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ment of Judea ; all which things are the kingdom of Christ ;' for when Pi. contradictory to, inconsistent with, Jate observed, that he then professand exclusive of temporal sovereignty; *ed himself to be a king,' he anhe severely rebuked his disciples, who swered, that he was' a king, but a appeared surprised at his not using king of truth, and for this cause he the powers (which they knew he poso came into the world, that he should sessed) of resistance against the un- bear witness unto truth. (John just sentence of his death.

xviii. 37.) This passage of St. John "The miracles which Moses per- unequivocally demonstrates, that formed were calculated to remove a there does exist in this world a spi. whole people out of a land of bon- ritual power or kingdom of Christ, dage, and establish them in a land of which is not derived from any tempromise, which were temporal objects : poral source, but coines immediately the miracles of Christ were calculated from God, and which has not for its to impress the minds of nien with ge- object any of those temporal things, neral' benevolence and charity; he which are the objects of temporal sowent about doing good, and healing vereignties. all that were oppressed by the devil. “Our divine Lord said, that, if (Acts xvi. 38.) No one act of his mis- * his kingdom were of this world,' sion, jurisdiction, or power, when (that is, either by its derivation or upon earth, went to atfect a single ' nature, temporal) : his constituents object of civil or of temporal jurisdic. would rise up in his defence.' (John tion: he even chose rather to work a xviii. 26.) N 5: % 8%A1% + tum 8x miracle, in order to provide himself • 199 kultugev, but now my kingdom is


xytubev with the means of paying the tax to not from hence;' that is, it is neithe Roman emperor, than to leave it ther temporal by derivation, nor by to the judgment of men by what title nature, for the one iinports the other'; be could have acquired any temporal and the conditional supposition of property. Indeed, all the inspired our Lord, Es ex ty xogue Tolo me jí writers appear anxious to impress us βασιλεια η εμη, &c. If my kingdom with the conviction, that as he pos- : were of this world,' is a conclusive sessed nothing in this world, so tem- argument, that there are or may be poral possessions were no objects of kingdoms of this world, ex te zogu'S his divine mission.

tole, 'tystudy, from hence, or in other “ Thus did he commission his apo- words, which receive their power stles to go about tanquam nihil haben- from men or the people. And here ies sed omnia possidêntes. Ile never lies the grand difference between the would permit external or forcible two powers; that which is xy7eubes, or means to be used to promote or in- EX T8 200 us Tole, is the human, or civil, culcate his doctrines; no aid of the or temporal power; that which is not civil magistrate was called upon, so, is the kingdom of truth, establishmuch less was any enjoined: He ed by Christ in person upon earth,

that hath ears to hear, let hinu hear, and is the spiritual or divine power. (Luke viii. 8.) • for faith is from hear- “ The establishment of this king. . ing.' (Rom. x. 7.) Preaching was dom of truth, of which our blessed the only mean Christ used, and com-' Redeemer professed himself to be missioned his disciples to use: he really the king, is the establishment feither employed, directed, nor au- of Christianity, which is essentially thorized any coercive power to com- separate and distinct from, and wholly pel submission; he allured men by no independent of any temporal or civil Hattering prospects of a promised land government or state whatever: it is a or temporal prosperity; but he fore- kingdom of truth, in which Christ, by told to his followers, that they were force of truth, brings souls to his obeto expect adversity and prosecution dience; and he has by word and exin this world; though such as should ample taught us, that it was not to not receive and follow his word, be supported by the means of coershould meet with condign punish: cion and force, which are necessary, ment; not in this life, but in the to maintain civil, human, or temporal next. He that believeth not shall governments, in due submission or * be condemned.' (Mark xvi. 16.) obedience. But as it is a kingdom,

“ The sacred text is as explicit in it must necessarily be supported by describing the nature, as it is in de- government; and what the nature of ducing the derivation of the power of this government is, will be the sub


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ject of the ensuing chapter." p. 219 -223.

