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them, every one was accounted accursed | gaol-delivery, appointed as often as a who died on a tree. This serves to ex- competent number of prisoners in the plain the difficult passage in Rom. ix. 2, Inquisition are convicted of heresy, eiwhere the apostle wishes himself ac-ther by their own voluntary or extorted cursed after che manner of Christ; i. e. confession, or on the evidence of certain crucified, if happily he might by such a witnesses. The process is this:- In the death save his countrymen. The prepo- morning they are brought into a great sition to here made use of is used in the hall, where they have certain habits same sense, 2 Tim. i. 3. where it obvi- put on, which they are to wear in the ously signifies after the manner of. procession, and by which they know
ACEPHALI, such bishops as were their doom. The procession is led up exempt from the discipline and jurisdic-by Dominican friars, after which come tion of their ordinary bishop or patri- the penitents, being all in black coats arch. It was also the denomination of without sleeves, and barefooted, with a certain sects; 1. of those who, in the af- wax candle in their hands. These are fair of the council of Ephesus, refused followed by the penitents who have narto follow either St. Cyril or John of An- rowly escaped being burnt, who over tioch ; 2. of certain heretics in the fifth their black coats have Aames painted, century, who, at first, followed Peter with their points turned downwards. Mongus, but afterwards abandoned him, Next come the negative and relapsed, upon his subscribing to the council of who are to be burnt, having flames on Chalcedon. they themselves adhering to their habits pointing upwards. After the Eutychian heresy; and, 3. of the fol- these come such as profess doctrines lowers of Severus of Antioch, and of all, | contrary to the faith of Rome, who, in general, who held out against the besides fames pointing upwards, have council of Chalcedon.
their picture painted on their breasts, ACOEMETÆ, or ACOMETI, an or- with dogs, serpents, and devils, all opender of monks at Constantinople in the mouthed, about it. Each prisoner is atfifth century, whom the writers of that tended with a familiar of the Inquisition; and the following ages called Axoluttes; and those to be burnt have also a Jesuit that is, Watchers, because they per- on each hand, who are continually formed divine service day and night preaching to them to abjure. After the without intermission. They divided prisoners, comes a troop of familiars on themselves into three classes, who al- horseback ; and after them the Inquisiternately succeeded one another, so that tors, and other officers of the court, on they kept up a perpetual course of wor-mules: last of all, the Inquisitor-general ship. This practice they founded upon on a white horse, led by two men with that passage-"pray without ceasing," black hats and green' hats-bands. A 1 Thess. v. 17.
scaffold is erecied big enough for two or ACOLYTHI, or Acoluthi, young three thousand people; at one end of people who, in the primitive times, which are the prisoners, at the other the aspired to the ministry, and for that Inquisitors. After a sermon made up of purpose continually attended the bishop. encomiums of the Inquisition, and inIn the Romish church, Acolythi were of vectives against heretics, a priest aslonger continuance; but their functionscends a desk near the scaffold, and, havwere different from those of their first ing taken the abjuration of the penitents, institution. Their business was to light recites the final sentence of those who the tapers, carry the candlesticks and are to be put to death, and delivers them the incense pot, and prepare the wine to the secular arm, earnestly beseechand water. At Rome there were three ing at the same time the secular power kinds; 1. those who waited on the pope ; not to touch their blood, or pui their 2. those who served in the churches. lives in danger!!! The prisoners, be3. and others, who, together with the ing thus in the hands of the civil magisdeacons, officiated in other parts of the trate, are presently loaded with chains, city.
