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apostle in person. This confidential leaves him, would have evinced, that service, compared with the circum he was bishop of either of those stance, that no such apology was places. written in behalf of Titus, as of Dr. Potter saysI" he (that is TiTimothy, affords some ground to tus) was ordained and appointed to presume, that Paul had previous ex this office (bishop of Crete) by St. perience of the prudence and fideli Paul ;” and refers to Titus i. 5. as ty of Titus.

his proof. But the wordsø mean no The epistle to Titus expressly such thing. The verb translated limits his service in Crete to the appointed,” is never once used in arrival of a substitute, who was pro

the New Testament in the sense of mised to be sent; it can never, there. to ordain to an office; but was in fore, let us suppose it to have been this instance designed to refer Tiwritten when it may, prove a per

tus to the particular directions Paul manent connexion between Titus had given him, when he left him in and the churches of Crete.

Crete. If there were no bishops As Titus was to ordain elders in but of particular churches, at that every city, it may be inferred, there time, and we think the affirmative were none until constituted by him, cannot be shown, to have ordained this being one of the things left un Titus a bishop, would have confined done.* To suppose that there were, him to one charge; but the apostle is also to conflict with his practice, gave him no new commission; he of first planting, and afterwards or was to exercise the office which he daining. But when this work was already had, towards any people to performed, or progressed in by him whom he was sent. And it would for some time, he was to meet Paul be as correct to say, that he was orat Nicopolis. Those whom he had dained a bishop at Corinth, or in ordained, and others, whom Arte Dalmatia, in both which places he mus, or Tychicus, might afterwards served as an evangelist, by the ascommission as elders, that is as pas signation of Paul, as to denominate tors or bishops, continued, it may him the first bishop of Crete. That be fairly presumed, for the evange he had the oversight1 of the churches, lists, like the apostles, had no suc particularly to give each of them cessors,t the succession of the ordi. presbyters or bishops,** in Crete, in nary office, as every where else. virtue of his office of evangelist is

If it could be proved, that Titus freely conceded, but this was not to died in Crete, it would no more ordain him especially the bishop of establish that he was bishop of Crete, Crete. than his death at Corinth or at Dal The apostles received an extramatia, where the scriptural record

# Page 143. “Whose bishop he had

made him,” that is, of the Cretans. p. 222. * re nebaovla. Titus i. 5.

ΚΑΙ Ως εγώ σοι διε7αξάμην. # If diocesan bishops existed in the days of the apostles, and were their successors

The passages in which the original in office, then the Catholic argument,

word occurs in the Greek Testament, are that Peter, being the prince of the apos

the following: Matt. xi. 1. Luke iii. 13.

viii. 55. xvii. 9, 10. Acts vii. 44. xviii. 2. tles, left his peculiar powers to the bishop, who succeeded him at Rome, finds some

xx. 13. xxiii. 31. xxiv, 23. 1 Cor. vii. 17.

is. 14. xi. 34. xvi. 1. Tit. i. 5. In none support. But if they had no successors in office, then John, having survived Pe.

of which it is used for ordaining to an ofter, died the head of the visible church, fice. Hesychius explains A1aT.7765 by and the Catholic argument is ruined. So διακοσμη, καθηγείται. important did this point appear to Pope Των έπι Κρητης εκκλησιών έπισκοπην. Pius the IVth, that “he is said to have

Eusebius, 1. qii. c. 4. offered Queen Elizabeth, a confirmation of all she had done, provided his su

ET 10X0%WY KRIGIGA premacy was acknowledged.”

Chrysostom, hom, in Tit. i.

xas

TAGOUTWY

was

ordinary commission, which may be The office of Titas then, call it what said to have virtually contained all

we may, appears to have been in the offices, which have been legiti- rank next to that of an apostle, and mately exercised in the church since his work evidently extraordinary. they received it, and thus they were It seems to have been the practice the predecessors of all other church of Paul to carry the gospel into officers. This high commission was strange places, collect worshipping necessarily limited to them. Paul's assemblies; and afterwards to reapostleship was often questioned, turn and ordain elders, of those who but the proofs of his apostleship had some experience. Thus when were numerous and great. That he landed with Barnabas at Perga the apostles were bishops of the in Pamphylia, they proceeded to whole church, in the appellative Antioch in Pisidia, thence to Icosense of the term, is evident. The nium, then to Lystra, and afterpastors or bishops of particular wards to Derbe; they then returnchurches having been commission ed to all these places, and ordained ed by them, were justly referred to presbyters or bishops in each of the them as the heads of their respec societies. The Corinthian church tive successions; but there is little a worshipping assembly for more propriety, in bringing the apos years before they had

any

officers. tolic commission down to a level Pursuing the same reasonable mewith such presbyters or bishops, or thod, he first collected churches in of elevating the latter to the grade Crete, left them worshipping asof the former, than of supposing semblies, and having given instrucevery governor an alderman, or tions to Titus to ordain such as were every alderman of this city a gover fit to be officers in the churches; he nor of the state, because commis thus left him to accomplish what he sioned by him.

