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FOR MARCH, 1802.
XXXIV. A VOYACE round the World, The historical introduction to this performed during the Years 1790, work commences with the discoveries 1791, and 1792. By ETIENNE and conquests of Cortes, in the year MARCHAND, preceded by an Histo. 1537, and in noticing the voyage of rica! Introduction, and illustrated by each adventurer, we are gradually Charts, &c. Translated from the brought to those of our own time. French of C.P. CLARET FLEURIÉU, The last name upon the list is that of of the National Institute of Arts and Malespina, in the year 1790. A re. Sciences, and of the Board of Longi- capitulation of discoveries already tude of France. 2 vols. with an atlas. made, introduce the origin and de410. boards, pp. 1116. Price 31. 135.6d. sign of the voyage before us. Lonigmani and Rees, Paternoster. Nootka Sound Company, formed in Row; and Cadell and Davies, London under the direction of Mr. Strand.
Cadman Etches, had in the beginning
kept an interesting silence, in regard HE atlas contains eight plates to the success of the expeditions of
No:1. General chart.-11. Stilts Captains Portlock and Dixon, Col. of Wahitahô, or Santa Christina, seen nett and Duncan; those of Captain in front and in profile, half the size Mears, and of other navigators, were of those used by the natives.-III. not yet known, and the uncertainty Two charts on the same sheet, the one respecting the fate of La Perouse had of the Revolution Islands, situated to occasioned the publication of the rethe north-west of the Marquesas; the sults of bis voyage to be suspendother of the north-west group of the ed: it was still hoped that he might Marquésas, called by the English, publish them himself. A fortunate Hergest's Islands, copied from Van- chance procured our merchants and couver.-IV. The east part of Tupia's ship-owners the intelligence that was chart, which presents the equinoctial necessary to them for directing their islands of the Great Ocean.-V.Sketch operations. Eticnne Marchand, a of Cloak’s Bay, and Cox's Strait, int French captain, on his return from latitude 54 deg. 10 min. north ; Queen Bengal, in 1788, met with captain Charlotte's Islands, on the north-west Portlock, in the Road of St. Hecoast of America.-VI. Comparative léna, and received from him every ciart of the Sandwich Islands, ac- information that he could wish for cording to Cook, and of the group of concerning the trade of the northLa Mesa, taken from the chart of the west coast, and the profits that might galleon.-VII. General chart of the be expected from it, if a ship carried štrait between Banca and Balliton, her cargo of furs to China, and have comprising Gaspar's and Clement's ing there met with an advantageous Straits, from Point Pesant off Banca market for them, secured a cargo for to the north, to the isles De la Ré- her return to Europe. connoisance to the south.–VIII. Par- Captain Marchand, on his arrival ticular chart of the same strait, on a at the harbour of Marseilles, to which larger scale.
his ship belonged, communicated the VOL. I.
information he had procured to the length of the bird, taken from the house of Baux,
tip of the bill to the extremity of the orders for the fabrication of all the tail, is a foot. articles of foreseen necessity or uti- * Its eye is very black, and very lity; and for the construction of a lively. Its bill, which is of an ebony ship of 300 tons burden," named the black, is only fourteen lines in length, Solide, in which Captain Marchand, and is slightly hooked at its extrensiaccompanied by two captains, three ty; which gives it a countenance less lieutenants,two surgeons, three gentle- stupid than other oceanic birds : this men as volunteers, and a ship's com- bill is formed, like that of the others, pany of thirty-nine persons, making of three pieces, of which the lateral in the whole a complement of fifty ones join to that of the middle, to persons, sailed from the harbour of which they are attached by ligaments, Marseilles, on the 14th of December and a membrane that allow these 1790.