and carried first to the secular gaol, and ACT OF FAITH (Auto da Fe,) in from thence, in an hour or two, brought the Romish church, is a solemn day held before the civil judge; who, after a-kby the Inquisition for the punishment of ing in what religion they intend to die, heretics, and the absolution of the inno- pronounces sentence on such as decent accused. They usually contrive the clare they die in the communion of the Auto to fall on some great festival, that church of Rome, that they shall be the execution may pass with the more first strangled, and then burnt to ashes; awe; and it is always on a Sunday. The or such as die in any other faith, that Auto da Fe may be called the last act of they be burnt alive. Both are immethe Inquisitorial tragedy: it is a kind of diately carried to the Ribera, the place
of execution, where there are as many | apostles, such as the acts of Abdias, of stake. set up as there are prisoners to Peter, of Paul, St. John the Evangelist, be burnt, with a quantity of dry furze St. Andrew, St. Thomas, St. Philip, and about them. The stakes of the profess- | St. Matthias ; but they have been all ed, that is, such as persist in the heresy, proved to be spurious. are about four yards high, having a ACTS OF PILATE, a relation sent small board towards the top for the by Pilate to the Emperor Tiberius, conprisoner to be seated on. The negativecerning Jesus Christ, his death, resurand relapsed being first strangled and rection, ascension, and the crimes of burnt, the professed mount their stakes which he was convicted before him It by a ladder, and the Jesuits, after seve- was a custom among the Romans, that ral repeated exhortations to be recon- the pro-consuls and governors of prociled to the church, part with them ; vinces should draw up acts or memoirs telling them that they leave them to of what happened in the course of their the devil, who is standing at their elbow, government, and send tņem to the emto receive their souls, and carry them peror and senate. The genuine acts with him to the flames of hell. On this of Pilate were sent by him to Tiberius, a great shout is raised ; and the cry is, who reported them to the senate ; but " Let the dogs' beards be made!" which they were rejected by that assembly, is done by thursting flaming furzes fas- because not immediately addressed to tened to long poles against their faces, them; as is testified by Tertullian, in till their faces arı burnt to a coal, which his Apol. cap. 5, and 20, 21. The hereis accompanied with the loudest accla- tics forged acts in imitation of them ; mations of joy. At last, fire is set to but both the genuine and the spurious the furze at the bottom of the stake. | are now lost. over which the profes-ed are chained so ADAMITES, a sect that sprang up high, that the top of the flame seldom in the second century. Epiphanius tells reaches higher than the seat they sit on; us, that they were called Adamites, from so that they rather seem roasted than their pretending to be re-established in burnt. There cannot be a more lament- the state of innocence, such as Adam able -pectacle: the sufferers continually was at the moment of his creation, cry out, while they are able, “Pity, for whence they ought to imitate him in the love of God!" Yer it is beheld, by going naked. They detestel marriage ; all sexes and ages, with transports of inaintaining that the conjugal union joy and satisfaction-1) merciful God! would never have taken place upon is this the benign, humane religion thou earth, had sin been unknown. This obhast given to men? Surely not. If such scure and ridiculous sect did not last were the genius of Christianity, then it long. It was, however, revived with adwould be no honour to be a Christian. | ditional absurdities in the twelfth cenLet us, however, rejoice that the time cury. About the beginning of the fifis coming when the demon of Persecu- teenth century, these errors spread in tion shall be banished out of this our Germany and Bohemia: it found also world and the true spirit of benevolence some partizans in Poland, Holland, and and candour pervade the universe ; | England They assembled in the night; when none shall hurt or destroy, but | and it is said. one of the fundamental the earth be filled with the knowledge maxims of their society was contained of the Lord, as the waters cover the in the following verse: sca! See INQUISITION.
Jura, perjura, secretum prodere noli. ACTION FOR THE PULPIT.- Swear, forswear, and reveal not the secret. See DECLAMATION.
ADESSENARIANS, a branch of the ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, one || Sacramentarians; so called from the of the sacred books of the New Testa. Latin Adesse, to be present because ment containing the his:ory of the infant they believed the presence of Christ's church during the space of twenty-nine body in the eucharist, though in a manor thirty years from the ascension of ner different from the Romanists. our Lord to the year of Christ 63. It ADIAPHORISTS, a name given in was wiit:en by Luke, and addressed to the sixteenth century to the moderate Theophilus, the person to whom the Lutherans who adhered to the sentievangelist had before dedicated his gos- ments of Melancthon; and afterwards pel. The style of his work, which was to those who subscribed the interim of originally composed in Greek, is much Charles V. (See INTERIM.] The word purer than that of the other canonical is of Greek origin (aduamogos.) and signiwriters. For the contents of this book fies indifference or lukewarmness we refer the reader to the book itself. ADMIRATION is that passion of
There have been several acts of the the mind which is excited by the dis
covery of any great excellence in an , Christ in his human nature is the Son of object. It has by some writers been God, not by nature, but by adoption. used as synonymous with surprise and ADOPTION, an act whereby any wonder; but it is evident they are not person receives another into his family, the same. Surprise refers to something owns him for his son, and appoints him unexpected; wonder, to something great his heir: 2. Spiritual adoption is an act or strange ; but admiration includes the of God's free grace, whereby we are idea of high esteem or respect. Thus, received into the number, and have a we say we admire a man's excellen- right to all the privileges of the sons of cies but we do not say that we are sur- God.-3. Glorious, is that in which the prised at them. We wonder at an ex- | saints, being raised from the dead are traordinary object or event, but we do at the last day solemnly owned to be the not always admire it.