XXXIX. SOULavie's Memoirs of Chap. III. Of church government

THE REIGN OF LEWIS XVI. in general. Our limits will not allow us to do more, than to give the ge

(Continued from p. 103.) neral topics of this and the following chapters. Mr. P. shews the necessity

Vol. II.- CHAP. IV. of church government; catholicity of Innery

, the author, in this chapter,

N resuming these the church; Christ the source of all faith and spiritual power; unity and describes the childhood of Lewis Xvi. indefectibility of the church, its go who “ had an austere deportment, vernors, and error with respect to was grave, reserved, and frequently them; reasons for exacting the oath blunt, without any taste for play or of supremacy from catholics ; the civil entertainments, accompanied with advantages of the clergy; and the noise, and so habitually addicted to distinction between order and juris- truth, that he was never known to tell diction.

a lie. He employed himself chiefly in Chap. IV. Of order and jurisdic- copying, and afterwards in compostion. This chapter treats of the power ing geographical charts, and in poof the keys; ceremonies of ordina- lishing iron with a file.” tion and consecration ; conge d'elire; The character of his tutors, the doctrines of catholics concerning the Duke of Vauguyon, and Cætloquist, pope; differences between catholics the old Bishop of Limoges, are inand the church of England; and troduced, and the author says, source of spiritual jurisdiction inde- is to the former history ought to pendent of human authority.

ascribe the aversion which the king Chap. V. Of the objects of spiritual entertained for the Duke of Choipower, contains the foundation of seul.” obedience to, and extent of, spiritual When he became dauphin, Maauthority in England; explanation of dame Adélaide attempted to introinfallibility, and the nature of the duce him into the council, that he power given by Christ to his apostles. might be initiated in the knowledge

Chap. VI. Of the alliance between of public affairs. Lewis XV. opposchurch and state, and of a test law. ed this overture, and was often heard This chapter is occupied on the test to say, I should be glad to know laws, and subscription to the articles, "how Berry will be able to extricate in which the opinions of Warburton, • himself from them:' it was thus that Paley, and Hooker, are examined, and he named him. some of them controverted.

“ Timidity, beneficence, and moChap. VII. Of tythes and other desty, were the three first characchurch property:

teristics which the Duke of Berry Chap: vill. Of the civil establish- manifested when he became Dauphin ment of the catholic religion in of France. He repulsed flattery, he England before the reformation. gave ear to the complaints of the unThis is illustrated by extracts from fortunate, he desired to know the history, and legal opinions and docu- particulars of their case, he took ments.

pleasure in observing the workmen Chap. IX. Of spiritual or eccle- who were employed at the castle or siastical courts.

in the gardens, and would frequently Chap. X. Of the king's supremacy. assist them in raising a heavy sione or In this chapter many circumstances a beam, which they could not well of history, particularly from the reign manage. By dint of filing and hamof Henry VIII. are inserted, and a mering, he became an expert workdiscussion of the nature of the oath man in the making of locks. The of supremacy.

Dauphiness, on seeing him with his The Appendix contains the condi- hands all black, called him by no other tions as specified in the act of union. name than my god Vulcan... Why

In this work we think there ap. bave they reproached him with this pears an evident predilection in fa- innocent employment as a crime? vour of the Roman Catholic religion, Did not Lewis XV.sometimes act the and the political system of Mr. Locke, part of a cook : &c. and the argumenis used are intended " At the death of Lewis xv. to support those systems.

France was so tired of his reign, that

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in every quarter his grandson Lewis careful arrangement of his papers, XVI. was publicly called by the and the secresy of their security. name of · Lewis the Desired.' Here was also a room, in which was a but the partisans of the old court did forge, two anvils, and a number of ont relish this title; they opposed to iron tools, with several common it that of · Lewis the Beneficent; locks. There were also private locks, and this qualification was generally of which some were of copper ornaadopted in works of poetry, in offi- mented and gilt. cial compliments, and private con- “ Lewis XVI. was distinguished by versation."

He him- such a peculiarity of character, that it self had said, amidst the licentiousness may, in some measure, be said, there of the old court, that he wished to were in him two men, a man who be called • Lewis the Severe.'

knows, and a man who wills.“ Lewis XVI. was severe and mis- He had an astonishing memory, of trustful towards the nobility of his which the author gives an instance. court. He was not fond of the great. “ He was one day presented with a He discovered no taste for noisy long account, in the statement of pleasures, for balls, gaming, shows, which the minister had placed an arpageantry, and still less for liberti. ticle of expenditure, which had been nism. He felt no attraction in royal inserted in the account of the precedauthority, which was always burden. ing year ::. Here is a double entry,' some to him. He was, however, said the king, bring me the account rouch attached to the glory of his • of last year, and I will shew you house; he dreaded the undertaking • that this article is mentioned in it.' of any enterprize which might tarnish “ When the king was thoroughly its lustre; he was penetrated with acquainted with all the particulars of the instructions of his father against an atfair, and discovered any violathe views of the House of Austria, tion of justice, he was severe, even and the principles of the Duke of to a degree of brutality. A tlagrant Choiseul; and his life was a perpe

