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and undecided, and judged it safest to say that Christ commanded his apostles to offer a propitiatory sacrifice in the mass, without asserting whether or in what manner he offered himself. The fourth division consisted of those who endeavoured in different ways to reconcile the two first-mentioned opinions, but with very little success. The result was that notwithstanding all the intrigues of the Jesuit Salmeron, who left no stone un. turned to procure an affirmative decision of the question, a compromise was found necessary, and the legates caused the decree to be so framed that while it stated that the Saviour offered himself to the Father in the supper, the expression “propitiatory sacrifice” was not used. 93
There was some conversation on the propriety of celebrating mass in the vulgar tongue, and the custom prevailing in Dalmatia was adduced, where, after the gospel was read in Latin, it was again read in the Dalmatian dialect, for the instruction of the people. But it was unanimously agreed to prohibit the celebration of mass in any other than the Latin language. 9 4
The French ambassadors began to be very anxious for the arrival of the prelates and divines of their nation, who had been long expected. Important discussions were in progress, the results of which would soon go forth to the world, but they were wholly managed by Italian, Spanish and Portuguese divines. Intelligence at length arrived from France that sixty prelates and twelve eminent theologians were ordered to repair to Trent, and that they were to be accompanied by the cardinal of Lorraine, and might be expected to join the courcil before the end of September. Upon this the ambassadors presented a memorial to the legates, requesting a postponement of the ensuing session. The legates could not deny the reasonableness of the request, but the Pope had given them express orders to wait no longer for any one, and to bring the council to a terniination as soon as possible. An evasive and unsatisfactory answer was returned ; and when permission was asked to present the request to the fathers, assembled
93° Pallav. 1. xviii. c. 2. s. 1-12. Sarpi, 1. vi. s. 49. 94 Pallav. ut sup. s. 13.
in general congregation, it was refused, under the pretext that ambassadors were sent to treat with the legates only, and were never suffered to address the council except on the day of their public reception. This frivolous excuse greatly offended the ambassadors ; they loudly complained of the injustice of the measure, and their indignation was still more excited when they learned that in answer to a similar application for delay, by De l'Isle, the French minister at Rome, the Pope had referred the whole business to the legates. “The Pope sends us to the legates," said Lanssac; "the legates send us to the council; but the council is not permitted to hear us, and thus the world is deceived."95
The undecided question of the concession of the cup to the laity was again introduced. A ten days' debate followed. The following brief abstract of some of the speeches delivered on that occasion will furnish the reader with the principal arguments employed on each side.
Cardinal Madrucci inclined to the concession, hoping that it would be the means of tetaining many Catholics in the faith. The patriarchs of Jerusalem, Venice, and Aquileia opposed it ; the latter warned the council of the dangerous tendency of the indulgence; he said that if this were conceded, other innovations would be sought, and the desires of the people would resemble the insatiable thirst of the dropsy, which it was hardly possible
95 Pallav. I. xviii. c. 14. Sarpi, I. vi. s. 47. Le Plat, v. p. 436. Pibrac returned to France on this occasion, at the request of his celleagues, to lay before the queen-regent the actual state of affairs at Trent. In a letter to her majesty, written on his journey, he informed her that though there were some excellent men among the Spanish and Italian bishops, the majority were of a very different stamp; that both the French ambassadors and the representatives of other Christian princes had repeatedly urged the importance of a thorough reform of ecclesiastical discipline, and had furnished the legates with various suggestions and plans for their assistance in that respect, but that their labour was entirely thrown away, for the fathers were not permitted to see any documents of that description, their whole time being occupied in useless discussions on doctrinal points; in short, that their only remaining hope lay in the anticipated efforts of the cardinal of Lorraine and the French prelates, whose arrival was expected by the legates and their party with un: usual alarm. It will be seen in the sequel that this hope also was futile. Le Plat, v. p. 456—458.
