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differences more striking than those dering weapon invented in our Euwhich he observes in the physical rope, with which the antients were so man: in the latter, the difference the fortunate as not to be acquainted, most characterised is that of the and which, in the space of a century, white from the blck, of the inhabi. so short when it is compared to the tant of Scandinavia from the negro duration of the world, has destroyed, of Senegal; but this transition in the or submitted to a few men, half of the species is not sudden; and if we tra- human species. Captain Marchand, vel over the known countries of the following the example of his nuglobe, we shall pass from one country merous predecessors, thought it into another by imperceptible shades; cumbent on him to take possession, it is otherwise with the moral man; in the name of the French nation, of can there, for instance, be found in the island of which he had recently termediate shades between the con- made the discovery, a possession jugai fidelity imposed by our man- which involved as a right, according ners, and the prostitution honoured to the received opinion, that of the among the tribes disseminated over other islands which he might discover the great ocean? There are then vir- in the same quarter. This ceremony, tues and vices, as there is a beauty which would only be ridiculous fronr and a deformity, of locality and opi- its inutility, if it were not contrary to nion.

I do not say it the law of nature and of nations, was is right that this is so; but I say that performed by fastening with four facts seem to prove that this is.' p. nails against the trunk of a large tree, 151, 152.

an inscription, containing the name of Captain M. imposed on this bay, the ship, and of the captain, and the the name of Baie du Bon Accuiel act of taking possession of the island (Welcome Bay.)

by the French. The natives, who Our navigators visited a bay on the observed with the attention of curionorth-west coast of the island, where sity all that was doing by the stranthey landed, and “the natives crowd- gers, the object of their admiration, ed round them, but without confu- certainly did not suspect that the latsion, without being importunate, with. ter were solemnly taking possession out making themselves troublesome; of the land where the bones of their they seemed to have no other object forefathers reposed, and were giving than to obtain a nearer view of them. them a master in a hemisphere which Captain Marchand, and his party, neither they nor tlreir ancestors ever distributed to the various trifles, heard of. But though the peaceable such as nails, looking glasses, knives, disposition of these islanders might fish-hooks, and coloured glass beads; afford the hope that they would reand it is needless to mention that, in spect this monument, which, howthe distribution of the presents, the ever, was to last no longer than till modest virgins were not forgotten. the rust should consume the nails, or

They received in exchange from time or men throw down the obelisk, these inoffensive islanders, and from it was thought that prudence comtheir chief in particular, a lance, a manded far greater safety, and ad dart, or javelin, two fans made of perpetuum rei memoriam, the inscripfeathers, and two large pearl oyster. tion to be written on three sheets of shells.”

paper, which were rolled up sepa"Since navigation has made known rately, and put into three glass bottles, to Europeans, parts of the terrestrial corked and sealed; one was depositglobe, of which the antients did not ed in the bands of the venerable suspect the existence, they have per- chief of the district; the second was suaded themselves that the whole delivered to a man of a certain age ; world belongs to them; and that the and the third was intrusted to the lands which they happen to discover, custody of a young girl : three geneare portions of their universal domain, rations scarcely seemed sufficient to which nature was to blame to alien- answer for so valuable a deposit. Of ate, and which ought to return under all the presents that were made to the their domination : too happy still are inhabitants of the country which had the primitive possessors of the disco- just been united to France, the botvered countries, if the usurper, in tles were those they received with order to establish the rights of sove- most pleasure, and to which, without reignty, has not recource to that thun- suspecting that they containcd the

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act of their union to an empire of « In the afternoon of the 29th of Europe, they appeared to attach the July, 1791, in latitude 42° 40' and greatest value. From this disposition longitude 150° 40', the sea being peron their side, no doubt was entertain. fectly smooth, the yawl was deed of their preserving thein carefully, tached to pick up on the water a and their visitors were convinced that plant, which appeared to belong to a conquest in bottles is secure against the family of the fuci, betier known every event. Would it not be sup- to seamen by the name of sea-weed, posed that the French wished to have and which, at a distance, the motion it understood by all the navigators who that was given to it by some fishes tius conquered the world post haste, which were round about, had occathat an act of taking possession, if sioned to be taken for a turtle. I periormed in the style of theirs, has shall bring into one, the separate deall the fragility of the glass which is scriptions given of it by Captain to protect its title from the injury of Chanal and Surgeon Roblet.

