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ligion than any other; since, through all its parts, it was typical of the most important mysteries of Christianity. The whole was a most lively representation of ' the atonement made for the sins of mankind by the blood of Jesus Christ! It is observable, that Philo-Judæus had some notion of this truth; for in his treatise de Somu. p. 447, he observes, that the word of Godwhereby he means the Son--is the head and glory of the propitiation, i, e, of what renders men acceptable to God. These passages of scripture, that “ Jesus Christ gave himself å ransom for many,” Matt. xx: 28, “ That he was made the propitiation for our sins," i John, iv. 10. “ That he was the propitiation not only for our sins, but also for those of the whole world,” i John, ij. 2. and such like expressions, which occur almost in every page of the gospel, can mean nothing more than that Jesus Christ hath by the sacrifice of himself, performed that which was only prefigured by the sacrifices of the law, and particularly by the general and solemn expiation we are now speaking of. The same Jewish author, had also some idea of this matter. It will be proper to set down his, very words; not as if we thought they were any confirmation of the Christian revelation ; but only to shew that these were truths, which the wisest part of the nation acknowledged, and had found out by close and serious meditation. He saith then, that “whereas the priests of other nations offered sacrifices for their own countrymen only; the high-priest of the Jews offered for all mankind, and for the whole creation.” See Phil. de Monar. p. 657. And not only these sacrifices which were offered on the day of expiation, were a more exact representation of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, than any other; but also the person by whom the atonement was made, was in every respect qualified to represent the high-priest of the Christian church, and that,
1. Upon the account of his dignity ; which, according to the Jews, was at its utmost height when he entered into the holy of holies : for which reason he was called great among his brethren, Lev. xxi. 10. This dignity was so very considerable, that Philo does not scruple to say, according to his lofty and rhetorical way of speaking, that the high-priest was to be something more than huinan ; that he more nearly resembled God than all the rest; and that he partook both of the divine and human nature. See de Monar. p. 63. and de Somn. p. 872.
It seems to have been with a design of expressing both the holiness and dignity of the high-priest, that the law enjoined, that mone shall remain in the tabernacle, whilst the high-priest went into the holy of holies. Further, the high-priest of the Jews, upon the day of atonement, put on at the first his best suit of apparel ; but was content with the holy linen garments, which he wore in common with other priests; hereby signifying, that when our blessed Lord should come into the world, to do the will of God, he should not make a splendid figure, nor array himself with all that glory, of which he is truly possessed. t
2. 1. high-pricst further represented our Saviour by his holiness: to denote which a greater quantity of oil was used in the anointing of the high-priest, than in that of his brethren; from whence he was called the priest anointed, Levit. iv. 3, 5. Nothing can better represent the great holiness of Jesus Christ than this great plenty of .# used in the consecration of Aaron : and it was undoubtedly in allusion to this anointing, that Jesus Christ is styled in Scripture the holy-one, by way of eminence, Acts i. 14. Rev. iii. 7. , 3. The high-priest represented Jesus Christ by his being on this day of atonement, a mediator between God and the people. For though Moses be called a mediator in the New Testament; yet, it is certain, that the highpriest was invested with this office on the day of expiation. Moses must indeed be acknowledged as a mediator; God having, by this means, made a covenant with the children of Trail." But as they were very apt to transgress the law, it was necessary there should be a mediator, who, by his intercession and sacrifices, might reconcile them to God . Now this was the high-priest’s function. So that Moses and Aaron were exact types of the twofold mediation of Jesus Christ. By him was the new covenant made, and by his own blood hath he forever reconciled God to mankind. ~
4. The entrance of Jesus Christ into heaven, once for all, there to present his own blood to God, as an atonement for our sins, was clearly typified by the high-priest’s going once a year into the holy of holies with the blood of the victims. Sec Heb. ix. 12. 24.
As for the two goats, we learn from the epistle of St. Barnabas, as quoted above, that they were even then looked upon as typical. They both represented the
same thing, but under different ideas. The offering of the one was a manifest token of the people's iniquities being remitted and forgiven ; and the sending of the other into the wilderness, shewed that they were carried away, or blotted out of God's remembrance. To this there seems to be an allusion, Isaiah xxxviii. 17, where it is said, that God casts sins behind his back, and into the bottom of the sea. The sacrifice of Jesus Christ may be considered - under these two different views : he hath done away our sins, hath taken the upon himself, and nailed them to his cross; 1 Pet. ii. 24.
