« PoprzedniaDalej »
Friends and companions, get ye gone,
my sole plague to be alone;
I'll not change life with any king ;
I'll change my state with any wretch,
But the melancholy of which we intend to treat in the following pages, is not merely the tranfitory dejection of spirits above-mentioned, but a permanent and habitual disorder of the intellect, morbus fonticus aut chronicus ; a noisome, chronic, or continuate disease; a settled humour, not errant, but fixed and grown into an inveterate habit. It is, in short, that
CHAPTER THE SECOND.
THE DEFINITION, AFFECTION, MATTER,
AND SPECIES OF MELANCHOLY.
ELANCHOLY derives its name from
the Greek word Mehav Xona, QUASI, Mchawx porn, which fignifies that black choler which corrodes the constitution of the patient during the prevalency of the disease. The descriptions, notations, and definitions which are given of it, are many and various; and it is even loubted whether it be a cause or an effect; an original disorder, or only a symptom of some other complaint.
Fracastorius, in his second book “of Intellect," calls those melancholy “ whom abundance of « that fame depraved humour of black choler has " so misaffected, that they become mad, and “ doat in most things, or in all belonging to “ election, will, or other manifest operations “ of the understanding :” and others, as Galen,*
* Claudius Galenus was born at Pergamus in the year
of Lord 131. His father was a celebrated architect, and spared na pains in the education of his fon; but medicine was his favourite
Melanelius, Ruffus *, Ætius,t Hercules de Saxe onia, Fuschius, I Arnoldus Breviarus, Ø Guianerius,| Paulus, Halyabbas, Aretæus, ** Montanus, tt and other celebrated writers upon this subject, describe it to be “a bad and peevith s disease, which makes men degenerate into “ beasts;"_“ a privation or infection of the « middle cell of the head;"_" a depravation of “ the principal function by means of black cho« ler;"_" a commotion of the mind, or per“.petual anguish of the soul, fastened on one « thing, without an ague or fever; having for < its ordinary companion fear and sadness, with“out any apparent occafion." It is said to be a dotage, to shew that someone principal faculty, as the imagination, or the reason, is corrupted, as it is with all melancholy persons : it is said to be an anguish of the principal parts of the mind, with a view to distinguifh it from cramp, pally, and such diseases as affect the outward sense and motion of the body: it is said to be a depravation of the principal functions, in order to diftinguish it from fatuity and madness, in which those functions are rather abolished than depraved: it is said to be unaccompanied by ague or fever, because the humour is most part cold, dry, and contrary, to putrefaction; and which distinguishes it from those disorders which are called phrensies: and it is said to be attended with vain fears and groundless sorrows, in order to differ it from madness, and from the effects of the ordinary passions of fear and sorrow, which are the true characteristics and ina separable companions of moft, though not of all, melancholy men; for there are some who can freely
ftudy ; and he attained so profound a knowledge of this art, that his contemporaries attributed his success to the power of magic; but Nature and the works of Hippocrates were his best instructors. After having gained great reputation under the reigns of the Antonines, Marcus Aurelius, and other Emperors, he died in the place of his nativity in the year 210.
* Ruffus was a physician at Ephesus, and attained a high degree of reputation under the Emperor Trajan. His works, which are frequently cited by Suidas, were published at London in 1726, in quarto.
+ Ætius lived very near the end of the fifth or in the beginning of the fixth century.
| Leonard Tusch, or Fuschius, was born at Wembdingen, in Bavaria, in 1051, and died in 1566.
§ Arnold of Villeneuve, a physician of the thirteenth century,
|| Jobr Guianerius was born at Anternach in the year 1487, and was afterwards appointed physician to Francis the First. He died in the year 1574.
Francis Paul, a physician of the academies of Montpellier and Marseilles, was born at St. Chamas in Provence, and died in 177, at the age of forty-three years.
** Aretæus of Cappadocia, a Grecian physician, of the fect of Pneumaticks, lived under Julius Cæsar or Trajan.
tt John Baptist Montanus, of Verona, was born in the year 1498, and died on the 6th of May, 1551. He was esteemed a second Galen, and enjoyed the double advantage of being the first poet and the first physician of his age,