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CAMBRENSIS E VERSU S.

VOL. III.

CAMBRENSIS EVERSUS,

&c.

CAPUT XXV I.

ALII TITULI QUIBUS HIBERNIÆ REGNUM CAMBRENSIS REGIBUS ANGLIÆ

VENDICAT IRRITI ET INANES ESSE CONVINCUNTUR.

Fabula de donata Hibernia Bascleensibus a Gurguntio.-Partholanus non fuit Bascleensium

dux.-Partholanus et Cantaber idem.-Bartholanus Cantabrigiam condidisse fertur.-Num Gurguntius extiterit anceps. [237] Uganius Magnus fuit Hiberniæ rex tempore Gurguntii.-Giraldus in hac re sibi contradicit.-Gurguntii possessio Hiberniæ nullum jus acquirit Henrico II, [238] Acta comitiorum Dubliniensium decepta.-Hibernia non fuit a Gurmundo devicta.-Error scribæ de Hibero et Herymone. [239] Bayona non est caput Biscaiæ. Instabilitas comitiorum.-Conversio religionis in comitiis Hibernicis facta. [240] Aliquorum non omnium culpa ea mutatio facta est.–Gurmundus non fuit Hiberniæ rex. [241] Quæ de Gurmundo narrantur fabulæ sunt.-Res contrarias connectere vult Giraldus.-Vestigia Gurguntii in Hibernia.-Gurmundus ille non alius quam O'Gormain. [242] Turgesius falsó dictus Hiberniæ rex.-Causæ cur Henricus II. Hiberniam invasit. Dermitius ad angustias redactus accersivit ex Anglia subsidiarios. Es ambitione Hiberniæ rex Henricus II. inhiavit.-Henricus II, bellum Hibernis intulit ob vicinitatem et metum ne inde subsidia Gallo subministrarentur.

VIDisti lector quantopere Cambrensis in supremâ Hiberniæ potestate regibus Angliæ asserendâ desudarit, et illam his Pontificum largitione obvenisse contenderit. Nunc alia quædam argumenta operosius quam utilius ab illo congesta, quibus reges Angliæ summum Hiberniæ jus olim retulisse frustra comminiscitur propius inspice. “Rex Britonum” (inquit) “Gurguntius apud insulas Orchadum classem invenit, qui Bascleenses de Hispaniarum partibus illuc advectaverat : de suorum consilio insulam istam quæ nunc Hibernia dicitur, et quæ tunc vel vacua prorsus fuerat, vel per ipsum inhabitata, eis inhabitandam concessit. De suis etiam navigationis duces ipsis adhibuit. Ex quo patet

1 Topo. d. 3, c. 8.

CAMBRENSIS E VERSUS,

8c.

CHAPTER XXV I.

THE OTHER TITLES ON WHICH GIRALDUS CLAIMS THE CROWN OF

IRELAND FOR THE KINGS OF ENGLAND, EXPOSED AND REFUTED.

[236] Fabulous story of Ireland's being granted by Gurguntius to the Bascleans.-Partholanus

was not leader of the Bascleans.-Partholanus and Cantaber are the same.--Bartholanus is said to have founded Cambridge.--Doubtful whether such a person as Gurguntius ever existed. [237] Ugaine Mor was king of Ireland in the time of Gurguntius.--Giraldus contradicts himself on this point. The possession of Ireland by Gurguntius could give no title to Henry II. [238] An act of a parliament held at Dublin in error.-Ireland never conquered by Gurmund.-Error of the scribe regarding Eireamon and Eibhear.[239] Bayonne not the capital of Biscay.-Fickleness of parliaments.-Change made in religion by the Irish parliament. [240] That change effected through the fault of some not of all.–Gurmund was never king of Ireland. [241] Stories told of Gurmund are all fables.-Giraldus endeavours to combine contradictory things.- Traces of Gurguntius in Ireland.-This Gurmund was no other than O'Gormain. [242] Turgesius falsely called king of Ireland.-Reason why Henry II. invaded Ireland.—Diarmaid when reduced to extremity called in auxiliaries from England.- Ambition induced Henry II. to invade Ireland.-Henry II. invaded Ireland because it was near him, and be feared that aid might be sent from it to the French.

