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The "acclamations of the fathers;' closed the pro. ceedings of the council. The cardinal of Lorraine made himself conspicuous on that occasion. After having called on the assembly to declare their best wishes and prayers for the Pope, the emperor and other European monarchs (including the souls of those who had died since the opening of the council,) the legates, the cardinals, the ambassadors, and the bishops, he thus proceeded :

Cardinal. The most holy and ecumenical council of Trent-may we ever confess its faith, ever observe its decrees.

Fathers. “Ever may we confess, ever observe them.

C. “Thus we all believe: we are all of the same mind; with hearty assent we all subscribe. This is the faith of blessed Peter and the apostles; this is the faith of the fathers; this is the faith of the orthodox.

F. “Thus we believe; thus we think; thus we subscribe.

C. “Abiding by these decrees, may we be found worthy of the mercy of the chief and great high priest, Jesus Christ our God, by the intercession of our holy Lady, the Mother of God, ever a virgin, and all the saints.

F "Be it so, be it so: Amen, amen.
C. “Accursed be all heretics !
F. Accursed, accursed !” 3 4

As the committee appointed to prepare an index of prohibited books, had not finished their task, that business, together with a projected catechism, and a revised edition of the Breviary and Missal was referred to the Pope. In March 1564, the Index was published. It was alphabetically arranged, each portion being divided into three classes, comprising, 1. Authors, all whose works were absolutely prohibited: 2. Particular hooks forbidden, the other productions of the same writers being allowed : 3. Anonymous publications. The following "rules” were prefixed :

“1. All books condemned by the supreme pontiffs, or general councils, before the year 1515, and not comprised in the present Index, are, nevertheless, to be con. sidered as condemned.

34 See Appendix, No. 2.

"2. The books of heresiarchs, whether of those who broached or disseminated their heresies prior to the year above mentioned, or of those who have been, or are, the heads or leaders of heretics, as Luther, Zuingle, Calvin, Balthasar Pacimontanus, Swenchfeld, and other similar ones, are altogether forbidden, whatever may be their names, titles, or subjects. And the books of other heretics, which treat professedly upon religion, are totally condemned ; but those which do not treat upon religion are allowed to be read, after being examined and approved by Catholic divines, by order of the bishops and inquisitors. Those Catholic books also are permitted to be read, which have been composed by authors who have afterwards fallen into heresy, or who, after their fall, have returned into the bosom of the church, provided they have been approved by the theological faculty of some Catholic university, or by the general inquisition.

"3. Translations of ecclesiastical writers, which have been hitherto published by condemned authors, are permitted to be read, if they contain nothing contrary to sound doctrine. Translations of the Old Testament may also be allowed, but only to learned and pious men, at the discretion of the bishop; provided they use them merely as elucidations of the vulgate version, in order to understand the Holy Scriptures, and not as the sacred text itself. But Translations of the New Testament made by authors of the first class of this Index, are allowed to no one, since little advantage, but much danger, generally arises from reading them. If notes accompany the versions which are allowed to be read, or are joined to the vulgate edition, they may be permitted to be read by the same persons as the versions, after the suspected places have been expunged by the theological faculty of some Catholic university, or by the general inquisitor. On the same conditions also, pious and learned men may be permitted to have what is called Vatablus's Bible, or any part of it. But the preface and prolegomena of the Bible published by Isidorus Clarius are, however, excepted: and the text of his editions is not to be considered as the text of the vulgate edition.

“4. Inasmuch as it is manifest from experience, that

if the Holy Bible, translated into the vulgar tongue, be indiscriminately allowed to every one, the temerity of men will cause more evil than good to arise from it, it is, on this point, referred to the judgment of the bishops, or inquisitors, who may, by the advice of the priest or confessor, permit the reading of the Bible translated into the vulgar tongue by Catholic authors, to those persons whose faith and piety, they apprehend, will be augmented, and not injured by it; and this permission they must have in writing. But if any one shall have the presumption to read or possess it without such written permission, he shall not receive absolution until he have first delivered up such Bible to the ordinary. Booksellers, however, who shall sell, or otherwise dispose of Bibles in the vulgar tongue, to any person not having such permission, shall forfeit the value of the Books, to be applied by the bishop to some pious use; and be subjected by the bishop to such other penalties as the bishop shall judge proper, according to the quality of the offence. But regulars shall neither read nor purchase such Bibles without a special license from their superiors.

