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came that He might gather into the fellowship of his Church (John xi. 52).

The manner is very noteworthy in which the Roman officer, by help of an analogy drawn from the circle of things with which he himself is most familiar, by a comparison borrowed from his own military experience,' makes easier to himself his act of faith. He knows that Christ's word, without his actual presence, will be sufficient; there is that in his own experience which assures him as much ; for, he adds, ' I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me, and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth ; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth

It is an argument from the less to the greater. I am one occupying only a subordinate place, set under authority, a subaltern, with tribunes and commanders over me. Yet, notwithstanding, those that are under me, obey me; and my word is potent with them. I have power to send them hither and thither, and they go at my bidding, so that, myself sitting still, I can yet have the things accomplished which I desire (Acts x. 8; xxiii. 23). How much more Thou ; not set, as I am, in a subordinate place, but who art as a Prince over the host of heaven, who hast Angels and spirits to obey thy word and run swiftly at thy command, canst fulfil from a distance all the good pleasure of thy will. What need, then, that Thou shouldest come to my house; only commission one of these genii of healing, who will

1 Bengel : Sapientia fidelis ex ruditate militari pulchre elucens.

? The oroatia ovpávios (Luke ii. 13; cf. Rev. xix. 14). How true a notion this indeed was, which in his simple faith the centurion had conceived for himself, we see from those words of our Lord, “Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and He shall presently give Me more than twelve legions of angels' (Matt. xxvi. 53)? Jerome (in loc.): Volens ostendere Dominum quoque non per adventum tantum corporis, sed per angelorum ministeria posse implere quod vellet. Fuller (Pisgah Sight of Palestine, vol. i. p. 109) takes it a little differently*Concluding from his own authority over his soldiers, that Christ, by a more absolute power, as Lord High Marshal of all maladies, without his personal presence, could by his bare word of command order any disease to march or retreat at his pleasure.'


execute speedily the errand of grace on which Thou shalt send him.'He contemplates the relation of Christ to the spiritual kingdom in an aspect as original as it is grand. The Lord appears to him as the true Cæsar and Imperator, the highest over the hierarchy, pot of earth, but of heaven (Col. i. 16).

In all this there was so wonderful a union of faith and humility, that it is nothing strange to read that the Lord Himself was filled with admiration : When Jesus heard it, He marvelled," and said to them that followed, Verily, I

· Severus (in Cramer, Catena): Ei påp šyus otpatLÁTHS úv, kai inė εξουσίαν βασιλέως τελών, τοις δορυφόροις εντέλλομαι, πως ου μάλλον αυτός ο τών άνω και αγγελικών δυνάμεων ποιητής, και θέλεις έρείς και yevioerat; and Augustine (Enarr. in P8. xlvi. 9, and Serm. lxii. 2): Si ergo ego, inquit, homo sub potestate, jubendi habeo potestatem, quid tu possis, cui omnes serviunt potestates ? And Bernard more than once urges this as a singular feature of his humility; thus Ep. cccxcii. : O prudens et vere corde humilis anima! dicturus quod prælatus esset militibus, repressit extollentiam confessione subjectionis : immo præmisit subjectionem, ut pluris sibi esset quod suberat, quam quod præerat; and beautifully, De Off: Episc. 8: Non jactabat potestatem, quam nec solam protulit, nec priorem. . . . . Præmissa siquidem est humilitas, ne altitudo præcipitet. Nec enim locum invenit arrogantia, ubi tam clarum humilitatis insigne præcesserat. Such explanation appears preferable to theirs who make ävt pwrog itò ikovoiav, a man in authority. Rettig (Theol. Stud. u. Krit. vol. xi. p. 472), reading with Lachmann, úvo. ito ičovo. Tuggópevoç (which last word, however, sh ould not have found place in the text), has an ingenious but untenable explanation in this sense. The Auct. Oper. Imperf. interprets rightly ivbpw Tos U TO igovoinr, a man in a subordinate position ; but then will not allow, nay rather expressly denies, that this is a comparison by way of contrast, which the centurion is drawing,—that he is magnifying the Lord's highest place by comparing it with his own only subordinate, but that rather he is in all things likening the one to the other: “As I am under worldly authorities, and yet have those whom I may send, so Thou, albeit under thine heavenly Father, hast yet a heavenly host at thy bidding.' (Ego sum homo sub potestate alterius, tamen habeo potestatem jubendi eis qui sub me sunt. Nec enim impedior jubere minores, propter quod ipse sum sub majoribus ; sed ab illis quidem jubeor, sub quibus sum; illis autem jubeo, qui sub me sunt: sic et tu, quamvis sub potestate Patris sis, secundum quod homo es, habes tamen potestatem jubendi angelis tuis, nec impediris jubere inferioribus, propter quod ipse habes superiorem.) This interpretation, though capable of a fair meaning, probably expresses the Arian tendencies of the author.