children of God and enter into the full ADMONITION denotes a hint or possession of that inheritance provided advice given to another, whereby we for them, Rom. viii. 19. 23. Adoption is reprove him for his fault, or remind him a word taken from the civil law, and of his duty. Admonition was a part of was much in use among the Romans in the discipline much used in the ancient the apostles' time; when it was a cuschurch: it was the first act or step to- tom for persons who had no children of wards the punishment or expulsion of their own, and were possessed of an delinquents. In case of private offences, estate, to prevent its being divided, or it was performed according to the evan- | descending to strangers, to make choice gelical rule, privately ; in case of public || of such who were agreeable to them, offence, openly before the church. If and beloved by them, whom they took either of these sufficed for the recovery into this political relation of children; of the fallen person, all farther proceed- obliging them to take their name upon ings, in a way of censure, ceased; if them, and to pay respect to them as they did not, recourse was had to ex- though they were their natural parents, communication.—Tit. ii. 10. 1 Thess. v. and engaging to deal with them as though 14. Eph. vi. 4.
they had been so; and accordingly to ADONAI, one of the names of the give them a right to their estates, as an Supreme Being in the Scriptures. The inheritance. This new relation, founded proper meaning of the word is “
'my in a mutual consent, is a bond of affecLords," in the plural number; as Adoni tion; and the privilege arising from is my Lord, in the singular. The Jews, thence is, that he who is in this sense a who either out of respect or superstition | father, takes care of and provides for do not pronounce the name of Jehovah, the person whom he adopts, as though read Adonai in the room of it, as often | he were his son by nature ; and there· as they meet with Jehovah in the He-fore civilians call it an act of legitimabrew text. But the ancient Jews were || tion, imitating nature, or supplying the not so scrupulous; nor is there any law | place of it. which forbids them to pronounce the It is easy, then, to conceive the proname of God.
priety of the term as used by the aposADONISTS, a party among divines ile in reference to this act, though it and critics, who maintain that the He-must be confessed there is some differbrew points ordinarily annexed to the ence between civil and spiritual adopconsonants of the word Jehovah are nottion. Civil adoption was allowed of and the patural points belonging to that provided for ihe relief and comfort of word, nor express the true pronuncia- those who had no children; but in spition of it; but are the vowel points be- || ritual adoption this reason does not aplonging to the words Adonai and Elo- | pear. The Almighty was under no him, applied to the consonants of the obligation to do this; for he had innuineffable name Jehovah, to warn the merable spirits whom he had created, readers, that instead of the word Jeho- || besides his own Son, who had all the vah, which the Jews were forbid to pro- || perfections of the divine nature, who nounce, and the true pronunciation of was the object of his delight, and who which had long been unknown to them. || is styled the heir of all things, Heb. i. 3. they are always to read Adonai. They When men adopt, it is on account of are opposed to Jehovists, of whom the some excellency in the persons who are principal are Drusius, Capellus, Bux- | adopted; thus Pharaoh's daughter torf, Alting, and Reland.
adopted Moses because he was exceedADOPTIANISTS, the followers of ing fair, Acts vij. 20, 21; and Mordecai Felix of Urgil and Epiland of Toledo adopted Esther because she was his who, towards the end of the eighth uncle's daughter, and exceeding fair, century, advanced the notion that Jesus | Est. ii, 7: but man has nothing in him
that merits this divine act, Ezek.xvi. 5. || apostle," whether Paul, or Apollos, or In civil adoption, though the name of a Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, son be given, the nature of a son may or things present, or things to come, all not; this relation may not necessarily be are yours, 1 Cor. iii. 22.-3. Divine piroattended with any change of disposition tection. " In the fear of the Lord is or temper. But in spiritual adoption we strong confidence, and his children shall are made partakers of the divine na- have a place of refuge,” Prov. xiv. 26. ture, and a temper or di-position given as the master of a family is engaged to us becoming the relationship we bear, defend and secure all under his roof, Jer. iii. 19.
