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gifies the lowest order of the Mogul zemindary shall be sold as will disa nobility. It is a title conferred by charge the balance, and a sunnud the king of Delhi, for which, accord- from the khalsch granted to the puring to some, it is supposed, the per: chaser. If he be dispossessed of the son maintained two hundred and management of his zemindary, be is, fifty horse-soldiers, of which he is the nevertheless, exclusively responsible commander, for the king's service. for all debts incurred by him during It is like wise a general appellative to his possession, unless a mortgage was distinguish the Patans, and given to given on the zemintary, or the esery man of rank.” p. 134. money borrowed applied to the pay

* Killedar. A petty officer, having ment of the revenue; in both which two pagodas for his monthly pay: cases the temindary is answerable, in These officers were frequently pro- such manner, however, as only to moted by Tippoo Sultaun to the deprive the new zemindar of a part office of Meer Suddoor (super-in- of his profits; but not to subject hini tendant-general of forts, &c.) By to any loss, or alfect the revenue of such ridiculous promotions as these government; but no mortgage is Tippoo Sultaun is said to have given deened valid, unless it be registered unbrage to many of the great men of in the public cutcherry. Zenindars, bis country." p. 141.

by the nature of their tenures, have # Shiling a A sort of Indian ves- no longer a right to their lands, than sel used on the flat coast, where there whilst they pay their revenues; in are not any harbours. M. Bartolo. Case of failure, the sale of their land meo informs us, that, in company consequently is a more just and use? with M. Berteaud, he went on board ful recompence to government than

a small Indian vessel called by the subjecting them to corporal punish. | inhabitants shilinga. As it is exceed ment: should they, however, at any

ingly dangerous and difficult to land time be prevented fulólling their en. at Pondicherry and Madraspatnam, grements by unavoidable accidents, these shilingas are built with a high rather than by their own mismanagedeck, to prevent the waves of the sca ment, equity will point out what infrom entering them. This mode of dulgence they may be entitled to on, construction is, however, attended that account. with one inconvenience, which is, that the waves beat with more impe. toosity against the sides, raise the shilinga sometimes towards the hea. tens, again precipitate it into a yawn

HAMILTON. ing guit, and, at length, drive it on

(Concluded from page 75 of our last.) shore with the utmost violence. In

N ly dasbed to pieces, if the mucoas, or fishermen, who direct it, did not throw the female mind, this lady observes-themselves into the sea, force it back “ Beautiful imbecility will be ad. by exerting their whole strength, and mired, it is true, but let us apply to in this manner lessen the impetuosity numerical rules, and calculate the peof the surf. On the flat coast of Co- riod of this admiration. What proromandel there are no harbours, and portion does it bear to the length for that reason neither people nor of human life? What is the sum goods can be conveyed on shore, but total of the advantages to be derived in these shilingas. This labour is very from it, when compared with those dangerous even for such small vessels, which would be experienced in the as the flatness of the coast for so great capability of fulfilling, with honour an extent renders the breakers ex. and propriety the duties of a wife, a tremely violent." p. 203.

mother, the mistress of a family, the * Zemindar. A person who holds prudent adviser, and the faithful a tract of land immediately of go- friend? Is it acting with wisdoin and vernment, on condition of paying the consistency, in the first place, to do rent of it. He is first in rank among all in our power to deprive beings of the landholders: if a zemindar be the use of this faculty, and then to unable to pay up the amount of his plunge them into situations where engagements with government, at the its exertions are absolutely necesead of the year, such a part of his sary ... This is the argument (and

A. 243.

LETTERS ON EDUCATION. BY MISS

such cases the

vessel would be ceatiser I improved and correct judgment to

an unanswerable one it is) which can mind to embrace truth, to perceive aloue be used with propriety by the the utility and advantage of moral advocates of the frail fair ones, when rectitude, and to regulate the paspleading in extenuation of their foul sions and affections of the heart by offences in our courts of justice. the laws of piety and wisdom, would

“Were this argument to be adorn- do more towards putting a stop to the ed, as it might by the eloquence of an career of vice, in every rank and staErskine, or a Garrow, it would do tion in society, than all the laws and more towards opening the eyes of punishments the legislature can dethe public to the consequences of an vise.” p. 212—215. education merely ornameutal, than The proposition, “ that the same all that can be written upon the sub- cause will always produce the sarae ject by the divine, or the moralist.” effect," the author says, may, in its

