The Empirical Base of Linguistics: Grammaticality Judgments and Linguistic Methodology
University of Chicago Press, 15 maj 1996 - 237
Throughout much of the history of linguistics, grammaticality judgments - intuitions about the well-formedness of sentences - have constituted most of the empirical base against which theoretical hypotheses have been tested. Although such judgments often rest on subtle intuitions, there is no systematic methodology for eliciting them, and their apparent instability and unreliability have led many to conclude that they should be abandoned as a source of data. Carson T. Schutze presents here a detailed critical overview of the vast literature on the nature of utility of grammaticality judgments and other linguistic intuitions, and the ways they have been used in linguistic research. He shows how variation in the judgment process can arise from factors such as biological, cognitive, and social differences among subjects, the particular elicitation method used, and extraneous features of the materials being judged. He then assesses the status of judgments as reliable indicators of a speaker's grammar. Integrating substantive and methodological findings, Schutze proposes a model in which grammaticality judgments result from interactions of linguistic competence with general cognitive processes. He argues that this model provides the underpinning for empirical arguments to show that once extragrammatical variance is factored out, universal grammar succumbs to a simpler, more elegant analysis than judgment data initially lead us to expect. Finally, Schutze offers numerous practical suggestions on how to collect better and more useful data. The result is a work of vital importance that will be required reading for linguists, cognitive psychologists, and philosophers of language alike.
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Definitions and Historical Background
The Nature of Metalinguistic Performance
SubjectRelated Factors in Grammaticality Judgments
TaskRelated Factors in Grammaticality Judgments
Theoretical and Methodological Implications
Inne wydania - Wyświetl wszystko
ability acceptability anaphors argue argument asked bad sentences behavior Bever Bialystok Birdsong Carden chapter Chomsky Chomsky's claim cognitive competence conclusion consider constraints constructing grammars constructions context coreference correlation crucial discussed in section effects elicitation evidence example experiment experimental fact factors garden path sentences Gleitman gram grammaticality judgments grammaticality ratings Greenbaum groups guistic guists idiolect instance instructions interpretation introspective involved issue jects Jim McCawley judging grammaticality judgment data judgment process kinds knowledge Labov language lexical lexical category linguistic intuitions maticality mean ments metalinguistic methodology Nagata naive native speakers Newmeyer nonlinguists parasitic gaps parser parsing particular performance possible potential problem procedure properties propose psycholinguistic question reading reason reflect relevant repetition reports response scale semantic sentence types specific stimulus strategies structure Subjacency subjects suggests syntactic systematic tences theoretical theoretical linguists tion ungrammatical sentences variables variation versus violations word