“ The length of this plant was thir* As soon as this awful ceremony teen feet and a hall, according to the was concluded, the north-west bay of one, and fourteen feet according to Marchand's Island was proclaimed the other; and its circumference, at La Baie de Possession (Possession- the thickest extremity, was tisteen Bar) without any opposition or re- inches, according to the former, and monstrance on the part of the ancient eighteen, according to the latter; it proprietors; and their silence must, gradually diminished throughout its forsooth, be interpreted as a tacit whole length, was reduced to about assent.

one inch at the other extremity and “ The astonishment of the natives terminated in a point: the thick end, of this island at the sight of Europeans according to Captain Chanal, was and European commodities, their ig- swelled in the shape of a bottle or norance of traffic, their simplicity, bladder. Its flexible stem had the ineir confidence-every thing seems form of a hollow bamboo, but without to indicate that the French are the knots, which occasioned it to be Erst navigators who have set their called sea bambco. Its exterior surfoot on this island. The mild, peace- face, which was smooth and even, able, and friendly disposition which was, froin one end to the other, cothese kind islanders manifested, they vered with small shells of the species oke wholly to nature; for they were of muscles, according to the former, rot aware with what strength those of that of barnacles, according to the men, whose species and power were latter, which were attached to it by till then unknown to them, caine pedicles of four, five, and even six armed; and the marks of good-will inches long; these diaphanous pediand friendship, of which they were cles, says Surgeon Roblet, of a Heshy so lavish towards a handful of stran- and elastic consistence, resembled žers, who could not have appeared glass tubes filled with water, and had to them formidable, cannot be attri. iheir transparency; the summit of buted to a sentiment of fear, with each pedicle was terminated by a which no act on the part of the binged shell of the form of a fish's French either could or ought to have heard, composed of four moveable i aspired them; for our voyagers did pieces, united by a membrane, which Loleven indulge themselves, either in pieces contained a little animol with Welcome Bay or Possession Bay, in eight feet. Surgeon Roblet, to whom tring a single shot at any sea-bird; this last part of the description bethey were apprehensive that the re- longs, says that he is ignorant of the port of a fire-arm would spread terror name of this animal, but he believes among simple and inoffensive men, that it is called a barnacle. p. 180, to whom they owed gratitude. These

181. worthy people are yet ignorant of the After some curious observations on effect of European arms; and may the barnacle and the hermit crab, the they never know it! Marchand's Author proceeds, “ I am of opinion, Island will then be reckoned in the that it is to the plant of which our 190 small number of the islands of voyagers have given a description, that The great ocean, the discovery of the editor of the account of Anson's unich has not been polluted by the voyage has given the name of seneffusion of human blood.” p. 158. icik, of which it has nearly the form

hat face, is not set off by their snub; D principles of this tax, but con:

and figure amplified; and this is the features. Surgeon Roblet attributes name too which has been given to it their air of ferocity to their frequent by Captain Cook, who saw similar expression of the passions by which plants nearly in the saine latitude they are agitated. Tattooing is little where Captain Marchand met with in use among the Tchinkitànayans ; it; but neither of the English navi- a few men only are tattooed on the gators have given of it a detailed de- hands, and on the legs below the scription.". p. 183.

knee; almost all the women are tato On the 7th of August, 1791, the tooed on the same parts of the Solide arrived in sight of the north- body.” p. 218. west coast of America, and made

(To be continued.) Dixon's Norfolk Sound, where they cast anchor and traded with the natives, who name the place Tchinkitânay, and are thus described : “The XXXV. The INCOME TAX scruti. Tatives who occupy the environs of rized, and some Amendments pro. Tchinkitânay Bay are of a stature posed to render it more agreeable 10 below the middle size; none of five the British Constitution. By John feet four inches (French) are to be GRAY, LL.D. 8vo. 84 pp. Pr. 2s. seer; their body is thick but tolera

