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The privilege:-further, that the condition of Hungary was extremely perilous, the inhabitants of that country having so zealously espoused the new opinions on this subject, that many priests were compelled by force to administer:he cup to the laity.

The French ambassadors appeared on the same side. In a remonstrance presented by them, they protested against any decree being issued that should interfere with the privileges of their sovereign or his subjects; for the kings of France had always received the communion in both kinds at their coronation, and several monasteries in that kingdom had followed the same practice from time immemorial. And they strongly recommended the adoption of lenient and conciliatory measures in those things which depended on the authority of the church, and were therefore confessedly susceptible of alteration. 84 .

But the denial of the cup was predetermined at Rome. The legates were aware of this, and endeavoured to persuade the ambassadors to agree to a postponement of the decision on this subject, for which a plausible pretext was found in the inanifest differences of opinion existing among the prelates and divines. They succeedel, but not without great difficulty, nor till they had engaged that the undecided points should be mentioned in the decree, with a promise that they should be shortly settled. Having accomplished this, they prepared for the approaching session. A decree, with accompany. ing canons, was submitted to the fathers for their final approval, as also a decree on reformation : from this latter, however, the subject of residence was excluded, by the Pope's express injunction. And yet the Council of Trent was free ! 8 5

The twenty-first session was held on the day appointed, July 16, 1562. Its doctrinal decree was as follows:

“Seeing that many and monstrous crrors concerning the awful and most holy sacrament of the eucharist, are

Le Plat, v. p.

84 Pallav. I. xvii. c. 4.7. Sarpi, I. vi. s. 34, 35. 335-350, 366.

85 Pallav. ut sup. c. 7.

by the arts of the wicked spirit disseminated in different places; through which, in some provinces, many seem to have departed from the faith and obedience of the Catholic church :-the sacred, holy, ecumenical, and general Council of Trent, lawfully assembled, &c. hath judged proper to explain in this place the doctrine of communion, in both kinds, and of children. Wherefore, all Christ's faithful are strictly enjoined, that henceforth they dare not believe, teach or preach, otherwise than is explained and defined in this decree.

" Chap. I. That the laity and non-officiating clergy

are not bound by the divine law to receive the communion in both kinds.

“The sacred council therefore, taught by the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and piety, and following the judgment and practice of the church, doth declare and teach that the laity and non-officiating clergy are not bound by any divine precept to receive the sacrament of the eucharist in both kinds; nor can any one who holds the true faith indulge the slightest doubt that communion in either kind is sufficient to salvation. For although Christ the Lord did in the last supper institute this venerable sacrament of the eucharist in the species of bread and wine, and thus delivered it to the apostles ; yet it does not thence follow that all the faithful in Christ are bound by divine statute to receive both kinds. Nor can it be fairly proved from the discourse recorded in the 6th chapter of John, that communion in both kinds is commanded by the Lord, howsoever the same may have been interpreted by various holy fathers and doctors.For he who said, 'Except you eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, you shall not have life in you' (v. 54.,) said also, 'If any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever' (v. 52.;) and he who said, 'He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting life' (v. 55.,) said also, 'The bread that I will give is my flesh for the life of the world' (v. 52. ;) and lastly, he who said, 'He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, abideth in me and I in him (v. 57.,)

said nevertheless, 'He that eateth this bread shall live for ever' (v. 59.)

"Chap. II. Of the power of the church regarding the

dispensation of the sacrament of the eucharist.

"The council further declares, that in the dispensation of the sacraments the church hath always possessed the power, so that their substance was preserved, of making such appointments and alterations, according to the change of things, times, and places, as it should judge would best promote the benefit of the recipients, and the veneration due to the sacraments themselves. Which indeed the apostle seems to have not obscurely intimated, when he said, 'Let a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ and the dispensers of the mysteries of God.' 1 Cor. iv. 1. For it is sufficiently plain, that he himself used this power, not only in other respects, but also with regard to this sacrament, because, when he had given various directions respecting its use, he added, 'And the rest I will set in order when I come. 1 Cor. xi. 34. Wherefore, though from the beginning of the Christian religion the use of both kinds was not infrequent, yet when in process of time that practice was for weighty and just causes changed, holy mother church, recognising her acknowledged authority in the administration of the sacraments, approved the custom of communion in one kind, and commanded it to be observed as law: to condemn or alter which, at pleasure, without the authority of the church itself, is not lawful. 8 6