would have done, had he tarried Titus exercised an office evident longer, and gone through those conly inferior to that of Paul, for he gregations a second time. Thus went and came, preached, planted the churches in Crete were furnish. churches, and ordained bishops, ac ed, as other places were, with prescording to the directions of the

byters, pastors, or bishops, who apostle. He attended upon his per could afterwards continue a reguson, and did the work of an apostle, lar administration of ordinances, by in subordination to him. So far as commissioning others of the same appears from the New Testament, order in succession. his work was not fixed or stationary, There is nothing in the instrucmore than that of the apostle. His tions given to Titus by Paul, which residence in Crete may not have will not be found implied in the been so long as that of Paul at work of an evangelist; and the same Ephesus. The exercise of his of work might have been accomplished fice at Corinth, except that he or by him in virtue of his office, in any dained no presbyters there, much other district to which he came. more resembled that of a bishop, The work for which Titus was which was then understood of one left in Crete, was not that of a bichurch, than when he was travelling shop, who has the oversight of the through the cities of Crete, ordain individuals of a church, but a more ing bishops or pastors, in the cities general or indefinite service, to conto which he came; for this was in stitute elders or bishops over the character for an evangelist, and worshipping assemblies, and give precisely the work of an apostle. permanency to the fruits of apostoThis duty as far exceeded that of a lic labours. modern diocesan bishop, as this does That every church, or congrega that of a bishop in the gospel days. tion, was at the first, in some sense

VOL. I.

us."

episcopal, admits not of a doubt; made by Jesus Christ, earnest but this is no warrant for diocesan prayers to God for his enlightening episcopacy in the modern use of influence, and the best use we could the word; nor does the history of make of the powers he has given Titus and Crete appear to us to

Nor have we. yield relief. That Titus had pow 3. “ While we have the written ers as an evangelist, even trans word of God in our hands, we think cending those of a modern bishop, it an imperious duty to consult the is freely acknowledged; but they

divine oracles themselves, and to were suited to his itinerant minis build our faith entirely on the simtry, and he was no more, either by ple truths they contain.” So do we: his commission, or the execution of and indeed, without repeating it it, the settled bishop of Crete, than again, we solemnly assent to each of of Corinth, Nicopolis, Dalmatia, or the following extracted propositions. of any other places in which he 4. We “believe, that the scripplanted, or watered churches. And tures of the Old and New Testato limit the offices of the apostles, ment contain authentic records of and evangelists to any particular the dispensations of God, and of church, or larger district, over his revelations to men.

We think which they might for a longer or the evidence of the truth and divine shorter period preside, by virtue of authority of these books to be abuntheir general authority, appears to

dant and convincing." contravene the terms of the aposto 5. We believe “ that the reveallic commission, and the nature of ed truths of the scriptures are in the duties for which evangelists conformity with the principles of were originally appointed.

right reason, and consistent with J. P. Wilson. one another. We hold it to be im

possible, in the nature of things, Some Articles of Faith in which An

that any truths, which God has re

vealed, should be irrational, or contitrinitarians and Trinitarians

tradictory among themselves. What accord.

stronger evidence can you have of It is the common report of peo the falseness of any proposition, ple, who style themselves Unitari than that it contradicts an undeniaans, that their opponents are the ble truth, violates the plainest laws enemies of reason, the advocates of of your understanding, and opposes mysticism, unfriendly to free in the deliberate convictions of your quiry, ready to demand faith where judgment? No such proposition, we there is no information, and pecu are persuaded, can be contained in liarly illiberal in their views and the scriptures. If any are found learning. Now it may serve some apparently of this character, we good purpose to extract from “ The

believe the obscurity arises from an Unitarian Miscellany," a periodi- || imperfect acquaintance with their cal work published in Baltimore, meaning, and that further inquiry, a few propositions in which Trini- and more accurate rules of interpretarians perfectly accord with these tation, will prove them to be perexclusive enemies of bigotry, igno- | fectly consistent with the clear, porance, irrationality and supersti sitive parts of scripture, and with tion.

our rational convictions. Passages, 1. “We embrace our opinions about which there can be no doubt, upon

the most serious and firm con should serve as guides in explaining viction of their truth.” So do we. the obscure.”

2. “We have not been led to 6. We “believe one of the great them without an humble and de doctrines taught in the scriptures vout inquiry into the revelation to be the unity and SUPREMACY of

o the

God;" and " that he alone is to be him to be entitled to our implicit worshipped.”

to

faith, obedience and submission, 7. We • believe, that Jesus and we feel” or would wish to feel, Christ was à messenger commis s towards him all the veneration, sioned from heaven to make a reve love and gratitude, which the diglation, and communicate the will of nity of his mission,” the deity of God to men :" and we, moreover, his nature, “the sublime purity of believe him to be, in one of his na his character, and his sufferings for tures, of the essence of the God the salvation of men justly dehead.

mand." 8. We believe, that Jesus Christ, 10. We « believe that Christ was in his mediatorial office, is “subor one being, and that he possessed one dinate” to the Father, “and that he mind, one will, one consciousness." received from the Father all his This one being, however, from and power,” to officiate as mediator after the supernatural conception between the Deity and sinners. In by the Holy Spirit, and birth in our this same character Jesus prayed to world, was a complex one, consistthe Godhead, which is the only pro-ing of a human body, and a human per object of adoration. Concern soul, united to the divine nature. ing his official inferiority, Jesus For any thing to be, constitutes it said, “My Father is greater than å being; and any man is one being, I." « The Father that dwelleth in even while he consists of a mental me, he doeth the works.” “I can of and a material substance, or of a mine own self,” as God-man medic thinking and an unthinking essence, ator, “ do nothing."