H. D. Symonds. bly well proportioned; their round,

R. G. highly approves but sharp nose, little watery eyes sunk in the head, and prominent ceives it should be levied on national cheek bones. It is no easy matter to income only. We cannot better exdetermine the colour of their com- press his idea than by copying the con. plexion; it might be imagined to be cluding paragraph of the pamphlet. red or light brown, but a coat of na- “ To conclude, the sum of the tural dirt, thickened by a foreign mix whole is, that whatever affords an inture of red and black substances, with come to one person, without detractwhich they smear their visage, suffers ing from the income of another perno remnant of their primitive skin to son, is both a private income and a be discovered. The coloured strokes national income ; that what affords which they trace on their face, pre- an income to one person by detractsent not all the same design; but all ing from the income of another perequally add to their natural ogliness. son, is a private income, without Their coarse, thick hair, covered with being a national income; and of this ochre, down of birds, and all the kind are the incomes of every person filth which neglect and time have ac- in society, excepting those of the cumulated in it, contributes to render farmer, the fishermen, and the mer. their aspect still more hideous. They chant, in so far as his prohts are rot wear their beard only at a certain made upon his fellow-subjects; that age; the youths carefully eradicate it onght to be one of the first cares of it; adults suffer it to grow; and it is government, that the national income at this day well proved by the una- should superabound, and coursequentnimous account of the different voy-' ly that storing and exportation of agers who have visited the north-west corn are both good things; that procoast of America, that all the Ameri- duction, and not consumption, is the cans have a beard, in contradiction natural source of public supply ; tbat to the opinion of some of the learned, the income tax is a tax that ought who refused it to the men of the new never to be de parted from ; but that world, and wished to make this want it ought to be drawn from the real of hair a variety in the human species. national income, and not from imaIt is probable that the face of those at ginary national incomes; that a posTchinkitânay Bay would be less dis- sessor of real income, who should gusting, if they preserved that which withhold his just proportion of sup: nature has given them; for the young ply for the defence of the state would boys have an agreeable, and even an act as dishonourably as a military interesting countenance, but age, and man, who in a day of battle should still more the trouble which they take contend for the privilege of standing to make themselves ugly by wishing in the hindmost rank. to embellisli-themselves, and in giving thern bardy coarse, and even ferocious

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XXXVI. A DICTIONARY of Moham- again, and constitute a third stem medan Law, Bengal Revenue Te ms, . and so on. From the opposite pretty

Shaxscrit, Hindoo, and cther Words, high bank of the Ganges, and at the med in the East Indies, with full Ex- • distance of near eight miles, we perplanations; the leading Word of each ceived this tree of a pyramidical Article being printed in a new Nus- shape, with an easy spreading slope taleek Type*. To which is added, an • from its summit to the extremity of Appendix, containing forms of Fir. its lower branches. We mistook it mazas, Perwanchs, &c. By S. Rous- at first for a small bill. We had no SEAU, Teacher of the Persian Lan- quadrant to take its height; but the gunge. 12 mo. 352 pp. 85. bound. • middle or principal stem is consiSewell, and Murray and Highley. derably higher, I think, than the RR.'s Préface shews a work of

highest elm, or other tree, I ever

saw in England. The following à desideratum, not only to gentlemen

comprise some other of its dimen

sions, which were taken with a cord going to the East Indies, but to others

of a given length. who wish to understand at home the affairs of that country: and to the Diameter of the branches 121 or 363 Preface is added an Introduction, Diameter of ditto from giving a brief description of the three north to south

125 or 375 provinces of Bengal, Bahar, and Oris. Circumference of the sha

dow of the extreme sa, which is equally instructive and

• branches taken at the entertaining; and the Dictionary it.

meridian self is not a mere explanation of

372 or 1,116

Circumference of the seterms, but contains many interesting

( veral bodies or stems, articles, as may be judged from the

• taken by carrying the following extracts.

'cord round the outer" Banyan, or Banian Tree, among most trunks

307 or 921 the Hindoos, is a sacred plant: from

· The several trunks may amount to its various branches shoots, exactly

• 50 or 60. like roots, issue, and growing till they reach the ground, fix themselves

* N. B. The dropping fibrës shoot down from and become mothers to a future pro

the knots or joints of the boughs. geny; they thus extend as far as the • This tree, as well as the peeple, ground will admit.

and many other large trees in India, “ There are two sorts, the pipler,

• is a creeper. It is often seen to spring wbich is the female, and the ward, • round other trees, particularly round which is the inale. This is the same

' every species of palm. The date, tree wbich is called by botanists the • or palmyra, growing through the ficus crientalis. The following de- centre of a banian tree, looks exscription of a Banian tree, in the pro- •tremely grand; and yet none of the vince of Bahar, was written by Co., European landscape painters, who lonel Ironside. · Near Mangee, a • have delineated views of this counsmall town at the confluence of the

try, have introduced this character. * Dewah (or Gogra) and the Ganges, • istic object into their pieces. I have

about twenty miles west of the city frequently observed it also shooting . of Patnas, there is a remarkable large • from old walls, and running along free, called a Bur, or Banian Tree, them. In the inside of a large well, • which has the quality of extending its • it lined the whole circumference of 'branches, in a horizontal direction, to • the internal space of it, and thus aconsiderable distance from its stem; actually became a tree turned inand of then dropping leatless fibres or (side out. 'scions to the ground, which there catch • Under the tree sat a fakir, a dehold of the earth, take root, embody; "votee: he had been there twentygrow thick, and serve either to sup

