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of Orleans, father of Philip Egalité, inclinations of the people. Upon the who replied “ he had the honour to instalment of this parliament it shews be first prince of the blood, and that its indifference to the king, and prowith this title he would die."

ceeds to acts hostile to his authority. Chap. IX. The dissatisfaction of In the last of these chapters is an acthe court of France is expressed in count of the struggles at court for the this chapter, with regard to the House maintenance of the royal authority, of Orleans, which falls into disgrace and the first measures of M. Turgot by the exile of the Duke of Choiseul, in the administration. and the ruin of the parliaments; and The third epoch contains the latter to which the queen adheres on ac- twelve in this, and eighteen former count of her friend the exiled duke. chapters in the third volume. In this

The Xth chapter contains the por volume it commences with the twentraits of the princes of Condé, Conty, ty. first, and breaks off at the end of and the Duke of Penthievre. The the thirty-second chapter. Chapters following anecdote of the Prince of XXI, XXII, XXIII, XXIV, relate Condé deserves notice. Having with a change in the policy of France, the a separate body of troops, of which he history, sentiments,' and political had the command, gained several ad- conduct of M. Turgot. This history vantages over the prince of Brunswic, is interrupted in Chapters XXV. and Lewis XV. in recompence, made him XXVI. with an account of a revolt & present of the cannon taken from in consequence of a scarcity of corn; the enemy; and the Duke of Bruns- the causes of the riot are considered wic having since paid him a visit at problematical, yet England is susChantilly, and not finding the cannon, pected of having a hand in it. The which the Prince of Condé had caused conduct of the rioters, and the meato be withdrawn from his sight, “You sures adopted to quell them are detailseem inclined,' said he, to conquer ed, in wbich the king takes an active

me twice; iu war by your arnis, and part. • in peace by your modesty.'

Chap. XXVII. continues the admi. Chap. XI. and XII. The Author nistration of M. Turgot, with the eledivides the reign of Lewis XVI. into vation of M. de Malesherbes, his ten epochs, the first is contained in friend, to the ministry; and the rethese chapters, which describes the maining chapters of this volume derecal of M. Maurepas to the admini- tail the opinions and principles of the stration, who is strongly opposed by latter minister, and accounts of state the queen, on account of his inalfairs. fluencing the mind of the king to per- Volume III. To this volume is severe in resisting the efforts she em- prefixed eighteen miniature etchings ployed to restore the Duke of Choi- of the following portraits : Christo. seul. The conduct of M. Maurepas pher de Beaumont Archbishop of is detailed, as well as that of his Paris, Cardinal Bernis, Duke of Choifriend, M. de Vergennes. At the seul, Duke of Vrillière, Chancellor death of M. Maurepas,

queen re-

Maupeou, Count de Maurepas, Abbé doubled her intrigues to deprive M. Terray, M. de Sartines, Count de de Vergennes of the king's confi- Vergennes, Count d'Estaing, Lodence: this minister was heard to say, ménie Archbishop of Toulouse, Mar• One would suppose it was not known shal Richlieu, Malesherbes, Turgot, • that I have made a vow to die in Necker, La Chalotais, Dupréinesnil, • office.'

Voltaire. The second epoch occupies the Chapter I. continues the ministry eight following chapters.

of M. Turgot, who, upon the coro* Chapters XIII. to XX. contains an nation of the king. found a remarkaccount of the re-establishment of able occasion to disclose his principles the parliament, exiled by Lewis XV. concerning the monarchy. He proand the different opinions of contend- posed, that the ceremony should take ing parties on the measure, which place at Paris, partly from motives of Lewis XVI, is influenced to by M. æconomy, and to counteract the senMaurepas, notwithstanding the re- timent of local devotion; and partly monstrances of his family, and the to weaken the force of religious reintimations he receives that the con- collections, as that of the baptism of sequences will be the destruction of Clovis, and annihilate the fable, al. royalty; but in this he appears to ready discarded by the critics, of the bave accommodated himself to the holy oil brought down from heaven in

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the beak ofa dove. He also attempted offers a view of dangers still more to introduce a change into the form • pressing

Infidelity pervades all of the oath, conceiving it as it stood, ages, ranks, and conditions. The to be too indulgent to the clergy, and • hydra atheism is become the pretoo negligent of the people. He dis- "vailing opinion. Its fatal influence approved particularly the clause for • on morals, and their consequent de'exterminating heretics,' which had pravity, together with the spirit already been modified at the acces- of independence it inspires, are sion of Lewis XIII. and Lewis XIV. truly alarming. The security of and, for the illusory engagement, • legal authority cannot exist without perer to extend mercy to duellists, " that of religion. Religion alone he wished to substitute that of sparing gives to the throne of kings the no effort to put an end to so censurable • surest and most upassailable supa practice."

