von K. was introduced to the governor,
with whose person he has some preXLII. The most remarkable year in
vious acquaintance, and whose cha
racter he much respected; and asthe Life of AUGUSTUS VON kor- sured him he thought himself very
an Account of fortunate in being able to assert his kis Exile in Siberia, and of the other innocence before Him, requesting him
2EBUE ; containing