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enemies ; but if enemies were his simple meaning, iniquities would not express it.
Now, Moses, David, and Isaiah, all use the same terms. Who then is prepared to say that they have not the same meaning, and that the meaning of David, who, beyond a doubt, intends iniquities, when he speaks of enemies, is not the same with that of Moses when he speaks of enemies ?
Daniel in chapter ix. prays for the deliverance of his people from the bondage of their enemies; but he evidently meant their sins: and in proof of this, we find it said, that Gabriel came to assure him that his prayer was heard, and that but seventy weeks were determined to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins ;—and that then the Redeemer—the Holy of Holies, should bring in an everlasting righteousnessa righteousness, not merely legal, but eternal.
When once this mystery of a two-fold meaning is disclosed to us, it is impossible not to perceive it. Read the Old Testament with this notion, and see if the sacrifices were the true sacrifice ; if descent from Abraham was the true cause of the love of God ; if the land of promise were the true place of rest: certainly not. Then they were types. Look then in the same way at all the ordained ceremonies, and all the commandments which speak not directly of love; you will find them all typical.*
* The subject of types in the Old Testament has been a fertile theme of speculation. It may not be irrelevant or useless to introduce here some remarks of Ernesti on the 5 Elements of Interpretation,” with a note by the Translator, Professor Stuart,
Properly speaking, there is no typical sense of words. Types are not words but things, which God has designated as signs of future events. Nor is any special pains necessary for the interpretation of them. The explanation of them, which the Holy Spirit himself has given, renders them intelligible. Beyond his instructions on this subject, we should be very careful never to proceed. As for those, who maintain a typical design in all parts of the Scripture, they certainly display very
The infinite distance between body and mind, figúratively represents the infinitely more infinite dis-tance between mere intellect, and pure love ; for that love is supernatural.
The pomp of external show has no attraction to men engaged deeply in 'intellectual research. The greatness of intellectual men is imperceptible to the rich, to kings and conquerors who are but carnally great. The grandeur of that wisdom, which comes from God, is invisible both to merely sensual, and merely intellectual men. Here then are three different orders of distinction.
Great minds have their peculiar empire, their renown, their conquests. They need not the sensual
so far as
little judgment or consideration ; for they lay open the way for the mere arbitrary, introduction of types into every part of the Bible. The design of the Holy Spirit, in the mention of this or that thing in the Scriptures, can be understood he himself has explained it, or afforded obvious grounds of explanation.
If it be asked, How far are we to consider the Old Testament as typical ? I should answer, without any hesitation ; just so much of it is to be regarded as typical, as the New Testament affirms to be so; and NO MORE. The fact, that any thing or event under the Old Testament dispensation was designed to prefigure something under the New, can be known to us only by revelation; and, of course all that is not designated by divine authority as typical, can never be made so, by any authority less than that which guided the writers of the Scriptures. Ernesti, &c. Ø 25.
See also Jahn's Archaeology, \ 310. An ingenious interpretation according to Pascal's views of types, may be seen Chap. xxi. Sec. 31.
splendors of this world, between which, and the things that they seek, there is little similarity. It is the mind, and not the eye which appreciates their excellence; but then this satisfies them.
The saints also have their empire, their renown, their greatness, and their victories, and need not either sensual or intellectual splendor, to make them great. Such things are not of their order, and neither increase nor'diminish the greatness which they seek. God and his angels discern them, whilst to the bodily eye, or the philosophic mind, they are alike invisible; but to them, God is every thing.
Archimedes is venerated independently of the distinction of his birth. He won no battles; but he has given some wonderful inventions to the world. How great, how illustrious, is he to the scientific mind !
Jesus Christ, without wealth, without the adventitious distinction of scientific discovery, comes in his order--that of holiness. He publishes no inventions, he wears no crown; but he was humble, patient, holy in the sight of God, terrible to wicked spirits, and free from sin. But in what mighty splendor, and with what prodigious magnificence has he come forth before the eyes of the heart—the optics of true wisdom.
Although Archimedes was of princely birth, it would have been idle to have brought this forward in his book of geometry.
It had been useless also for our Lord Jesus Christ to come on earth as a monarch, in order to add dignity to the reign of holiness.* But how becoming is the peculiar lustre of his own order.
It is folly in leed to be offended at the low condition of Jesus Christ, as if that meanness were of the same order with the glory that he came to manifest. Contemplate that grandeur in his life, in his passion, in his
* That is, holiness exhibited alone and independent of all adventitious distinctions,
obscurity, in his death, in the choice of his disciples, in their forsaking him, in his unseen resurection, and all the other circumstances of his case ; you will find him so truly great, that there is little cause to complain of meanness. It has no existence.
But re are men who can only admire the distinctions of external pomp, to the exclusion of all mental excellence. And there are others who reverence only intellectual greatness : as if in the true wisdom there were not a far loftier worth.
All organized bodies, the heavens, the earth, the stars, taken together, are not equal in value to the meanest mind; for mind knows these things; it knows itself: but matter knows nothing. And all bodies, and all minds united, are not worth one emotion of love. It is of an order of excellence infinitely higher.
We cannot elicit from universal matter a single thought. It is impossible. Thought is of a higher order of creation. Again, all bodies, and all spirits combined, could not give birth to a single emotion of real love. This is also impossible.
Love is of another and still higher order of being. It is supernatural.
2. Jesus Christ lived in such obscurity, (we use the word in the worldly sense) that historians who record none but important events, scarcely discerned him.
3. What man ever had more renown than Jesus Christ? The whole Jewish people foretold his coming. The Gentiles when he came, adored him. Both Jews and Gentiles look to him as their centre.
And yet what man ever enjoyed so little of such a fame. Out of thirty-three years, he passed thirty unseen; and the remaining three, he was accounted an impostor. The priests and rulers of his nation rejected him. His friends and relations despised him : and at length, betrayed by one of his disciples, denied by another, and abandoned by all, he died an ignominious death.
In how much, then, of this splendor did he participate? No man was ever so illustrious; no man was
ever so degraded: but all this lustre was for our sakes, that we might know him; none for his own.
4. Jesus Christ'speaks of the most sublime subjects with such simplicity, that he seems not to have thought on them; and yet with such accuracy, that what he thought is distinctly brought out. This union of artlessness with perspicuity, is perfectly beautiful.
Who taught the evangelists the qualities of a truly heroic mind, that they should paint it to such perfection in Jesus Christ? Why have they told of his weakness during his agony ? Could they not describe a resolute death? .Undoubtedly. St. Luke himself paints St. Stephen's death with more of fortitude than that of Christ. They have shewn him to be capable of fear, before the hour of death was come; but afterwards perfectly calm. When they tell of his being in affliction, that sorrow proceeded from himself ; but when men afflicted him, he was unmoved.
The church has at times had to prove to those who denied it, that Jesus Christ was man, as well as that he was God; and appearances were as much against the one truth as against the other.
Jesus Christ is a God to whom we can approach without pride; and before whom we abase ourselves without despair.
5. The conversion of the heathen was reserved for the grace
of the Messiah. Either the Jews did not try it, or they were unsuccessful. All that Solomon and the prophets said on this subject, was vain. Their wise men, also, as Plato and Socrates, could not lead them to worship the one true God.
The gospel speaks only of the virginity of Mary, up to the period of the Saviour's birth. Every thing has reference to Jesus Christ.
The two Testaments contemplate Jesus Christ; the one as its expectation; the other as its exemplar; both as their centre.
The prophets predict, but were not predicted. The saints were predicted, but do not predict.
Jesus Christ predicts, and is predicted.