• port, the obligation of Conscience, • After naming the prelates who • that pillar which sustams the throne operly adhered to Targot and Male- • of God himself in the mind of man. sherbes, and constituted the minority • We do not dissemble, Sire, that of the clergy, the author observes, it is principally by our instructions « Thus at the accession of Lewis XVI. (and examples, that intidelity can be to the throne, the clergy of France repelled; and did we stand in need was composed of a inajority partly . of any new engagement to stimulate distinguished by piety, superstition, ' us to the performance of our duties and ignorant credulity, and partly ' in this respect, it naturally presents by luxury and libertinism, revelling itself in the earnestness and solemin the pleasures of the capital, to the nity with which we have demand. total neglect of their provincial and • ed this audience. But the cause of episcopal functions."

· God is also that of the king. p. 14, The clergy were afterwards divided 15. into two minorities, of which one was This preamble contains the subatheistical and the other fanatical; stance of the memorial, which, did so that the excess of religion in Beau: the limits of our work admit, we mont's party, and the deficiency in should be happy to give at large, as that of the Archbishop of Toulouse, it is well drawn up, full of nervous were in evident contradiction with reasoning, and enforced by cogent the mass of the Gallican church, arguments: but we observe at the whose nullity and insignificance ex- close, a proof of the rooted antipathy posed it to the attack of every opi- manifested to the protestants therenion and interest.

in. It discovers the genuine spirit " On the 24th of September 1775, of Popery, against which it is imthe Archbishop of Toulouse, invested possible for us to guard too much, with the powers of the general assem- and hope, as some of the clergy of bly of the clergy, proceeded, toge- France, who drew up the memorial, ther with M. Pompignan and the have found an asylum in England, Abbé Talleyrand, to Versailles, for the they are convinced of the superior purpose of presenting the remon- claim which Protestantism has to the strances agreed upon.” They are temper of Christ, from the benefithus introduced : * Your majesty,' cence they have experienced. said the deputation, • will see in the To this memorial the king promis. • memorial we have the honour to ed, that no measures should on his • present, the ministers of what is part be omitted, to arrest the progress . called the reformed religion, raise of licentiousness and impiety of which

ing altars and temples, convoking they complained to consider the * assemblies, forming districts, levyo possibility of aulding some effective "ing contributions on your subjecis, clauses to the existing laws respect. * administering baptism and the ing the sale of books. With respect • Lord's supper, and consecrating to the Protestants he would inform

iliegitimate marriages: we flatter himself of the facts which excited the ourselves, that your majesty, sen- complaints of the clergy; that orders 'sible of the temerity of ihese men, had been issued for repressing cer• will issue orders for the termination tain enterprizes undertaken by these • of their enterprizes.

religionists. The assembly, dissatis. • The other part of the remon- fied with the king's reply, presemed • gtrances. we present to your majesty, another remonstrance, to which he re

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turned an answer similar to the last; XL. HISTORY of the Rise and Proa adding that the rumour which had pre- gress of the Naval Power of Engvailed, of the protection it was pre- land, interspersed with various intended he had bestowed on the Pro- portant Notices relative to the French testants was wholly destitute of foun- Marine. To which are added, Obu dation,

servations on the principal Articles of Chap. II. to XVIII. present to us the Navigation Act. Illustrated by a the history and administration of

Variety of interesting Nores. Trans. Count St. Germain ; Turgot's cele lated from an original_Work in brated edicts; an account of the French, by, THOMAS EVANSON work entitled Le Monarque Accom- White. 8vo. boards, 75. 6d. pp. pli, which was burnt; a variety of 416. J. S. Jordan. incidents in the ministry, from which M. Turgot and M. St. Germain are HE Translator, in his introducdismissed; remarks of the king on a tory observations, gives the folmemorial of M. Turgot, containing lowing character of this work : " It democratical sentiments; the cabi- commences with the earliest dawn of net divided into two factions; and authentic record, and comes down to the last chapter with a dialogue be- the interesting æra of the American tween the Author and Marshal Rich- war; it is in some parts a condensed Jieu.

memoir, and in others a very general In this place is introduced a poli- outline of its subject. With respect tical sketch of Europe, and of her to the important consideration of aurelations with France, from the epochthenticity, the marks of it appear in of the accession of Lewis XVI. to almost every page, references being the crown to that of the American given for every statement, which, war.