to quench. The archbishop of Rossano protested against alterations and novelties. He observed that the custom of communing in one kind only had been introduced as a remedy against the errors of Nestorius, who taught that the body of Christ only was contained in the bread, and his blood only in the wine. By restricting the laity to one kind the church instructed them that both the body and the blood of the Saviour are contained in the bread; but the present demand would tend to revive that long-forgotten heresy. Many evils and inconveniences were now prevented : for instance, the blood of the Redeemer was preserved from the indignity it would endure by spilling the wine on the ground, or suffering it to become sour. How could such evils be avoided, if the general use of the cup were granted? And besides, what vast quantities of wine would be required for large and populous parishes! Some advised to send a deputation to Germany with full power to act as the welfare and safety of the church seemed to require, after diligent and accurate investigation. Others recommended the concession, under certain restrictions and conditions, 9 6 and thought that the desire might be regarded as a weakness, and indulged, as Moses permitted divorce to the Jews. But those who held the opposite opinion, said that though it would be dangerous to refuse, it would be still more so to concede : the heretics would triumph—Catholics would be offendeda few might be gained, but more would be lost—and their adversaries would taunt them for their changeable
96 The following conditions were proposed by the cardinal of Mantua :-1. That those to whom the concession should be granted should cordially receive and hold all the doctrines and ceremonies of the Roman church, and all the decrees of the council of Trent, as well those which were yet to be passed as those which had been already published :-2. That their priests should believe and teach that communion in one kind is not only not foreign to the divine command ; but laudable and binding, unless the church otherwise determine ; and that such as maintained the contrary sentiment should not enjoy the proposed privilege, but be treated as heretics :--3 & 4. That they should render due obedience and reverence to the Pope, and to their archbishops and bishops :-5. That the privilege should only be bestowed on such as confessed to the priest, according to the custom of the church :-6. That great care should be taken to prevent sacrilege and profanation. Le Plat, v. p. 455. Certainly this was not the way to gain the heretics or conciliate the discontented.
ness and indecision. The abbot of Preval spoke with great warmth, and even ventured to say that the demand of the cup savoured of heresy and mortal sin, for which he was sharply reproved by the cardinal of Mantua, and compelled to ask pardon on his knees. 97
Foscarari, bishop of Modena, laboured to prove that though the concession was manifestly evil, it was nevertheless necessary, and required by the state of the times. He supported his argument, as did many more, by the authority of the council of Basle and of Paul III. The bishop of Leira spoke on the same side, and dwelt much on the opinions expressed by the emperor and his ambassadors, that this was the only way to restore peace to the church and check the inroads of heresy. Some had said that the council should imitate the father, who, though he forgave his prodigal son, waited till he came to repentance: but he thought they should rather resemble the shepherd described in the gospel, who traversed mountains and deserts in search of the wandering sheep, and when he had found it bore it joyfully on his shoulders to the fold : and he adverted to the apostolic exhortation, “Him that is weak in the faith receive ye,” as furnishing ample direction and authority. Others, who held the same views, adduced the example of the apostle Paul in circumcising Timothy.
Drascovitch twice addressed the fathers. In his second speech he briefly alleged the arguments that had been adduced for the concession, and replied to his opponents, exposing with much energy and point the false reasonings, needless alarms and frivolous objections that had been urged in the course of the debate. He implored the assembly to have compassion on the churches of Germany, and to show some regard to the solicitations of a powerful monarch, [the emperor] whose ardent desire for the restoration of peace and union had impelled him to press this request, and who felt so
97 Although the Abbot sided with the anti-reformists on this question, bis opinions on other subjects, particularly the superiority of the council to the Pope, were so little in accordance with those of the legates that they procured his recall, on pretence of business con nected with the order to which he belonged. He saw through the artifice, and felt it so keenly that he died of vexation and grief, before he could leave Trent.
keenly on the subject that he never spoke of it without tears. In conclusion he repeated what he had said before, that if the cup were now refused it had been better that the council had never been held, for that multitudes who had been kept in obedience to the Pope by the hope of obtaining this privilege would rend themselves from his authority when they saw that their hope was lost.
Lainez, the Jesuit, spoke last, with much severity and haughtiness. He denied that any adequate cause for the required concession existed. As for those who asked it, he would have them treated as disobedient sons of the church and supporters of heresy, and would visit their obstinacy and pride with a direct refusal. Neither did he conceive that there was any ground for the alarms by which so many were afflicted. Let the fathers put their trust in the Son of God, in whose cause they were engaged; his church might be diminished in number, but it could not perish.9 8
On the evening of the tenth day (Sept. 9.) a division took place. It exhibited an extraordinary variety of opinion, proving that the fathers felt themselves placed in a very difficult situation. One hundred and sixtysix votes were thus divided; twenty-nine approved of the concession; thirty one were on the same side, but wished the execution of the proposed decree to be committed to the discretion and will of the Pope—thirtyeight opposed it altogether-twenty-four referred the whole matter absolutely to the Pope; nineteen inclined to the concession, as far as the Bohemians and Hungarians were concerned; but denied it to all othersfourteen desired the further postponement of the subject-and eleven were undecided, or neutral. From this chaos of sentiments it was obviously impossible to frame a decree. 9 9
During the progress of these discussions the French ambassadors renewed their endeavours for the postponement of the session. They had ascertained that the cardinal of Lorraine and the prelates who were to ac.
98 Pallav. I. xvii. c. 4. Sarpi, I. vi. s. 63. The celebrated An. drew Dudith delivered a long and eloquent speech in favour of concession, which Le Plat has preserved, v. p. 472–488.
99 Pallay. and Sarpi, ut sup.