? But since all wonder properly so called, arises from the meeting with something unexpected and hitherto unknown, how could the Lord, to

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say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in
Israel.' St. Matthew alone records these words, which
beforehand we should rather expect to find recorded by St.
Luke; for he, the companion of the Apostle to the Gentiles,
loves best to give prominence to that side of our Lord's
ministry, on which it contemplated not merely the Jewish
nation, but the heathen world (iii. 38; X. 1; xv. 11-32).
Where faith is, there will be the kingdom of God; so that
this saying already contains a warning to his Jewish hearers,
of the danger they are in of forfeiting blessings whereof
others are showing themselves worthier than they.But the
words which follow are far more explicit : “ For I say unto
you, that many shall come from the east and west, and shall
sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the king-
dom of heaven,' shall be partakers of the heavenly festival,
which shall be at the inauguration of the kingdom; but the
children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer dark-
ness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth ;'-in
other words, the kingdom should be taken from them,
and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof '

whom all things were known, be said to marvel ? To this some have
answered that Christ did not so much actually wonder, as commend to us
that which was worthy of our admiration. Thus Augustine (De Gen.
Con. Man. i. 8): Quod mirabatur Dominus, nobis mirandum esse signifi-
cabat; and he asks in another place (Con. Adv. Leg. et Proph. i. 7), how
should not He have known before the measure of that faith, which He
Himself had created ? (An vero alius eam in corde centurionis opera-
batur, quam ipse qui mirabatur?) Yet a solution like this brings an
unreality into parts of our Lord's conduct, as though He did some things
for show and the effect which they would have on others, instead of all
his actions having their deepest root in his own nature, being the truthful
exponents of his own most inmost being. On the other hand, to


that according to his human nature He might have been ignorant of some things, seems to threaten a Nestorian severance of the Person of Christ. But the whole question of the communicatio idioinatum, with its precipices on either side, is one of the hardest in the whole domain of theology. See Aquinas, Sum. Theol. 3*, qu. 15, art. 8 ; and Gerhard, Locc. Theoll. iv. 2,4.

i Augustine : In olivâ non inveni, quod inveni in oleastro. Ergo oliva superbiens præcidatur; oleaster humilis inseratur. Vide inserentem, vide præcidentem. Cf. In Joh. tract. xvi. ad finem.

2 Augustine : Alienigenæ carne, domestici corde.

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(Matt. xxi. 43); because of their unbelief, they, the natural branches of the olive tree, should be broken off, and in their room the wild olive should be graffed in (Rom. xi. 17-24; Matt. iii. 9).

* And Jesus said unto the centurion, or to him in his messengers, 'Go thy way, and as thou hast believed,' so be it done unto thee. And his servant was heale in the selfsame hour;'-not merely was there a remission of the strength of the disease, but it left him altogether (John iv. 52; Matt. viii. 15). There is a certain difficulty in defining the exact character of the complaint from which he was thus graciously delivered. In St. Matthew it is described as palsy;' with which the 'grievously tormented' which immediately follows, seems not altogether to agree, nor yet the report in St. Luke, that he was ready to die;' since palsy in itself neither brings with it violent paroxysms of pain, nor is it in its nature mortal. But paralysis with contraction of the joints is accompanied with intense suffering, and, when united, as it much oftener is in the hot climates of the East and of Africa than among us, with tetanus, both grievously torments,' and rapidly brings on dissolution.”

1 Bernard (Serm. iii. De Anima): Oleum misericordiæ in vase fiduciæ ponit.

2 At · Macc. ix. 55, 56, it is said of Alcimus, who was taken with a palsy,' that he died presently with great torment' (uerà Bagávov peyalns

Orivūg Baoavisourvuç here ; cf. Winer, Realwörterbuch, s. v. Paralytische). In St. Matthew and St. Mark these paralytics are always napadurikoi, in St. Luke's Gospel, as in the Acts, TapaleAvuóvoi.



MARK i. 23-27; LUKE iv. 33-36.


\HE healing of this demoniac, the second miracle of the

kind which the Evangelists record at any length, may not offer so much remarkable as some similar works, but not the less has its own special points of interest. What distinguishes it the most, although finding parallels elsewhere (see Mark i. 34; Matt. viii. 29), is the testimony which the evil spirit bears to Christ, and his refusal to accept it. This history thus stands in very instructive relation with another in the Acts (xvi. 16-18). There in like manner, a damsel possessed with a spirit of divination bears witness to Paui and his company, * These men are the servants of the most high God, which show unto us the way of salvation;' and the servant there will, as little as toe Master here, endure that hell should bear witness to heaven, the kingdom of darkness to the kingdom of light, and commands with power the evil spirit to come out.

Our Lord was teaching, as was his wont upon a Sabbath (cf. Luke iv. 16; Acts xiii. 14, 15), in the synagogue of Capernaum ; and the people now, as on other occasions (see Matt. vii. 29), 'were astonished at his doctrine, for his word was with power.' But He was not mighty in word only, but also in work; and it was ordained by the providence of his Heavenly Father, that the opportunity should here be offered Him for confirming his word with signs following. There

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