act of injustice made him overleap tual and secret struggle, in which he the ordinary bounds of his character; was supported by the Duke of Ver- · he would then insist upon being obeygendes, against the ambition of his ed that moment, both to make sure consort. The spies, whom Lewis of atonement, and to prevent any XVI. retained in the cabinet of similar misconduct in future. Vienna, constantly represented this • But in the great atfairs of state, princess as Austrian, both by charac- the king who wills, who commands, ter and principle, in the palace of was not to be found in this monarch. Versailles. He lived with her, ne- Lewis XVI. was, upon the throne, ertheless, as a good husband; but, nothing superior to those private like a king of France, was always persons whom we meet with in so. vigilant with regard to the views of ciety; so weak in intellectual faculthe House of Austria, and attempted ties, that nature has rendered them to elude them. of this we shall ex: incapable of forining an opinion. In bibit some proofs.

the midst of his pusillanimity, he * When Lewis XVI. ascended the placed his confidence entirely in a throne, he was about vineteen years particular minister; and though, and nine months old : he had then among the variety of opinions debeen married four years. He had no livered in his cabinet-council, he taste for gallantry, and he avoided well knew which was the best, le the company of women of seductive never once had the resolution to say, dispositions.

He was I prefer the advice of such a one. diffident in the company of women, Here lay the copious source of navery little adapted to please thein, tional misfortune. being deficient in the graces, and

“ He was endowed with an underloving no other than Maria Antoi. standing, methodical and analytical: Detta his consort." p. 30.

he divided his compositions into The author describes the king's chapters and sections. He had exapartments at Versailles, the furni- tracted from the works of Nicole and ture of which discovers his skill in Fenelon, his favourite authors, begeography; and his attention to po. tween three and four hundred short litical information, is evidenced in the sentimental phrases, which he had

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arranged according to the subjects, Chap. V. contains the portrait, chaand had composed of them a second racter, and anecdotes of Maria Anwork, in the taste and manner of toinetta, who, immediately on her arMontesquieu. The title which he rival in France, experienced contragave to this treatise was, Of a tem. dictions which women with difficulty perate Monarchy, with some chapters, forget. Her mother demanded by entitled, Of the Person of the Prince her ambassador, that Mademoiselle of the Authority of the different Branches de Lorraine, her relation, and the of a States of the Character and Ex- Prince of Lambesc, should have rank ercise of the executive Power of a Mo- next after the princes of the blood of narchy, c. If he could have carried the House of Bourbon, at the festivals into execution all that he perceived given upon the marriage of her daughof the beautiful and grand in Fene- ter with the Dauphin of France. This lon, Lewis XVI. would have been request was made by Lewis XV. an an accomplished monarch--France affair of state, but the women of the would have been a powerful monar- court opposed a determinate resisto chy.” He was endowed with a spirit ance to the formal demand made by of foresight, of which his ministers the king: They carried their obstiwere totally destitute; as he alone nacy so far as to absent themselves beheld from a distance the destiny froin the ball, rather than be deprived and ruin of France.

of the right of dancing the first. Va. We present our readers with the dame de Bouillon, of all the ladies, following anecdotes of this prince as distinguished herself the most by the deserving of notice. “ In one of the violence of her refusal and her obser. letters sent him by bis minister, M. vations on the occasion. Lewis XV. Turgot, who was piqued because the was so much offended, at her behaking refused to adopt his plan of re- viour, that this lady appeared no form, is written, that the fate of more at court. The Dauphiness, on • Charles I. or of Charles IX. is that her part, entertained such resent• of all monarchs who are governed ment, that she procured a copy of the

by flatterers.'--Lewis XVI. return)- letters which Lewis XV. had sent to ed this letter, under a cover sealed the peers, saying, as she locked them with the small seal royal, with the up in her strong box: - I shall rememfollowing inscription in his own hand : ·ber it.' “Having been educated • Letter of M.'l'urgot.' He had trans- in the principle, that the Imperial lated from the English, a language House was the first house in the world, very familar to him, the desence of and seeing those who were mere Richard III. who was accused of duchesses contest with her family 'crimes of which he was innocent. the precedency next to our princes,

“ The Count d’Artois, who, from felt 'strong resentment on the occaa habit of gaming, was accustomed to sion. In vain did Madame Noailles play high, wished to excite in his tell her with respect, but laconically, brother the same kind of passion. that the etiquetie was severe and in• Will you bet a thousand double exorable at the court of France: the • louis-d'ors ?' said the Count d’Ar- Dauphiness, from that moment only tois to him one day. • I will play made her the object of ridicule, and with you witli all my heart,' replied resolved to exclude as much as posthe king, but I bet no more than a sible from her house the titled fe• crown; you are too rich to play males, that she might no longer be with me. He could not bear to served by ladies who maintained such see persons play high at his court. proud pretensions.