pieces to have a little play between Among the numerous birds seen by them. The nostrils, separated in our navigators in the Great Austral their middle by a cartilaginous parOcean, one taken with a hook and tition, have a round form, and are line is particularly described by Sur- covered by a prolongation of the geon Roblet. , “ This bird,” says he, frontal bone, which appears to add * exhibits only two colours, white to the bill a fourth piece, whose root and black; they are distributed in so is covered by the feathers. The exdiversified a ranver, that they give treinity of the upper mandible is terto its robe the most agreeable ap- minated by a small and very sharp pearance. The head, which is al hook, which is three lines from the most round, and the upper part of the point to the most convex part; the neck, are of the most beautiful the under jaw, entirely filled by the black; the throat and the belly of tongue, is exactly adapted to the up; a dazzling white. The mantle, com- per, throughout its whole length, and posed of small feathers, rounded at terminates in a blunt point. The their extremity, and speckled with ears are placed as in other birds. The brown and white spots, presents, on feet are palmated; they have three each feather, the figure of a small toes, and a moveable claw to the heel. lozenge, which is a thousand times The leg is black, and two inches in repeated; the rump is still more re- length. markable, because these small figures, • The character of this bird is very still more numerous, are here more gentle and familiar; frequently, foc regular, more distinct, and, in all the several hours together, we amused a individuals of this species which there great number of them with small was an opportunity of examining, hooks, which they very dexterously present themselves under the form of stripped of their bait. We attracted a square seen by one of its angles. them without any difficulty, by deThe extent of the wings is two feet grees, quite close to the ship’s stern. and a half, including three inches for We endeavoured to strike some with the diameter of the body; each wing a fish-gig, but without success; their is furnished with ten quill-feathers, too great lightness, and their situathe largest of which have the outer, tion on a fluid, opposing no resistance and two-thirds of the inner edge, of to the fish-gig, they dived under the a beautiful black, and the remainder stroke without being wounded by it. of a fine white; the small quill-fea. The cry of this bird, in its sports, or thers are black only at the tip, which its quarrels, is both hoarse and shrill, produces a border of this colour, cra, cra, ra, crn, cra. Those which completely encircling a white ground. were taken into the ship did not seem When the bird is in a state of reposc, to regret their liberty; although at it habitually crosses its wings in the first they had made frequent efforts form of scissars. Its tail is composed to recover it.” p.9, 10. of eighteen quills in two rows: white Captain Marchand intended to have prevails throughout two-thirds of sailed directly from the Cape De their length; a small black stripe, a Verd Islands to the north-west coast foot in breadth, terminates the sea. of America, without touching at any thers of the first row; and in those port, but as the water began to grow of the second, the stripe is not more putrid, he determined to shape bis than three or four lione The total course to the Marquesas; of which islands, particularly Santa Christina, papyrifera), since the natives employ this work contains a fuller account the fibres of its bark in the fabrica. than any other; the author having tion of their clothes." p. 77-79. transcribed the descriptions given, To this paragraph are subjoined and observations made by former na- notes, to illustrate the subjects it vigators who have visited these islands. contains, from which we select the We shall content ourselves with se. following: On the plantain-tree it is lecting froin such of the inforination observed, “ It is customary to reckon as appears the most interesting. among trees, the plantain-free, which
si The island of Santa Christina is rather a large herbaceous plant, presents itself under an agreeable as. than a tree; for there are 'no trees pect; it is very lofty, as well as all without wood and branches, and the the other islands of the group. A plantain-tree has neither the one nor narrow chain of high hills extends the others. But its port and its size throughout its whole length; and, represent to the view a tree rather from the shore, run other chains of than a plant; and the plantain-tree equalelevation, which, branching out, might be considered as a link of najoin the principal chain. These hilis ture between these two manners of are separated by confined and deep growth of vegetables *. On the vallies, into which rash some rivulets, casuarina or toa : the casuarina or 10a or rather pretty cascades, that water is, next to the bread-fruit-tree, one every part of the island; fruit-trees of of the most useful and best that navarious species here promote coolness, ture has bestowed on the islands of and procure abundance for its happy the Great Ocean. It is very hard, inhabitants. · · The soil of the very heavy, and of the colour of the vallies, according to Captain Chanal, mahogany-tree of the West India is a very strong mould, sometimes colonies : clubs, lances, beaters, or black, sometimes red, and very fit mallets, which serve for the fabrica-, for vegetation. Surgeon Roblet says, tion of cloths of the bark of trees, as that, although mountainous, the soil well as various utensils and instru-' consists of a strong black earth, where ments, are made of this wood, which grow various species of lichens, is never eaten by worms, and is, in, grasses, purslains, and shrubs. The some measure, indestructible. thick forests which cover the vallies, On the paper-mulberry-tree: “This the trees scattered on the bills, and shrub, which probably is the same as the verdure which is seen to reign on that of which the Chinese fabricate the steep sides of some of them, every their paper, and which is improperly thing attests the fecundity of the called silk paper, is employed in all soil.
