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TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
the preparation of a new edition of Horace, to which I have devoted several years, I have labored both to perfect the text and to unfold the meaning and illustrate the literary merits of this charming lyrist and wise observer of life and manners. My judgments have been derived from long and fond study of the author, aided by the skilful editors and commentators who have done so much for the text and its interpretation both in olden time and in the last twenty years, particularly in the last decade. In the case of no other writer are the proofs more abundant that classical philology is a living and progressive science.
Among the newer Horatian scholars there are none greater than some of the older commentators and critics-perhaps none so great; but our knowledge of the manuscripts has been much increased, and the fuller study of classical history and antiquities has thrown new light upon many points which had been obscure. There are still many passages of which various interpretations are given, as well as some difficult questions with regard to the text; but they are to
be welcomed as calling forth that exercise in the balancing of probabilities which is one of the great benefits of classical study.
I hope that this edition may help the young to enjoy and appreciate one of the most charming of authors, and thus cultivate the love of letters and a sound literary taste.
*** The marks of punctuation in the various readings indicate variations of interpunction in different editions: except that different readings of the same word or passage are separated by a comma.
Apulia, near the borders of Lucania. His father, a freedman* who had been emancipated before the poet's birth, was a coactor or collector-whether of taxes or of money at sales by public auction we cannot be certain.† He had gained a small landed property upon the banks of the Aufidus, in the midst of the Apennines and near Mount Voltur, and his boy, an only child as we may infer, left motherless at an early age-for would he not have spoken of them if he had remembered mother, sister,
*The inhabitants of Venusia belonged to the Horatian tribe. †There is a doubtful tradition that he was also a seller of salt fish (Seuton. vit., Fritzsche, ad Sat. I. 6, 86).
or brother?-grew up familiar with mountain, stream, and forest. Even in childhood a keen observer of nature and of mankind, he was quick to mark the homely virtues and sturdy good sense of the peasantry, and he delighted to recall them in after years. Not content with the village school, Horace's father at some personal sacrifice took him to Rome when he was about twelve years old, to give him the best education that could be had.* Here the boy was waited on by numerous slaves, and lived in the style of the young gentlemen of the day, yet never learned to despise the humble rank in which he was born. Under the noted grammarian Orbilius Pupillus-fond of flogging, but an excellent teacher-he studied Homer and the earlier Latin writers. His father himself acted as the boy's governor or paedagogus, going with him to all his classes, training him to good morals, and warning him, by pointing out conspicuous examples, against the follies and vices of the dissolute city. We may believe with Theodore Martin that from this admirable father the son gathered many of the "rugged maxims hewn from life" with which his works abound, and also inherited that manly independence which always marked him. Horace always speaks of him with the truest affection.
From Rome, Horace went to Athens, the chief university of the ancient world. Hither the foremost youth of Rome resorted to complete their studies. We can easily imagine the delight with which the young poet studied Grecian literature and philosophy under the most accomplished masters. He himself essayed composition in Greek verse, but was soon fired with the nobler ambition to enrich his native tongue with works of genius like those of the great Greek poets, and in similar measures. For a moment Mars called him away. Brutus came to Athens, and, together with the young Roman patricians, Horace joined his standard, probably in the year B. c. 44. He became tribune —or "colonel" in modern phrase—and as such fought bravely in the disastrous battle of Philippi, B. c. 42, having previously been a trusty comrade of Brutus on several expeditions to Thessaly, Macedonia, Asia, and the isles.
*Sat. I. 6, 71 sqq.
+Epist. II. 1, 69 sqq; 2, 41 sqq.