After a severe censure upon inat words, be unintelligible to children; tentive mothers, our author proceeds, yet it may be explained by some 'Without judgment there can be no simple actions. Miss Hamilton inknowledge of first principles; without stançes first in objects familiar to the first principles, there can be no rule senses, and then applies the same of conduct or of duty. How, then, principle to morals. can creatures be said to transgress “Never, in all our researches, shall against principles which they never we find an instance, where unostenta. had it in their power to comprehend ? tious benevolence, justice, wisdom, They were taught, that the sole duty and piety, were refused the esteem of woman was to be amiable. Thai, and approbation of mankind, unless in order to be amiable, must be where party hatred, by its deadly poiaccomplished and genteel; that is to son, blinded the eyes and envenomed say, that they must learn to dance, the heart. By this was the furious and dress, and • nickname God's multitude influenced against the Sa. creatures; to talk sentiment, to af- viour of the world! By this have fect sensibility, and to follow fashion many who call themselves his disciinto whatever follies she may lead ples, been inflamed to cruelty and Have they not done all this? and vengeance against their inore deservnow mark the inconsistency of man! ing brethren. They are accused of inning against * The analyzation of party spirit the laws of God and of their country; can never take place in the moment when they can call God, their coun- of fermentation, but when that has try, and their parents, to witness, that sufficiently subsided to permit us to their judgment was never sufficiently examine it minutely, it will appear cultivated to pronounce upon the compounded of fear, hatred, pride, truth and propriety of a single pre- envy, malice, and cruelty. As it opecept, moral or divine. They were rates most violently upon ignorance, taught to look on personal admiration there can be no better preservative as the chief good, when they found it from its attacks, than a strong and was no longer to be expected from the cultivated judgment, together with husband, were they to blame for seek- conceptions so clear, acute, and accliing it in the admirer: 0; all that they rate, as to embrace the whole of the were taught to believe amiable, they arguments, and to perceive the whole are still possessed, for no one esti. of the errors, on both sides of every mable quality of the heart or under- question that is agitated. standing was in the catalogue. Sen- Nothing can be more inimical to sibility and sentiment comprised their the cultivation of judgment, than an only notions of virtue; and by giving early initiation into party prejudices. way to sensibility and sentiment they By these the conceptions are misled, became adultresses, or to speak in the and the judgments concerning right more delicate terms of modern re- and wrong must consequently be orfinement, amiable unfortunates. ten erroneous. It is, at any time ot

“ To the effects of a pernicious life, fatal to the integrity of the moral education, and not to the frailty of character, to approve or disapprove the sex, ought the natural conse- according to the dictates of affection quences of a want of principle to be The habit of doing so is to the young assigned. Such a change in the particularly injurious; it not only mode of education as would expand warps the, judgment, but deprave the powers of intellect, enable the the heart.” . p. 221, 222,

la neglecting the cultivation of extensive plain, &c. “And though this faculty, it is observed, “ Thus we more enlightened notions : .. produce a race of praters, who know are now made familiar to children, nothing; of talkers, who never think; even in the nursery, than was formerof light, trifling, and fantastic beings, ly known to sages, still by trusting alike destitute of intellectual vigour to the evidence of their senses, chiland of solid principle.” P. 228. dren are liable to errors of judgment,

Letter VII. Observations upon the which, if not attended to, may lay the Method to be pursued in reading History. foundation of future prejudice." The - Premaiuré Cultivation of imagina. credulity natural to youth is another tion hurtfal in Judgment.--Other ob- fruitful source of erroneous judgment. stacles to its Improvement.--Mode of On this topic our author observes :. Femak Education formerly adopied, " It is only the imbecility of ignomore favourable to Judgment than the rance, or the vanity of scepticism, sredera.-Examples.

that supposes any thing to exist In a former letter an objection is without a cause. 'A sensible child made to the use of abridgments of his- will soon be convinced that it is imtory, in the instruction of children, possible; and the mind cannot be which is in this thus explained : better exercised in early life, than in $ Hence it appears to me, that the discovering the causes of appearances judgment will be exercised to more ad- with which it is familiar, but for vantage by a minute investigation of a which it knows not how to account. A detached period of history, judicious- boy observes that his top spins as long ly chosen, than by the perusal of the as it is kept in motion; tell him, when abridged history of ages. Fully ap- he asks you why it does so, that it prised of the narrow limits of its in- • is the nature of all tops, or that it formation, the mind will be in no spins because it is whipped,' and you danger of that shallow conceit which lay the foundation for indifference or constantly attends the superficial. credulity. But if, instead of giving It will be prompted to acquire further these foolish answers, you explain the knowledge for itself; and, by having real cause, and teach him to look out been put upon the method of exer- for similar examples of the operation cising judgment upon every subject it of the laws of gravitation, you will investigates, its inquiries will never fail probably be doing the faculty of judg. to be attended with advantage.” p.232. ment a greater service than it could