« I have not mysteriously conjoined in one perspoken of myself; the Father which son. A complex thing may as truly sent me, he gave me a command be, or exist, as a simple substance. ment what I should say, and what I 11. Our “doctrines are rational should speak.” “Aš the Father and scriptural ; they can be defined hath sent me, even so send I you." and explained; they involve no con

9. “We believe in the divinity of tradictions; they never take refuge his mission, and in the divinity of in mysteries, but are supported by

- We consider all he the plain and positive truths of the has taught as coming from God; we sacred writings: they have no dereceive his commandments, and light in darkness; their strength is rely on his promises, as the com- best seen and tried in the light of mands and promises of God. In open day; they will never shrink his miracles we see the power of from inspection, nor retire from any God; in his doctrines and precepts manly and honourable contest to we behold the wisdom of God; and vindicate their pretensions, or subin his life and character we see a

stantiate their authority.” bright display of every divine vir 12. “ We believe" that man had tue. Our hope of salvation rests originally in himself," the power of on” his obedience to the precept, being good or bad, of meriting the law, in our place, whereby he has ments of a just God. Christ has satisfied divine justice and brought revealed to us the will, the moral in a perfect righteousness, as the government, the perfections of God, ground of our acceptance ; which and the certainty of a future state complete righteousness becomes of retribution. He has made known personally ours, when we practi the rules of duty, and the terms of cally and cordially believe the salvation. He has set before us the truths he has disclosed,” and com most powerful motives to obediply with the means” of salvation ence, and the consequences of wil. " Ne has pointed out. We believe ful sin, and impenitence.

his person.

and suffering of the

penalty of the rewards, or deserving the punish

66

13. “We profess to believe and to communicate light, he will do noteach a religion, which all men can thing to check its progress, or to understand. We keep as clear as limit the advancement of knowpossible from all dark windings, | ledge. and thorny mazes. We think the “ With him, who thus thinks and way of religion, as revealed in the feels, no article of faith is thought gospel, is a plain way. We impose too sacred, nor any doctrine too no unreasonable tax on any man's true, to be the subject of inquiry; understanding. We ask him to be

convinced that inquiry and examiKeve nothing, which we cannot ex nation can do no harm to the truth. plain and make intelligible. We It is not truth, he believes, but error hold to no magical faith, which and imposture, that are endangered works unseen wonders, and finds by being thoroughly investigated, truth in contradictions. We be- by having their foundations examinlieve the doctrines, which Jesus ed, and their whole evidence extaught, came from God, and for this posed to the most critical scrutiny. reason we believe them true. For It was the abuses and corrupthis reason, also, we are sure they tions of our religion only, that must be rational. I need not ask would not bear the refining process whether a system founded on such of the reformation, but were conprinciples, has not more to recom sumed in the fiery trial. All that mend it to a sound mind, than those, was true,-all that was pure and which delight in mysticisms, latent valuable survived, and came out of meanings, and incomprehensible the furnace the more beautiful and dogmas."

excellent for having parted with its 14. “ We regard with abhorrence dross. And it will always be so. every act of tyranny over the per Truth will always appear the brightsons of men. But of all tyranny, er for its collision with doubt or that most deserves our reprobation, error; and it will stand the firmer for which is attempted to be exercised having had its foundations attemptover the mind. To fetter and en ed to be shaken ; like the oak, that slave the mind is audaciously to gathers strength and stability by rob men of that liberty, with which the buffeting of the tempest. It is the Creator, when he gave them rea error only, which wants a solid son, and the Saviour, when he en foundation, that can be eventually lightened that reason by revelation, overthrown and destroyed. made them free.

“ Nor is this true only, when the “He who has just views of the contestlies between our holy religion imperfection of human knowledge itself and infidelity, or any other and the human faculties, and wishes rival system. It is equally true, only to conduct answerably to the when it lies between different and situation in which divine Provi inconsistent doctrines of the same dence has thus placed him, will feel religion, and between different and the obligation of bearing patiently opposite interpretations of the same with error, of listening respectfully scripture. The doctrine that shrinks to reasons offered in support of from examination, that calls for the offensive opinions, and of repelling support of authority, that requires them only by better reasons offered to be received without evidence or in the gentle spirit of Christianity. without being understood, if it be He will endeavour to bring over to true, exposes itself, or is rather exhis faith those, who dissent from posed by its friends to suspicion. It what he believes to be important incurs a reproach, which can only be truth, only by enlightening the un wiped away by taking away, the derstanding and convincing the fences, with which it is thus officiousjudgmnent. As ready to receive as ly and presumptuously surrounded..

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