perhaps, might otherwise appear quesThe first chapter in this political tionable, in that respect, to English sketch commences with an account of and French writers, chiefly historians the princes and governments of Eu- of established reputation.” Notes rope, and the most remarkable incio are added by the Translator to cordents that have occurred. The se. rect inaccuracies and supply deficond chapter relates the occurrences ciencies; they are chiefly extracted that transpired in the Court of Rome, from Home and Smollett gives an account of the factions ex- This volume contains four books isting there, the characters of the and an appendix, which give an acpopes, and exposes the intrigues of count of the state of the British navy, the cardinals in their election of a and those of the other European pope. The third chapter states the powers, with details of the principal religious reform in Tuscany, the at- actions that have been fought, from tack on the Court of Rome by the the earliest records to the æra of the Court of Naples, and the character American war. of the family of the king of Naples, Book I. This history of the British particularly the influence and con- navy commences with the reign of duct of his queen. The fourth chap- “ OFFA, king of Mercia, the most ter refers to the state of Spain rela- powerful prince of the beptarchy, tive to France, with political occur- who appeared to be the first ibat had rences. The fifth chapter relates to any pretensions to the empire of the the affairs of Turkey, the sixth of seas. It is said he ventured to disPrussia, the seventh of Poland, the pute it with CHARLEMAGNE. That eighth, vinth, and tenth are occupied great monarch, however, did not diswith the concerns of Austria, the dain to court his alliance, in the view, eleventh of France and the Protestant perbaps, that the naval assistance of powers, the twelfth of Denmark, OFFA would one day be serviceable which represents particularly the to him in securing his dominions from conduct of that court to Queen Ma. the enterprizes of the Normans." An tilda, and concludes with a portrait augmentation of the number, and an of Catharine II. Chap. thirteenth inprovement in the construction of developes the secret political corre. his vessels, were effected by the illusspondence of Lewis XV. which was trious Alfred, who had one fleet of an suppressed by his grandson.

bundred and twenty sail, uniformly

allotted to guard the coast. When (To be continued.)

the East Angles and Northumbrians constructed vessels stronger and in the Mediterranean, where the Ve• lighter than his own, he compensated netians, the Genoese, and the Pisans, for this new advantage by fitting out bad expedited the progress of sea expeditiously for sea, vessels with an affairs. bundred and twenty nars, in every JOHN, with the assistance and respect superior to the foriner. advice of the Earl of FLANDERS,

EDGAR collected a prodigious having destroyed the fleet of Phi tember of vessels, which some have LIPPE AUGuste in the port of Dam*, said amounted to three thousand six " was elated to such a degree, bé hundred, and others to four thousand. imagined that henceforth his maritime A just idea may, however, be formed ordonances would be respected by all of it, when it is known, that the nations. He had, in the second year largest of those vessels hardly con- of his reign, made one for exacting tained fifty men in array. Through- the salute from all foreign vessels, orout the year, four squadrons, each daining that, if obedience was not consisting of one hundred sail, were yielded to his officers, they should be armed to protect and cruize along compelled to it, and even to chastise the coasts.' Elated with this array of the captairs, either by confinement, force. EDGAR imagined himself mass or by corporal punishment f. Ab. ter of the seas, and assumed the vain- surd and unjust pretensions are often glorious title of Emperor and Lord imputable to weakness. Who could of all the Kings of the Ocean, and of imagine that a prince, tottering on all the Nations which it surrounds *!' bis ihrone, would have dared to arroOne day being at Chester, he em- gate to himself the empire of the barked on the Dee, and compelled seas." p. 16. eight tributary kings to row a barge, The Author details accounts of sewhich he steered himself. The tri. veral engagements at sea, and reumphs of pride are always out. presents the British navy to be in a rages !

state of fluctuation till the reign of The successors of Edgar had not Henry VII. “ who laid the foundaan equal maritime force with his; tion of the naval power of his coun. and though the English made a vi- try, by turning the attention of his gorous ettort in the reign of ETHEL- subjects to their native riches. We RED, and collected a fleet of eight allude to the wool, which at that time hundred vessels, equipped at the ex- was exclusively manufactured by the peace of wealthy individuals; this Flemings, who purchased it at a very armament being dispersed by storms, low price. He annihilated this source was rendered unserviceable, and the of their wealth, by prohibiting an ex. whole kingdom fell under the power portation, which was highly prejudiof the Danish princes.

cial to his own subjects .:. He The sudden revolution effected by made his people sensible of their true William the Conqueror, the Author observes, gave England so violent a those days a considerable sea-port town,