ON PRIVATE AND PUBLIC CHARACTER.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE ORTHODOX CHURCHMAN's
SIR, A MONG the marks of a decaying nation, there can A be little doubt that the corruption of manners is one of a most alarming and fatal tendency. The word PATRIOTISM may be artfully made use of as a cloak by ambitious men, and they may succeed in imposing upon the mass of society, by the false representation, that private character has nothing to do with public virtue. When this pernicious principle begins to be adopted, and acted upon in any community, the inevitable consequence of a general depravity is sure to follow; and then it will not require the gift of inspiration, to perceive the speedy decline of a political body so fully tainted. Whether the influence of the infamous principle here mentioned, has not of late years gained a powerful as- '. cendency in this kingdom, and spread the most baneful effects, through all ranks of persons, of both sexes, I need not stay to enquire. That man must either sit very indifferent to the condition and progress of public virtue, or he must be extremely ignorant, if he does not per-, ceive a very slight notice taken of the moral character of what are called leading characters in this nation. There are, it is true, certain shades of vice, to which
all men, by custom, have an antipathy, as being mean or infamous ; but they seem to care very little, whether a popular character is distinguished by the due discharge of his private duties, provided he cannot be accused of any thing peculiarly base. Nay, we are usu ally told, if an observation should arise concerning the known im propriety of conduct of public men, that we have nothing to do with such considerations ; that public men are only to be judged by their public actions; and that, provided they do not commit such things as are flagrantly offensive to the laws of the land, it would be both impolitic, unjust, and uncharitable, to take any notice of their private character and concerns. Thus, for instance, when we are called upon to admire and applaud some distinguished person, certain censure would be bestowed upon us, were we to Cject to him that he is guilty of adultery or given to gaming. And even though he should go so far as to treat a virtuous wife with cruelty, attach himself to a notorious prostitute, and publicly glory in his illicit amours, such conduct does not seem likely to lesson bis popularity. Instances of this are not wanting; it is melancholy enough to consider, that they are not only common, but that they are so obtruded upon public notice, as to be made a matter of glory. To say that a public man is possessed of intrinsic virtue, and that all his private actions shew him to be actuated by the principles of religion, would have a poor chance of being received with pleasure, and crowned with approbation. But to say that he is a man of splendid talents, uncommon political sagacity, of boundless generosity, and intrepid valour; notwithstanding he lives in open adultery, and plunges into all the fashionable follies of the day--acts in an avowed contempt of religious duties, and places all his claim to public esteem upon the possession of peculiar abilities, or the performance of popu- lar deeds--would be at once sufficient to gain the applause of the multitude. But not content with bestowing their clamour of praise upon persons of this description, the populace, at large, are induced to vindicate their vices, and to treat the violations of moral principle and social duty in them, as the peculiar marks of great minds. What little or obscure men must not venture upon, without being severely condemned for, popular characters may dare to do with impunity; and so far from being shaded thereby, they will only gain a greater
degree of celebrity. It will be said even by those who are not disposed to undervalue virtue, or to praise vice, that there are spots in the sun: how then can it be expected, that such luminaries in the moral world should be without their failures!
This in one sense is truc enough; but the worst is, that such failures are not properly considered as they ought to be; of a more heinous magnitude and pernicious influence in proportion to the talents and elevation of those who are disfigured by them. When in fact the corruptions or spots of such persons, lose their offensiveness in the popular estimation, and are not considered as possessing any high degree of turpitude, it is obvious enough that the people at large have lost that respect for virtue and hatred of vice, which is essential to the maintenance of national as well as of individual character.
CHARLES THE FIRST'S ADVICE TO HIS SON.
FOR THE ORTHODOX CHURCHMAN'S MAGAZINE. THIS excellent monarch, and faithful martyr, posT sessed not only a correct judgment, a high sense of honour, and a refined taste, of which numerous instances might be adduced; but he had also the justest notions of religion and morality. The following instructions, transcribed from a paper in his own hand-writing, may properly be called golden rules of living :
(Heavenly, 1. Let your Thoughts be- . Huinble,
Firm, 2. Will - ... - Obedient,
(Few, ? 3. WORDS : :
.... . (Profitable, 4. WORKS -: . - Godly,.
Pare. . Vol. X. Churchm. Mag. for Feb. 1806. $ 5. Br.