The second topic in this letter is have received from the longest and intended to prove the danger which most laborious task.” P. 247. arises from the perusal of tbose works Another very ample source of erwhich address the inagination only, roneous judgment is found to proceed and exemplifies their effects in the from that arrogant confidence which characters and manners of the natives frequently attends the consciousness of the East.

of quickness of parts. Miss H.'s arNovels, in the next place, fall under gunients here are too pertinent and the severe censure of our author; she impressive to be omitied; she says, describes their fascinating nature, " All mothers wish their children to and banetul influence, in stupifying be distinguished by a quick capacity, the mental faculties; and introduces but dearly do they sometimes pay for a contrast between a novel reading the accomplishment of this wish! Miss and the young lady whose at- Soon does the child perceive the motention is engaged in the perusal of ther's incapability of atfording it inworks calculated to inform her mind, forination. She seeks to engage its and cultivate her judgment; the affections by indulgence--by indul. pleasures of each are described, with gence it learns to despise her authothe peculiar advantages derived by rity. She is solicitous for the imthe latter.

provement of the genius in which she The first obstacle to the improve. glories; every step which the child njent of the judgment is by trusting advances in the path of knowledge, to the evidence of sense; this is illuse is a degradation to the mother in its trated by the erroneous opinions esteem. Her admonitions are withformed by mankind in the jofancy of out weight, her injunctions without science, concerning the system of authority. If it be a son whom she nature, in judging the world to be an thus sees exalted to a superior, she may, perhaps, be proud to acknow- tian doctrine ; and, like all others of ledge the superiority; and though she the same stamp, is found by experifeels herself neglected and despised, ence to be repugnant to the principles rejoice in the world's acknowledg- of common sense. ing her son for a man of genius; but “To the being who is taught to re. if it be a daughter, whom she has ceive all opinions from authority, thus taught to look down upon her, judgment is an useless gift. In such deep and many will be the wounds of beings, therefore, judginent will lie her heart.p. 248, 249,

for ever dormant; and without judg" Another source of error, con- ment, how is she to choose the authocerning which it behoves us to be rities that are to be her guide ? If upon our guard, is that disposition to her early associations of good and rest upon authority, which, if we do evil have been erroneous, they must not take care to prevent it, may remain erroneous for ever; for it is spring from that contidence in our by these associations that her choice superior wisdom and knowledge, of authorities will be directed. If which it is essential that the pupil the clearest, the most momentous should possess.

truth be delivered from a quarter, “ It requires, I confess, great deli, against which she has been preju. cacy of conduct to impress the pupil diced, the truth is contemned as falsewith perfect confidence in our judg: hood. If the most flagrant and fatal ment, and at the same time to lead

error has been embraced by the au. him to exert his own as if he had no thority she esteems, she receives it such authority to rely upon."

* as truth of holy writ'.” p. 256-260. To promote this principle, the fol. Letter IX. Further Illustrations on lowing exemplification is used as a mo- the Method of cultivating the Judgment. tive." This reliance upon authority -Education of the lower Orders.is represented by some writers as the Religious Instructions of the Poor and very essence of female virtue.

of the Rich. . God is thy law-thou mive; to know no An explanation of the nature and more,

use of those things which are within • Is woman's happiest knowledge, and her the sphere of the observation of the praise.'