the tropical islands in the manufac* The vallies of Santa Christina are, ture of cloths,
which may be called as I have already said, covered with paper cloths. This tree is planted in trees, and all of a handsome growth. layers, and cultivated with the most Sargeon Roblet gives us the enumera- particular attention. When it bas tion of those which he particularly reached nearly the height of a man, distinguished and recognized; the it is cut down, and stripped of its cocoa-palo, the bread fruit tree, the bark, which is steeped in water; and plantain tree, the casuarina, of which it is with this bark, thus prepared the natives fabricate their weapons; a and beaten with a flatted mallet, that species of dwarf fir; a tree which the islanders fabricate cloths more or out-tops all the rest by its height and less fine, according to the proceedings the extent of its branches; but the more or less ingenious, which they substance of which is soft, and may employ in their fabrication.” be compared to the wild fig-tree of To an observation of Mr. Forster, our West India colonies; another a former navigator, the following note whose blossom and pod, as well as is subjoined, " It has been observed, its leaves, perfectly resemble those that, in general, the cocoa-palm grows of the tree which we call porcher in to a great elevation in low grounds, the East Indies, but whose trunk is and never attains an equal height on Đot so straight; lastly, a species of the mountains; and, indeed, the walnut tree, of which particular men- finest trees of this species that are to tion will hereafter be made. To this enumeration must, doubtless, be ad. * Se Bomare’s Ditconnaire a HI 3:10: ded the paper mulberry tree (moris Naturello ar she word Bonave,
be met with, are those which are pro- thick foliage of the large trees, it may duced on the Coral Islands, where the be conceived that it must be of a little depth of the soil neither seems quality very inferior to that of the likely to afford hold to their roots, canes of our West India colonies ; nor to furnish them with a point of but it may he presumed that, with a support sufficiently solid to resist
better exposure, means might, without the efforts of the winds, which mych difficulty, be found to improve agitate their summits, loaded with its species by culture.” p. 85. the weight of their fruits. We are The Marquesas have been so frestill more astonished, when we know quently visited, and the manners of that the principal root of the tree pe- the natives so often described, that nctrates very little into the ground; we conceive it unnecessary to extract but it is surrounded by a very great any thing on this subject, as Captain quantity of smaller roots, interwoven Marchand agrees with our own navione with the other, which help to gators, only giving a more copious strengthen the tree; and it inay detail, rehearsing former accounts, easily be conceived, that all these little with his own observations. From ramifications which run along on the these islands Captain Marchand set coral-ledges, find means to introduce •sail, on the 20th of June 1791, at midand fasten themselves into all the in- night, and having observed an object terstices of the coral, and into all the while in the bay of La Madre de numberless holes of those species of Dios, steered according to the bear. stone sponges which enter into the ing which he had taken, and which formation of the low islands. The indicated to him the position of a inhabitants of the countries to which land at no great distance from the nature has granted the cocoa-palin, group of the Marquesas de Menowe continual thanksgivings to her doça. author : this tree alone satisfies all The next morning, at break of day, the wants of man; it affords him he bad the satisfaction of discovering food, drink, furniture, cloth, and a to the north-west 7 deg. west, a high great number of implements." P.81. land, towards which be crowded sail,
“ Besides the three principal fruits in order to reconnoitre it; and at which I have mentioned, there is also a half past ten o'clock in the forenoon, sort of sweet potatoe, a species of apple he was no more than four miles from ofthe size of a medlar, and of an oblong the most southern point. shape; (its flesh is aqueous, and its The officers of the Solide, by acclafavour agreeable, both of which recal mation, gave to the discovered island to mind, in soine degree, those of the the name of " lle Marchand.” As Indian mango, if, like that Asiatic the manners of the inhabitants of this fruit, this apple were impregnated island ditler so materially from those with a taste of turpentine ;) ginger, ců. of Santa Christina, we are persuaded cumbers, like those which grow with an account will gratify our readers. out culture in our West India islands, As the ship was waiting for informawater-cress and purslain, in abund- tion of good anchorage, which a boat ance, and of an excellent quality; had been dispatched to find, " In the yam, as well as some other roots the mean time," says the author, which Captain Cook contents him- cange with three islanders approachself with indicating, without specify- ed the ship; one of them ventured ing them." p. 84.