“5. Books of which heretics are the editors, but which contain little or nothing of their own, being mere compilations from others, as. lexicons, concordances, apophthegms, similies, indexes, and others of a similar kind, may be allowed by the bishops and inquisitors, after having made, with the advice of Catholic divines, such corrections and emendations as may be deemed requisite.

"6. Books of controversy betwixt the Catholics and heretics of the present time, written in the vulgar tongue, are no: to be indiscriminately allowed, but are to be subject to the same regulations as Bibles in the vulgar tongue. As to those works in the vulgar tongue, which treat of morality, contemplation, confession, and similar subjects, and which contain nothing contrary to sound doctrine, there is no reason why they should be prohibited; the same may be said also of sermons in the vulgar tongue, designed for the people. And if in any kingdom or province, any books have been hitherto prohibited, as containing things not proper to be read, without selection, by all sorts of persons, they may be al

lowed by the bishop and inquisitor, after having corrected them, if written by Catholic authors.

“7. Books professedly treating of lascivious or obscene subjects, or narrating, or teaching them, are utterly prohibited, since, not only faith but morals, which are readily corrupted by the perusal of them, are to be attended to; and those who possess them shall be severely punished by the bishop. But the works of antiquity, written by the heathens, are permitted to be read, because of the elegance and propriety of the language; though on no account shall they be suffered to be read by young persons.

“8. Books, the principal subject of which is good, but in which some things are occasionally introduced tending to heresy and impiety, divination, or superstition, may be allowed, after they have been corrected by Catholic divines, by the authority of the general inquisition. The same judgment is also formed of prefaces, summaries, or notes, taken from the condemned authors, and inserted in the works of authors not condemned ; but such works must not be printed in future, until they have been amended.

"9. All books and writings of geomancy, hydromancy, aeromancy, pyromancy, onomancy, chiromancy, and necromancy; or which treat of sorceries, poisons, auguries, auspices, or magical incantations, are utterly rejected. The bishops shall also diligently guard against any persons reading or keeping any books, treatises, or indexes, which treat of judicial astrology, or contain presumptuous predictions of the events of future contingencies, and fortuitous occurrences, or of those actions which depend upon the will of man. But such opinions and observations of natural things as are written in aid of navigation, agriculture, and medicine, are permitted.

“10. In the printing of books or other writings, the rules shall be observed, which were ordained in the 10th session of the council of Lateran, under Leo X. Therefore, if any book is to be printed in the city of Rome. it shall first be examined by the Pope's Vicar and the master of the sacred palace, or other persons chosen by our most holy father for that pupose. In other places, the examination of any book or manuscript intended to

be printed shall be referred to the bishop, or some skilfu! person whoin he shall nominate, and the inquisitor of heretical pravity of the city or diocese in which the impression is executed, who shall gratuitously and without delay affix their approbation 10 the work in their own handwriting, subject, nevertheless, to the pains and censures contained in the said decree; this law and condition being audel, that an authentic copy of the book to be printed, signed by the author himself, shall remain in the hands of the examiner : and it is the judg. ment of the fathers of the present deputation, that those persons who publish works in manuscript, before they have been examined and approved, should be subject to the same penalties as those who print them ; and that those who read or possess them should be considered as the authors, if the real authors of such writings do not avow themselves. The approbation given in writing shall be placed at the head of the books, whether printed or in manuscript, that they may appear to be duly authorized; and this examination and approbation, &c. shall be granted gratuitously.

“ Moreover, in every city and diocese, the house or places where the art of printing is exercised, and also the shops of booksellers, shall be frequently visited by persons deputed for that purpose by the bishop or his vicar, conjointly with the inquisitor of heretical pravity, so that nothing that is prohibited may be printed, kept, or sold. Booksellers of every description shall keep in their libraries a catalogue of the books which they have on sale, signed by the said deputies; nor shall they keep or sell, nor in any way dispose of any other books, without permission from the deputies, under pain of forfeiting the books, and being liable to such other penalties as shall be judged proper by the bishop or inquisitor, who shall also punish the buyers, readers, or printers of such works. If any person import foreign books into any city, they shall be obliged to announce them to the deputies ; or if this kind of merchandize be exposed to sale in any public place, the public officers of the place shall signify to the said deputies, that such books have been brought; and no one shall presume to give to read, or lend, or sell, any book which he or any other person has brought into the city, until he has shown it to the

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