""Another time, M. d'Angivillers, “ The four first stars that Maria while the king was on a journey, or- Antoinetta lived in France are the dered some repairs to be made in the only happy years ibat she passed in small apartments. These repairs cost that country. The young Dauphiness thirty thousand francs. The king, on had an angelic figure; ihe clearness his return, being informed of the ex- of her complexion was remarkable, pence, made the whole castle resound the colours were lively and distinct, with cries and complaints against the her features regular, her shape slenextravagance of M. d'Angivillers, 1 der ; but her eyes, ihough beautiful, • might have made thirty families were liable to continual fiuxions. She • happy with the sum,' said Lewis had the Austrian under-lip. She was XVI." p. 25–43.

of a caressing disposition, cheerful,


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attentive to please, and well instruct to intimate suspicions with regard to ed by her mother how to make her. the virtue of Madame and the Coun. sell beloved by all the court, had she tess of Artois. To such a length was chosen to foilow her lessons. The perfidy extended, that impartial ob. pulpits, the academies, the most dis- servers of these intrigues accused tinguished societies, the journals, the Maria Antoinetta of having been in almanacks of the muses, all lavished league with the men of gallantry, and upon her their applause. Flattery had even with the guards, who exposed as yet retained in France the forms Madame d'Artois before the public and the tone of the interesting reign towards the last years of the mo. of Lewis XIV.

narchy," p. 59, 60. * Maria Antoinetta had been edu. The queen's dress is the subject Cated by her mother to be one day of animadversion in this chapter, par. queen of France. She became ac- ticularly for introducing the fashioni quainted at Vienna with our fashions, of large feathers, which disgusted the our usages, our ceremonial; but she aunts, who called these feathers an was hardly arrived at Versailles when 'ornament for horses.' The king, she began to rid herself of every cir- who was plain in his taste, spoke to cumstance that imposed upon her her with diffidence of these singular any restraint. She went abroad on ornaments. But in the beginning of foot, accompanied by one or two 1776, upon giving her half the dialadies of her court, her gentleman- monds which he had when dauphin, Usher walking at a distance behind. he said to her, • Keep yourself to this She invited her brothers-in-law and • • dress, which will not be attended sisters-in-law to dinner and supper, with farther expence. This advice and accepted of the same entertain- of the king had no effect upon her, ments from them, without any pa. and her rage for feathers became rade. She was affable, humane, sym- such, that the cost of a single one was pathising, and often delicate in her fifty louis-d'ors. Your charms, beneficence. A stag, which had been however, added Lewis XVI. stand Founded during a chase, when the in no need of embellishment.' king was present, struck with his “ Maria Theresa joined the king borns a poor peasant. The dauphi- in diverting the queen's taste from

a Dess, on hearing of the incident, flew trifles, which she began so early to to his assistance, took his wife into her display. The queen sent her' her carriage, loaded her with kindness, portrait ornamented with large and and granted her a pension.” p.50, 51. beautiful feathers. Maria Theresa

Haughtiness of mind produced a returned it with the following note : growing enmity between the queen • I would have accepted with great and her sisters-in-law, and it is added, * pleasure the portrait of the Queen she experienced the resentment of of France, but I cannot accept of the princesses her aunts. “The more one which represents to me only an the young queen was handsome, ami- actress' Nothing could prevail able, insinuating, bold, rash, frivolous with Maria Antoinetta to renounce in her taste and desires, ambitious of these ridiculous ornaments." p. 62, dominion, and jealous of her title of 63. archduchess, which she displayed on Chapters VI. and VII. In the every occasion, so much as to be no- former of these chapters we have deticed by the court, they likewise be. scribed the dispositions, the private came the more baughty, affecting the and political characters and conduct superb style of the best years of the of Monsieur, and the Count d'Artois, reign of Lewis XV. Who could be brothers to Louis XVI. and in the lieve that the five princesses, the latter an account of the Duke of Ore three aunts, and (wo sisters-in-law, leans, his connexions, and his son the entertained against the queen such a Duke of Chartres, afterwards Duke violent animosity, that they strove of Orleans, and subsequently Podlip with each other who should most ca. d'Egalité, who is here represented as lumniate her private life? Whatever the most beastly wretch that ever one suggested, another confirmed, degraded human nature. and a third subjoined her authority Chap. VIII. represents the Eng. to render the anecdotes incontes. lish by their agents tampering with tible.

the province of Britany; the mal. · The queen, on her part, carried contents of which place depute their her vindictive resentment so far as cbief to offer the crown to ihe duke Vol. l.


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