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dispositions of the one were only heathen; those of the other Christian.

Messiah, according to the carnal Jews, should have been a great temporal prince. According to the carnal Christians, he is come to release us from the obligation to love God, and to give us Sacraments effective without our concurrence. The one is not the Jewish religion; the other is not the Christian.

True Jews and true Christians have equally recognized a Messiah, who inspires them with the love of God, and causes them by that love to overcome their enemies.

14. The veil that is upon the Scripture to the Jews, is there also to the false and faithless Christian, and to all who do not abhor themselves. But how well disposed are we to understand the record, and know Jesus Christ, when we do cordially hate ourselves !

16. The carnal Jews occupy a middle place between Christians and heathens. The heathens know not God, and love this world only. The Jews know the true God, yet love this world only. Christians know the true God, and love not the world. The Jew and the heathen love the same object. The Jew and the Christian know the same God.

16. Evidently the Jews are a people formed expressly to be witnesses to the Messiah. They possess the Scriptures, and love them, but do not comprehend them. And all this has been expressly foretold; for it is written, that the oracles of God are committed to them, but as a book that is sealed.

Whilst the prophets were continued for the preservation of the law, the people neglected it. But when the line of prophets failed, the zeal of the people arose in their stead. This is a wonderful providence.

17. When the creation of the world began to be a remote event, God raised up a cotemporary historian, and commissioned a whole nation to preserve his work; that this history might be the most authentic in the world; and that all men might learn a fact so necessary to be known, and which could be known in no other way.

13. Moses evidently was a man of talent. If then he had purposed to deceive, he would have adopted a course not likely to lead to detection. He has done just the reverse ; for if he had put forth falsehoods, there was not a Jew that would not have discovered the imposture.

Why, for example, has he described the lives of the first men so long, and their generations so few? He might have veiled his fraud in a multitude of generations, but he could not in so few. It is not the number of years, but the frequent succession of generations, which gives obscurity to history.

Truth suffers no change, but by a change of men. And yet Moses places two events as memorable as possible—the creation and the flood—so near, that owing to the paucity of generations, they were almost tangible things. So that at the period when he wrote, the memory of these events must have been quite recent in the minds of all the Jews.

Shem, who had seen Lamech, who had seen Adam, lived at the least to see Abraham ; and Abraham saw Jacob, who lived to see those who saw Moses. Then the deluge and the creation are facts. This is conclusive to those who comprehend the nature of such testimony.

The length of the patriarchal life, instead of operating to the loss of historic facts, served to preserve them. For the reason why we are not well versed in the history of our ancestors, is commonly that we have seldom lived with them; or that they died before we reached maturity. But when men lived so long, children lived a long time with their parents, and necessarily conversed much with them. Now, of what could they speak, but of the history of their ancestors ? For this was all the history they had to tell: and as to science, they had none, nor any of those arts which occupy so large a portion of human intercourse. We see also, that in those days,, men took especial care to preserve their genealogies.

19. The more I examine the Jews, the more of



truth I find in their case, and the more plainly I discover this Scriptural mark, that they are without prophets, and without a king; and, that as mies, they are the best witnesses to the truth of those prophecies, in which both their continuance and their blindness is foretold. I see in their judicial expulsion, that this religion is divine in its authority, in its continuance, in its perpetuity, in its morals, in its practice, in its effects. And hence I stretch forth my bands to my deliverer, who, having been predicted for 4000 years, came at last to suffer and to die for me, at the time, and under all the circumstances that have been predicted; and, by his grace, I now wait for death in peace, hoping to be eternally with him.And I ever live rejoicing, either in the blessings which he is pleased to bestow, or in the sorrows which he sends for my profit, and which I learn from his own example to endure.

By that fact, I refute all other religions. By that, I give an answer to all objections. It is just that a pure and holy God should not reveal himself, but to those whose hearts have been purified.

I find it satisfactory to my mind, that ever since the memory


man, here is a people that has subsisted longer than any other people ; that this people has constantly announced to man that they are in a state of universal corruption, but that a deliverer will come ; and it is not one man that has said this, but an infinite number: a whole people prophesying through a period of 4000 years.

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Some figures are clear and demonstrative; others are less simple and natural, and tell only upon those who have been previously persuaded by other means.-These last resemble the prophetic figures borrowed by some men from the Apocalypse, and explained according to their own views. But between them and the true, there is this difference, they have no figures that are unquestionably established, by which to support their interpretation. It is very unjust, therefore, to pretend that theirs are as well sustained as ours, when they have no figures of established interpretation to refer to as we have. The two cases are not parallel. Men should not parallelize and confound two things, because in one respect they appear similar, seeing that in another, they are so different.

2. One of the main reasons why the prophets have veiled the spiritual blessings, which they promised, under the type of temporal blessings, is, that they had to deal with a carnal people, and to commit to their care a spiritual deposit.

Jesus Christ was typically represented by Joseph, the beloved of his father, sent by his father to seek for his brethren: innocent, yet sold by his brethren, for twenty pieces of silver; and, by that means, constituted their Lord, their Saviour; the Saviour of strangers; the Saviour of the world; which he could not have been, but for the purpose to destroy him, and the sale, and the abandonment, of which his brethren were guilty.

Joseph was innocent, and imprisoned with two criminals. Jesus was crucified between two robbers. Joseph foretold to men, in the same circumstances, the saving of the one, and the death of the other.


saved one, and left the other to his fate, though both were guilty of the same crime. Joseph, however, could only foretel. Sesus fulfilled also. Joseph also requested him who was to be saved, to remember him when he was come to prosperity; and he whom Jesus Christ saved, prayed that he would remember him when he came to his kingdom.

3. Grace is the type of glory. It is not itself the ultimate end. Grace was typified by the law, and is itself typical of glory; but so as to be, at the same time, a means of obtaining that glory.

4. The synagogue is not altogether destroyed, because it was a type of the church; but because it was only a type, it has fallen into bondage. The type was continued till the reality came, that the church might be always visible, either in the shadow or in the substance.

6. To prove, at once, the authority of both Testaments, we need only inquire, if the prophecies of the one, are accomplished in the other.

To examine the prophecies, we should understand them; for, if they have but one meaning, then certainly the Wessiah is not come; but if they have a double sense, then as certainly he is come in Jesus Christ.

The question then is, Have they a twofold meaning? Are they types, or literal realities ? that is, are to inquire for something more than at first appears, or must we, invariably, rest satisfied with the literal sense which they directly suggest?

If the law and the sacrifices were the ultimate reality, they must be pleasing to God'; they could not displease him. If they are typical, they must both please and displease him.* Now, throughout the Scripture, they appear to do both. Then they can only be typical.

6. To discern clearly that the Old Testament is


* That is, according to the circumstances of different cases.

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