children of the lower order, is recom. So said Milton, but so said not a mended as a principal mean for their higher authority than Milton, when in instruction. The use of the Scripemphatic language he commended tures is enjoined, as of high importthe better pari' taken by Mary, ance in the instruction, both of the who, not contented with hearing the rich and of the poor, selecting and words of truth and wisdom at second explaining such parts as are suitable band, gave her whole soul to the at- to ihe apprehension of children, and tentive consideration of the divine calculated to impress the mind with doctrines it was her happiness to hear ideas of the wisdom, power, and delivered. According io the common goodness of God manifested throughprejudices of society, the praise was out the works of creation. On this Martha's due. Her attention was interesting subject is the following solely directed to the objects within seasoning : “ As we do not prosess to her proper sphere. Enough for her to have one religion for the poor and hear the heads of her divine master's another for the rich, whatever updiscourse related by her brother, on on this subject applies to one class whose better judgment she inight im- applies to all. It was the emphatic plicitly rely for explanation of all it description given by our Saviour to was necessary for her to believe or prove his divine inission, that to the practise. And so certain was she of pour the gospel was preached, and by acting with propriety, that, confident the poor it was ordained, in the wisof her own superior werit, she did not dom of Providence, that the glad tid. scruple to appeal to our Lord upon ings of salvation should be first dis. what she thought the faulty conduct pensed throughout the world. of her sister. The rebuke she received “ Before our religion the distinctions establishes it not only as a privilege, formed by human pride vanish; in but as a duty, in the sex, to hear, to its presence worldly pomp and world. inquire, and to judge for themselves. lv honours are annibilated. Stript The contrary is evidently Anti-Chris. of his adventitious greatuess, man

appears as he is : whatever be his the associations which produced them. station, the frail child of dust!-how- A small number of ideas will, indeed, erer humble bis lot, the heir of im- suffice to pursue a simple narrative, mortality!

and accordingly we find that narra" While all those ideas of equality, tive, either of real or fictitious events, which pbilosophical or interested spe- is the only sort of reading which is culatists bave endeavoured to estab- relished by the uncultivated mind. lish, tend to inspire hatred, envy, pride, Do we wish to inspire a taste for and discontent, the equality taught studies of a higher order? Then let by the Gospel inspires the purest be- us lay a solid foundation for such a nevolence. It teaches humility to taste, in the cultivation of all those the rich, and contentment to the faculties which are necessary to the poor; and fraternizes (if I may so proper exercise of the imagination, express myself) the human race." Let us by the exercise of the reasonp. 287, 288.

ing powers, as well as of the conLetter X. IMAGINATION AND ception and the judgment, produce TASTE. Imagination defined. - Ne. that arrangement in the ideas, which cessity of its Operations being guided by is alike favourable to invention and Judgment. - Illustrations. - Definition to action. In such minds the trains of Tasit.--Mistakes concerning the Cube of associated ideasare, if I may so ex#vation of this Faculty.--Union of Con- press myself, harmonized by truth. ception and Judgment essential to its The ideas being numerous, distinct, Czútivation.- Illustrations.

and just, are called up in proper orMiss Hamilton's definition of ima, der; and as arrangement in our as. gination.“ By imagination, in the sociations is the true key of memory, sense to which I have confined my- every idea that is wanted obeys the self, is understood that power of call of will. It is then that the power the mind, which is exerted in form- of imagination comes forth to irraing new combinations of ideas. The diate the mind, and to give a new power of calling up at pleasure any zest to the charm of existence. The particular class of ideas is properly combinations which it then presents, denominated fancy. A creative ima- arranged by judgment, selected by gination implies not only the power taste, and elevated by the sublime of fancy, but judgment, abstraction, ideas of divine perfection, give an exand taste. Where these are wanting, ercise to all the intellectual powers.' the flights of imagination are little p. 307–309. better than the ravings of a lunatic." Our author describes taste as the .301, 302.

peculiar privilege to perceive and to Among the illustrations of this enjoy whatever is beautiful or subsubject we present the following to lime in the works of nature or of art; cur readers "To produce a work and in pursuing the subject, obserres, of genius, the power of imagination that “ The more deeply we examine must be possessed in a very eminent this curious subject, the more fully degree; but unless a certain portion shall we be convinced, that the emos of the same imagination be possessed tions of taste entirely depend on the by the reader, the works of genius train of ideas which are called up in will never be perused with delight. the mind, by certain objects of perNothing can be relished but in pro. ception. If the mind has not been portion as it is understood; and previously furnished with a store of thoroughly to understand an author, ideas that can be this associated, the #e must be able, with the rapidity of finest objects of sublimity or beauty thought, to enter ioto all his associa- will never give a pleasurable sensations. This can never be done by tion to the breast. They may be

those who possess a very limited viewed with wonder, with admira• stock of ideas. The beautiful allu. tion, but will never produce emotions

sions, which at once illustrate and of sublimity or beauty, adorn the works of the learned, are • The above observations may be lost upon those who are unacquainted further illustrated, by reflecting on with classical literature; and we may the manner in which a taste for the be assored, that many of the beauties beauties of the material world, and of the antient orators and poets, are for the beauties of poetry, enhance in like manner lost upon the learned each other. A young mind, accusof our days, from their ignorance of tomed to the contemplation of rurat

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