to ascend into the chains, he appearSanta Christina possesses the su- ed to waver between fear and configar-cane, of which neither the Spa. dence; Captain Marchand made niards nor the English male mention; him some presents, which he seemed but the inhabitants know not its va- to receive with an air of indifference; Jue. Its sugar is tolerably sweet; it but he could not be prevailed upon grows to the height of six or seven to come into the ship; on a movefeet, and is upwards of an inch in ment made by the sailors in the exediameter; it is not so yellow as that cution of a maneuvre, bis fright was of our sugar islands, and its knots so great that he threw himself into are closer; it more resembles the his canoe, and paddled away from sugar-cane of the Windward Islands the vessel. In the afternoon, other than that of St. Domingo. As it canoes approached the ship, and two grows in the woods, where it receives islanders came on board without any the rays of the sun only through the hesitation; they examined every
thing with attention, and expressed self at first what he is, may be better their surprise by fits of laughter. One known in a single visit, than would of them ventured to go all over the be, after a long intercourse, the civiship, and whatever he saw appeared lised man, who has made for himself to please him. At the sight of the a countenance, a mask, and whoin bogs and fowls, he gave them the civilization has, by long habit, taught same names by which they are called to dissemble vice, and feign virtue.” by the natives of the Mendoca islands; p. 149, 150. but it was thought that the nails, the Decency forbade us to transcribe knives, and the other trities which the behaviour of the Marquesan fewere offered to him were objects ab. males; we are happy to be able to solutely new to him; and thence it present our readers with the followmay be conjectured that the two ing contrast : “ The women of this groups, although little distant from island, as to charm of figure, elegance each other, have no habitual commu- of stature, and other natural allurenication. Among other presents that ments, are by no means inferior to vere made him, a louking-glass, in those of the Mendoça islands; but which he saw his face, made him the sweet bashfulness of innocence burst into laughter. His companion gives an additional attraction to their seemed stupid; he would never beauty; decency reigns in their dress, quit the first place where he had sat which is composed of the morus papydown on entering the ship. These rifera, and fabricated with their own islanders appeared well-disposed, bands in the manner of the Taheitee confident, and grateful : in exchange cloths, though without having their for the presents which had been made fineness. They seemed not (only) to them, they offered and gave most avoid, but to dread the presence of the cordially their whole stock, which strangers; and although their looks eonsisted of two caps made of cock's fixed on them, and their outstretched feathers, very dirty, and a fish-hook necks, revealed the impatience of cuof mother of pearl; but the gifts of riosity, which endeavours to have a friendship are not calculated, senti- nearer view without approaching, the ment constitutes their value." p. 148, distance which they leit between the 149.
French and themselves proved their “ Neither habitations not inhabi- reserve; and it might be imagined tants were perceived in the north that this distance would never have cove; but in that to eastward, for been passed, had not some officious which the boat steered, about a hun. old men gone and taken by the hand dred and fifty natives of both sexes the youngest among them, in order were assembled on the shore, and to offer them as a homage to their manifested as much eagerness as guests, as we offer a seat to him who curiosity. He who appeared to be pays us a visit; but, very far from the the chief of the district put off in a shamelessness and effrontery of the canoe, and came to meet the stran. Mendoça women, those who had obgers, in order to welcome them; he tained a preference which they seemwas seated on a sort of bench erected ed to dread, approached only with rein the bow of the canoe. Some pre- pugnance, and even trembling; every sents were made to him; and, in re- thing announced that it was on their turn, he offered cocoa-nuts, fish, and part an act of submission : like the ina pearl oyster-shell, perfectly po- nocent victim which the priest drags kished. The strangers, on coming on to the altar shore, were received with every de
I forbear to proceed. Thus monstration of joy and good-will. then, old age considers it an honour
" It was not possible that in a visit, to prostitute youth and graces! Thus and an inspection of a few hours, this custom, common to so many Captain Masse could acquire of the people, and so revolting in our mancountry, and of the sort of men who wers, is here regarded as a duty so inhabit it, a knowledge which might important, so sacred, that the care of suffice for fixing an opinion concern- its accomplishment can be intrusted ing either the one or the other; we only to the sages of the nation! If we can know no more of them than what pass in thought from one part of the a rapid glance permitted him to catch. earth to another, we shall discover, at It must, however, be admitted, that every step, that the moral man offers the man of nature, who shews him to the meditation of the philosopher