and committed to his care, so Jesus Much has been said as to the time of Christ is engaged to protect and defend adoption. Some place it before regene- his people. They shall dwell in a ration, because it is supposed that we peaceable habitation, and in sure dwellmust be in the family before we can beings and quiet resting places,” Isa xxxii. partakers of the blessings of it. But it | 18. Heb. i. 14.-4. Unspeakable felicity. is difficult to conceive of one before the They enjoy the most intimate commuother : for although adoption may seem nion with the Father, and with his Son to precede regeneration in order of na- | Jesus Christ. They have access to his ture, yet not of time; they may be dis. || throne at all times, and under all cirtinguished, but cannot be separated.cum-tances. They see divine wisdom “ As many as received him, to them regulating every affair, and rendering gave he power to become the sons of every thing subservient to their good. God, even to them that believe on his Heb. xii. 6–11. The laws, the liberties, name,” John i. 12. There is no adop- il the privileges, the relations, the protion, says the great Charnock without visions, and the security of this family regeneration. “ Adoption,” says the are all sources of happiness; but espesame author. “is not a meie relation ; || cially the presence, the approbation, the privilege and the image of the sons and the goodness of God, as the goverof God go together. A state of adoption nor thereof, afford joy unspeakable and is never without a separation from de- full of glory, 1 Pet. i. 8. Prov. iii. 17. filement, 2 Cor. vi. 17, 18. The new Heb. iv. 16.-5. Eternal glory. In name in adoption is never given till the some cases, civil adoption might be made new creature be formed. As many as null and void, as among the Romans, are led by the Spirit of God, they are when against the right of the pontifex, the sons of God,'Rom. viii 14. Yet these and without the decree of the college; are to be distinguished. Regeneration, but spiritual adoption, as it is divine as as a physical act, gives us a likeness to to its origin, so it is perpetual as to its God in our nature; adoption, as a legal duration. “ The Son abideth in the act, gives us a right to an inheritance. hou e for ever," John viii. 35. “ The inRegeneration makes us formally his heritance of the saints is incorruptible, sons, by conveying a principle. 1 Pet. i. undefiled, and never fadeth away,” i 23; adoption makes us relatively his Pei. i. 4. “ Now are we the sons of sons, by conveying a power, Jolin i. 12. God, and it doth not yet appear what By the one we are instated in the di- we shall be: but we know that when he vine affection; by the other we are par-shall appear, we shall be like him, for takers of the divine nature.”
we shall see him as he is," i John iii. 2. The privileges of adoption are every | In the present state we are as children way great and extensive. 1. It implies at school; but in heaven we shall be as great honour. They have God's name children at home, where we shall alput upon them, and are described as ways behold the face of our heavenly - his people, called by his name," 2 Father, for ever celebrating his praises, Chron. vii. 24. Eph. iii. 15. They are admiring his perfections, and enjoying no longer slaves to sin and the world; his presence. So shall we be ever but, emancipated from its dreadful bon- with the Lord." 1 Thess. iv. 17 dage, are raised to dignity and honour, The evidences of adoption are, 1. Gal. iv. 7: 1 John iji, 1, 2-2. Incxhaus || Renunciation of all former dependentible provision and riches. They in- cies. When a child is adopted, he relinherent all things, Rev. xxi. 7. All the quishes the object of his past confidence, blessings of a temporal kind that are for and submits himself to the will and pleatheir good shall be given them. Psalın -ure of the adopter; so they who are Ixxxiv. 11. All the blessings of grace brought into the family of God, will are treasured up in Jesus Christ for evidence'it by giving up every other obthem, Eph. i. 3. All the blessings of ject so far as it interferes with the will glory shall be enjoyed by them, Col. i. and glory of their heavenly Father. 27. “All things are yours,” says the" « Ephraim shall say, What have I to