You have now seen, dear reader, how zealously Cambrensis labors to establish the claims of the kings of England to the Irish crown, which he maintains was granted to them by the popes. Come we now, to inspect more closely many other arguments, compiled with more diligence than success, to demonstrate the ancient dominion of English kings over the kingdom of Ireland. “Gurguntius king of the Britons discovered,” says Giraldus,“ near the Orkney islands, a fleet in which the Bascleans had been wafted thither from the coast of Spain. With the consent of his subjects he granted to the strangers the island of Ireland, which was then either uninhabited, or at least tenanted only by himself. He even appointed some of his own subjects to command and direct the fleet. The kings of Britain therefore had, though at a

nonnullo jure licet antiquo Britanniæ reges Hiberniam contingere." Nomen ducis eorum qui tum Hiberniam capessiverant tacitum Cambrensis præteriit : sed illud Joannes Rooflius Warwicensis apud Brianum Twinium aperuit dicens: “Belino successisse Gurguntium, cujus regni anno sexto, certis Hispanis à regno suo expulsis, sub Partholani eorum principe, Hiberniam tunc vacantem de se suisque sub homagio tenendum rex Gurguntius gratiosè concessit, et eorum principis fratrem Cantabrum nomine secum retinuit." Chronicon vero S. Albani « de quodam Gurguntii temporibus profugo, quem Irelemale vocat (unde Irlandiæ nomen) hoc ipsum refert.” Non est absimile Cambrensem Partholani nomen ideo datâ operâ siluisse, ne ipse sibi adversari videretur asserenti, 3 “ Partholanum tricesimo post diluvium

anno,

vel

casu, vel indnstria, hoc est, vel errore viæ, vel optima opinione patriæ Hiberniæ littoribus applicuisse.” Retectio quippe nominis Giraldi instituto non parum officeret, suis in Hiberniam regibus è memorata Bascleensium in illam profectione jus frustra expiscanti, qui unam fabulam in duas, nullo veteris memoriæ testimonio nixus, consultò partitus est, ut titulum indè qualemcunque ad suæ causæ patrocinium arriperet. Certè dissensio illa scriptorum diversa nomina Bascleensium duci assignantium non modicum præ se fert indicium toti narrationi falsum inesse. Quid quod aliqui dixerint Cantabrum, et Partholanuin eundem fuisse ?? Alii

Gurguntium regem Partholano et Cantabro fratri Hiberniam inhabitandam dedisse;" alii“ præcipuum authorem cùm ædificationis Cantabrigiæ, tum quod muris cingeretur fuisse ducem, et Hiberniæ regem Partholanum."5 Cui conformia Polydorus Virgilius aliundè producit dicens :6 “ Rege Gurguntio Belini filio, Bartholomeum quendam hominein Cantabrum in Britanniam pervenisse, et illum deinde duxisse uxorem Chembrigiam regis filiam, condidisseque oppidum ex uxoris nomine Cantabrigiam.” Ita ut hæc de nomine, aliisque adjunctis in ipso narrationis aditu discrepantia narrationis ejusdem recessui, reliquisque capitibus ruinam portendat.

Imo vero præstantissimorum antiquariorum opinio ambigentium an

; Antiq. Oxoni. lib. I, p. 8. 3 Topo. d. 3, c. 2. 4 Antiq. Oxoni. 3 Ibidem. 6 Ibid. p. 21. Ibid. p. 20. 8 Antiq. Oxoni. p. 29.

very remote period, some dominion over Ireland.” Cambrensis does not mention the name of the leader of this naval expedition, but the defect is supplied by John Roos of Warwicke, as cited by Twine : “Belinus,” he says, "was succeeded by Gurguntius, who in the sixth year of his reign, graciously granted Ireland, then uninhabited, to certain Spaniards, who were banished with their leader Partholanus, from their own country. The strangers were bound to do homage to Gurguntius and his successors for Ireland, and Cantaber, brother to Partholanus, was detained in Britain.” The chronicle of St. Albans relates the same fact of a certain exile, in the reign of Gurguntius, who was called Irelemali, and gave his name to Ireland.” Giraldus suppressed the name of Partholanus, very probably, lest he might contradict his own statement in another place, “ that in the 30th year

afier the deluge, Partholanus landed on the shores of Ireland, either by accident, or design; having either lost his way or been allured by the reported fertility of the soil.” Had he mentioned the name, his object would be defeated, which was to ground some right of his kings to the crown of Ireland on this expedition and colonization of the Bascleans. He, therefore, deliberately metamorphoses one fable into two, without any warrant from ancient authorities, in order to manufacture some species of argument for his assertion. But the sole discrepancy of authors regarding the name of Basclean leader throws wellgrounded doubts on the whole narrative. Thus some will have it, that Partholanus and Cantaber were one and the same; others that king Gurguntius granted Ireland as a settlement to two brothers, Partholanus and Cantaber;" others, “ that the principal founder of Cambridge, the man who encircled it with walls, was Partholanus, king of Ireland.” Polydor Virgil chimes in with a different view of the same statement, "During the reign of Gurguntius, son of Belinus, a certain Cantabrian, named Partholanus, arrived in Britain, and married there Chembrigia, the king's daughter, in whose honor he founded the city of Cambridge." Now those contradictions regarding the hero of the narrative and other circumstances in the very outset augur ominously for the sequel and issue of the story.

Nay, do not eminent antiquarians question the very existence of this Gurguntius ? a circumstance which must endanger the ill-digested

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