86 “ The church, no doubt, was influenced by numerous and cogent reasons, not only to approve, but confirm by solemn decree, the general practice of communicating under one species. In the first place the greatest caution was necessary to avoid accident or indignity, which must become almost inevitable, if the chalice were administered in a crowded assembly. In the next place, the holy eucharist should be at all times in readiness for the sick, and if the species of wine remained long unconsumed, it were to be apprehended that it may become vapid. Besides, there are many who cannot bear the taste or smell of wine; lest, therefore, what is intended for the nutriment of the soul should prove noxious to the health of the body, the church, in her wisdom, has sanctioned its administration under the

“Chap. II). That the true sacrament, and Christ

whole and entire, is received under either species.

"Moreover, the council declares, that though our Redeemer, as has been before said, did in the last supper institute this sacrament in two kinds, and thus delivered it to the apostles, it must nevertheless be granted that the true sacrament and Christ, whole and entire, is received in either kind by itself; and therefore, that as far as regards the fruit of the sacrament, those who receive one kind only are not deprived of any grace that is necessary to salvation.

“ CHAP. IV. That sacramental communion is not obli

gatory on children.

“Lastly, the same holy council teaches, that the sacramental communion of the eucharist is not necessarily obligatory on children, who have not attained the use of reason. For being regenerated in the laver of baptism, and incorporated into Christ, they cannot lose the gracious state of children of God, which was acquired at that time. Nevertheless antiquity is not to be condemned, on account of that practice having been formerly observed in some places. For though the holy fathers had sufficient grounds for the custom, in the then existing state of things, yet it must be without doubt believed that they did not attend to it, as necessary to salvation. 87

Canon. 1. Whoever shall affirm, that all and every

species of bread alone. We may also observe, that in many places wine is extremely scarce, nor can it be brought from distant countries without incurring very heavy expense, and encountering very tedious and difficult journeys. Finally, a circumstance which prin. cipally influenced the church in establishing this practice, means were to be devised to crush the heresy which denied that Christ, whole and entire is contained under either species, and asserted that the body is contained under the species of bread, without the blood, and the blood under the species of wine, without the body. This object was obtained by communion under the species of bread alone, which places, as it were, sensibly before our eyes, the truth of the Catholic faith.” Catechism, p. 244.

87 The student in ecclesiastical history need not be reminded that this is contrary to fact. See Mosheim, Cent. iii. part. 2. chap. 4.

one of Christ's faithful are bound by divine command to receive the most holy sacrament of the eucharist in both kinds, as necessary to salvation: let him be accursed.

"2. Whoever shall affirm, that the holy Catholic church had not just grounds and reasons for restricting the laity and non-officiating clergy to communion in the species of bread only, or that she hath erred therein : let him be accursed.

"3. Whoever shall deny that Christ, whole and entire, the fountain and author of every grace, is received under the one species of bread; because, as some falsely affirm, he is not then received according to his own institution, in both kinds: let him be accursed.

" 4. Whoever shall affirm, that the communion of the eucharist is necessary to children, before they reach the years of discretion : let him be accursed."

" Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.” Such is the apostolic description of the “man of sin :" the decree just quoted presents an apt illustration of it. It was not enough to "make the commandment of God of none effect by tradition :" the church of Rome has added to it the impiety of mutilating an express ordinance. And the audacity is equal to the impiety: first, the council confesses that the Saviour instituted the sacrament in both kinds, and then dares to assert that the church had "weighty and just causes for altering the divine institution, as if the church were wiser than Christ! After this, what is safe?

Transubstantiation and communion in one kind are ingeniously dove-tailed together. Good Catholics are required to believe that Christ, whole and entire, his body and blood, soul and divinity, is contained in either species, and in the smallest particles of each. If this be true, it necessarily follows, that whether the communicant receive the bread or the wine, he enjoys the full

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