do any more with idols?” Hos. xiv. 8. through Jesus Christ. Eph. i. 5. Ap“ Other lords have had dominion over plied to believers by the Holy Spirit, us; but by thee only, will we make Gal. iv. 6. Rom. viii. 15, 16. A blessing mention of thy name.”. Is. xxvi. 13. of the greatest importance, 1 John iii. Mat:. xiii. 45, 46. Phil. ii. 3.–2. Affec- || 1, and lays us under an inviolable oblition. This may not always apply to gation of submission. Ileb. xii. 9; imitacivil adoption, but it always does to spi- tion, Eph. v. 1; and dependence, Matt. ritual. The children of God feel a re- vi. 32. See Rulgley's and Gill's Body gard for him above every other object. of Div. art. Adoption ; Charnock's His own excellency, his unspeakable Work’s, vol. ii. p. 31–72; Flavels goodness to them his promises of future | Work’s vol ii. p. 601; Brown's System blessings, are all grounds of he strongest of Nat, and Rev. Religion, p. 442; lore Whom have I in heaven but | Witsii Econ. Fæd. p. 165. thee? and there is none upon earth that ADRATION, the act of rendering I desire besides thee.” Psalm 1xxiii. 25. divine honours, including in it reverence, “ Thou art my portion, saith my soul, esteem and lo: e: this is called supreme, therefore will I hope in thee.” Lám. iii. or absolute. The word is compounded. 24. Luke vii. 47. Ps. xviii. 1.-3. Access of ad, 'to,” and 08, oris. “mouth ;” and 10 God with a holy boldness. They who literally signifies to apply the hand to are children by adoption are supposed the mouth,“ to kiss the hand;" this to have the same liberty of access as being in the eastern countries, one of those who are children by nature ; so the great marks of respect and submisthose who are partakers of the blessings sion. See Job xxxi. 26. 27. The attiof spiritual adoption will prove it by a tude of adoration, however, we find has reverential, yet familiar address to the not been confined to this mode ; standFather of spirits: they will confess their ing, kneeling, uncovering the head, unworthiness, acknowledge their de- | prostration, bowing, lifting up the eyes pendence, and implore the mercy and to heaven, or sometimes fixing them lavour of God. "Because ye are sons, upon the earth with the body bending God hath sent forth the Spirit of his forward ; sitting with the under parts of Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Fa- | the thighs resting on the heels, have all ther.” Gal. iv. 6. Through Jesus been used, as expressive of veneration Christ we have access by one Spirit and esteem. Whatever be the form, unto the Fa:her." Eph. ii. 18. Having however, it must be remembered that such a privilege, they “ come boldly to adoration, as an act of worship, is due to the throne of grace, that they may obtain God alone, Matt iv. 10. Acts x. 25, 26. mercy and find grace to help in time of Rev. xix. 10. There is, 2. what may be need.” Heb.iv.18.-4. Obedience. Those called adoration human, or paying howho are adopted into a family must || mage or respect to persons of great rank obey the laws of that family; so be- and dignity. This has been performed lievers prove themselves adopted by | by bowing, bending the knee, falling on their obedience to the word and ordi- || the face. The practice of adora ion nances of God. “Ye are my friends, | may be said to be still subsisting in if ye do whatsoever I command you.” England, in the ceremony of kissing the John. xv. 14. “ Whoso keepein his king's or queen's hand, and in serving word, in him verily is the love of God them at table, both being performed perfected: hereby know we that we are kneeling on one knee. There is also, in him. He that saith he abide h in | 3. adoration relative, which consists in hiin, ought himself also to walk even as worship paid to an object as belonging he walked.” 1 John ii. 4, 5.–5. Patient to or representative of another. In tiis yet joyfulerpectation of the inheritance. sense the Romanists profess to adore the In civil a option, indeed, an inheritance cross not simply or immediately. but in is not always certain ; but in spiritu -1 || respect of Jesus Christ, whom they supadoption it is. “ o them who, by pa- | pose to be on it. This is generally, tient continuance in well doing, seek for hovever, considered by protestants, as glory, and honour, and immortality, || coming little short of idolatry. See eternal life.” Rom. ii. 7. “We look || IDOLATRY. not at the thing which are seen, but a: ADVERSARY, one who sets himself the things which are not seen for the in opposition to another: one of the things which are seen are temporal, but || nanes of Satan. See Satan. the things which are not seen are eter- ADVERSITY, a state which is opnal.” 2 Cor. iv 18. Rom. vi. 23. Heb.posite to our wishes, and the cause of xi. 26, 27. From the consideration of sorrow It stands opposed to prosperithe whole of this doctrine, we may learnty. See AFFLICTION that adoption is an act of free grace ADULTERY, an unlawful commerce