• five years; but he did not continue port the protracted branches, or, by • under the tree throughout the year, a farther vegetation, to compose a • his vow obliging bim to lie, during * second trunk. From the branches, "the four coldest months, up to his other arms again spring out, fall (neck in the Ganges, and to sit, dur. "down, enter the ground, grow up ing the four hottest months close to * We have been obliged to omit these

a large fire'.” p. 30–32. characters in our extracts.

Cauzy. A Mohammedan judge. Vol. I.

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p. 53.

Carsy kl kecaat. That is, judge of 1,028 rupees. Some of the principal judges, or head judge - There is one servants of the presence have from at Moorshedabad, whose deputies are fifty-one down to twenty rupees; and established in most of the Bengal dis- others are paid from two rupees up to tricts. The cauzy ul kezaąt forinerly forty. At the grand gate is stationed held a court at Moorsledabad, which a mushreff, to take account of the retook cognizance of causes concern- ceipts and expenditures of the haram ing marriage contracts and settle- in ready money and in goods. ments, the division of inheritances, Whenever any of this multitude of testaments, &c. At present this jy- women want any thing, they apply dicial power is not exercised by the ta the treasurer of the haram, who, çauzy, being absorbed by the De- according to their montbly stipend, wanny, or Foujdary jurisdictions. The sends a memorandum thereof to the cauzy ul kezaat has now a seat in the mushretl of the grand gate, who transNizamut Ada wlut, at Moorsheda. mits it to the treasurer of the king's pa. bad, but the separate authority of lace, and he pays the money. In payhimself and his deputies seems con- ment of these demands no assignments fined to giving fetwas, celebrating are given but only ready money; Mohammedan marriages, and attest- “ An estimate of the annual exing with his seals all deeds of pur- pences of the haram being drawn out, chase, mortgages, settlements, and the the mushrem writes a draft for the like.'

amount, which is countersigned by Gunny. A coarse sort of bags, the ministers of state, after which it wrappers, &c. used generally in the is paid in a coin that his majesty has East. The materials from which they caused to be struck solely for that are made grow in the greatest profu- purpose. This money is paid by the sion in Hindoestayn. If the gunny grand-treasurer to the paymaster-gebags and wrappers were carefully pre- neral of the palace; and by a written şerved, they might become a consi- order being sent by the mushreff of derable article of trade, since they the gate, it is distributed amongst the have been found of material service inferior paymasters of the haram, and in the manufacture of paper. Paper by them paid to the different servants made from these bags, inany speci- thereof. And this money is reckonmens of which have come within the ed in their salary equal with the curknowledge of the editor, and some of rent coin. which have been printed upon by “ The inside of the baram is hiin, might be made as substantial guarded by women, and about the and durable as that which is gene- gate of the royal apartments are rally used in England for printing." placed the most contidential. Im

mediately on the outside of the gate Haram or Seraglio-A Moham- watch the curuchs of the haran, and medan woman's apartment. The ze- at a proper distance are placed the nana. The haram is an inclosure of reipuots, beyond whom are the porters such immense extent as to contain a of the gates; and on the outside of separate room for every woman, the inclosure, the oimahs, the ahdee, whose number sometimes exceeds ars, and other troops, mount guard, tive thousand. They are divided into according to their rank. companies, and a proper employment “ Whenever the begums, or the is assigned to each individual

. Over wives of the omrahs, or other women each of these companies a woman is of eliaracter, want to pay their comappointed darogha; and one is se- pliments, they first notify their desire lected for the cominand of the whole, to those who wait on the outside, and in order that the affairs of the haram from thence their request is sent in may be conducted with the same re- writing to the officers of the palace, gularity and good government as the after which they are permitted to Other departinents of the state. enter the haram; and some women

“ Every one receives a salary equal of rank obtain permission to remain to her nerit. The pen cannot mea- tfiere for the space of a month." sure the extent of the emperor's lar- p. 111-113. gesses; but here shall be given some Khaun. Literally this word signis account of the monthly stipend of fies lord, or noble. In Persia, it is each. The ladies of the first quality applied to a prince or governor of a receive from 1,610 rupees down to province; but in Hindoustaun it sig

p. 105.

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