* Dam, or Damme, in the Netherlands, in shock, that the nation could little at though now no longer such, its harbours, &c. tend either to commerce or naviga- being long since destroyed by the accumution. When RICHARD undertook the lation of the sands on that part of the coast. expedition to the Holy Land, the It is still a place of some note, and lies five kingdom was so destitute of shipping miles south-west of the purt of Slys, and that he was obliged to have recourse nearly the same distance north-east of Bruges. to foreigners. Though the vessels † On the contrary, any ships or vessels furnished on this occasion were in laden, or sailing on the seas, that will not lower general small, some of them might be or take down their fiags, at the command of the of considerable bulk, as in an expedi- king's lieutenant, or of the admiral of the tion to the Holy Land, they had a king, or his lieutenant, but fight against any ship of such large dimensions, as to of the fleet; such, if they can be taken, shall cause it to be named the World. be reputed as enemies, and their ships, vesa Towards the middle of the thirteenth sels, and goods seized and confiscated, as

the goods of enemies. Altbough the masters century, we are also informed of a ves

or owners should afterwards come and als sel capable of containing eight hun- ledge the said ships, vessels, and goods, to dred men. These, however, were rare belong to the friends of our lord the king : atthat time, they were only to be found and that the hands on board, be chastised by

imprisonment at discretion for their rebels, • Er churt. eccles. Wigorn.

lious conduct.

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interests on this occasion; he forth- France, writing to his court out this
with brought over Flemish artificers, subject, thus expresses himself: “She
who instructed them to prepare the has built a great number of vessels,
wool. He afterwards established ma. which are the fortresses, bastions,
nufactures ; but did not prohibit the and ramparts of her dominions ;
exportation of this precious commo- 'constructing every two years a large
dity, until after he had taken those ship of war; and they are such ves-
preliminary steps, and secured by 'sels, that nothing can be found on
treaty to his subjects, the exclusive the sea able to resist thein. These
privileges of their island. The Le- are the buildings and palaces which
vant trade was first opened to them the queen of England has com-
under his reign, but it was not car. 'menced, since her succeeding to the
ried on with success, until the period crown, and which she still conti-
of the revolt in the Low Countries, nues'.” p. 75. 1
whence the Flemish manufacturers, A particular account of the for-
apprehensive of the impending cala- midable feet fitted out by the Spa-
mities, emigrated in great numbers nish king is given by the Author,
into different parts of England, and, with its destruction. The queen was
in effect, repeopled the towns of Nor-

so transported with her deliverance, wich, Colchester, Maidstone, Sand- that “she loudly proclaimed her joy wich, and Southampton, which were without much regard to decency, and then almost deserted.” p. 56, 57. with all, tbe ostentation of her sex. The historian describes the naval

She appeared sometimes forget progress, during the profligate reign what she owed to fortune, or, strictly of Henry VIII. and details the en- speaking, to divINE PROVIDENCE; deavours of Mary to promote the of this, the Dean of St. Paul's had the designs of her husband against France, resolution to remind her, in a sermon by fitting out a fleet of one hundred delivered in her presence; his text and forty sail, which was joined by was these words of the Psalmist : thirty Dutch ships, much superior in • Except the Lord keep the city the size to the British : the attempt ' watchman waketh but in vain.'--against France

unsuccessful. The queen perceived the allusion, and The taking of Calais by the French had the wisdom to avail herself of the is the last occurrence noticed in the hint; she caused a medal to be struck, first book.

on which appeared ships driven by a Book II. Upon the death of storin, and running foul of each other, Mary, a princess more worthy of with this pious and appropriate infilling the throne succeeded to it. The scription : AFFLAVIT DEUS ET DIShistorian observes, "Never, underany &IPANTUR * !” reign, were seen such sacrifices of pri- The Author mentions, that when vate interest or exertions, either to Pallippe was first informed of the defend, or to make the state respect- misfortunes of his armament, he was ed; in attempting new discoveries, or engaged in dictating a letter, which extending the commerce of the nation. he discontinued only to observe, . !

The subjects of ELIZABETH sent it to fight with the English, not applied themselves, during her long ! with the wind and waves!" p. 91, reign, to the principal object for 92. which they seemed intended by na- The end of the second book brings ture. The sea became their element, us to the end of the reign of CHARLES and shortly appeared among them, I. One circumstance may claim notice several renowned admirals; excellent relative to the herring fishery, as well seamen were formed, and the ports as the perseverance of the British were filled with shipping. Nothing monarchs in maintaining their claim farther remained than the creation of as sovereigns of the seas, which was a royal navy, to accomplish which, particularly enforced under the reign arsenals were constructed, magazines of James I. provided, and naval stores collected.

“ Under the reign of ALFRED A revolution so advantageous, appro- the Great, about the year $36, the priated to ELIZABETH the titles of restorer of the maritime glory of the * « This well known motto has been nation, and queen of the northern neatly rendered, by a late elegant writer,

• He blew with his wind and they were Castelnau, ambassador of scattered ? **


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