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before my own fafety; because I am fure when the whole is in danger, I must needs be in danger, and many more; I am to prefer a great good that may accrue to many, before a smaller good, nay poffibly an equal good that may accrue to myself; nay, I am to prefer an apparent greater good to any person than a fmall and inconfiderable good to myself. But above all, I am to prefer the honour and glory of God, before my own honour, reputation, eftate, contentment, or life itfelf; because he is the greatest good, and most to be loved, and the love to his honour is but the refult of my love to him. Again, in things relating to others, I am to prefer a greater good that may accrue to one, before a fmaller good to another; the good of our neighbour's foul before the good of another's eftate, where the one, but not both, are juftly in my power; I may prefer an equal good to a relation, before an equal good to a ftranger, where the concernment or condition of both are equal; because I have just reason to love a relation before a stranger. Again, 2. As there are different ranks of good, fo different circumftances make one good preferable before another. If I fee two men in danger, and I can relieve but one of them, both being equal to me, I am to prefer the relief of him whofe danger is greater and more imminent, before the relief of him whofe danger is lefs or more remote; and herein prudence and integrity of heart must be the director of my love, and of the emanations of it, always provided that nothing unjust or difhoneft be mingled with what I do.
4. That as among goods of different fizes or degrees I am to prefer the beft; fo among good things that at leaft feem equal, I do prefer the most lafting and durable; for laftingness and durableness is a fpecial part of the goodness of any thing; nay oftentimes a good, that in its prefent degree or extent is greater; yet if it be lefs durable, is not fo valuable as a lefs but more lafting good; as the greater wealth, that must be spent
in a year, is truly less valuable than a smaller portion that lafts two years.
5. That we cbferve that general rule, before given, namely, That we never give our affection of love leave to run out alone, without judgment and confideration going before it, and going along with it: That we fuffer not our paffions to deal out their own meafures, but our judgment and deliberation: That we always keep this affection efpecially under difcipline and government, and fufferit not to run away from us, as an unruly beaft without a chain; for it is certain, the due government of this affection governs all the reft.
And now if we look abroad into the world, or indeed but ftrictly and impartially obferve ourselves, we fhall easily obferve a marvellous want of modera tion of this affection. For not to mention the mifplacing of this affection upon what we should really hate, we may fee a great irregularity in the measure and order of exerting this affection about things, that we may in their measure and kind love: we talk indeed, of loving God above all, and of the great value we fet upon our fouls and everlafting life, and of felfdenial, and against the loving of the world, and how vain and contemptible a thing the world is; but for the most part they are but words and fpeculations; when we come to practice and life, there appears nothing, or very little that answers these notions and fpeculations; little of that moderation that thofe notions import. We love the world, the wealth, the honours, the pleasures, the profits of it, with all our fouls; we make it our principal bufinefs to attain and enjoy it; we account it our greatest calamity when we are croffed or difappointed in it. One man fets his whole heart upon his greatnefs, another upon his wealth, another upon his pleasure and recreations, another upon his preferment, another upon the favour of great men, another upon the applaufe of his learning or eloquence, another upon the beauty of a miftrefs or fer.
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vant: nay, so childish we many times are, that we are enamoured on very toys, as fine clothes, handfome furniture, a fine house, fplendid entertainments, a fine head of hair, or mad antic postures, or compliments, affected words, geftures or phrases, apish imitation, plays and gaming, new fafhions; that many there are that make fuch feathers as thefe the principal object of their love, the business and ftudy of their lives, and are as much concerned in their difappointment herein, as if they were undone. These are prepofterous, and want mo deration in their affection, because they have no true judgment or estimate of things according to their
It is very evident to every man's experience, that hope and expectation of Good, is the great wheel, or rather weight, that moves man to all actions and undertakings. The ploughman ploughs in hope; and the merchant adventures in hope; and the fcholar ftudies in hope; and the foldier fights in hope; and fo for all human actions. And thus it must needs be; for in hope or expectation there are thefe ingredients:
1. Some end that a man hath in profpect, which carries a complacency and fuitablenefs to the mind; as to be rich, or powerful, or learned, or applauded. These are the ordinary ends of ordinary men; but there are ends of a nobler condition, as to be everlastingly happy, &c. But of thefe nobler and higher ends I do not now fpeak.
2. That end is also represented as an end poffible and attainable.
8. That there be alfo a means propofed probably conducing to the attaining of that end; and the hope or expectation of that end is the fpirit of life that puts a
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man upon the use and exercife of that means, thus conducible to it: for the most part the complacency that is taken in the exercife of the means to the attaining of the end propofed, is at all times equal, and most times exceeds the complacency that is taken in enjoyment of the end when attained, for the reason hereafter given for the end is present in expectation in the most ample and comprehenfive image or idea thereof that can be: and this is that which quickens and drives on action with intenfiveness proportionable to that measure of worth and value that the foul puts upon the end thus profpected. And therefore he that hath a great and high expectation and value of the end propounded, acts with vigour and industry; he that fets but a low price or valuation upon the end, as a business but little preponderating the trouble and industry to attain it, is cold in his profecution of it: but if the labour and industry that is required in the ufe of that means, appear to equal the good that is attained in the end, the whole action is for the most deferted; as he that fets a great value upon wealth or honour, fpares no pains to attain it, fo he that fets but low value upon it, is flat and lazy in his profecution of it; and he that looks upon it as not countervailing the pains in acquiring it, fits ftill, and is idle in it.
For the most part, the good things of this world are presented to men in expectation, not only in their best drefs, but in an elevated value above what is, in truth, in them; and this is therefore fo upon a double reafon.
1. The wife Providence of God permitting it, and that for this excellent end, to keep men in action and in motion; which is of fingular ufe for mankind: for if the things exciting the ordinary actions of life did appear with no greater an elevation than poffibly they do really and intrinfically bear, the most part of mankind would fit ftill and do nothing. This very fallacy, that men put upon themfelves in over-expecting, is a fpur to action and motion, which in moft men would be 1 kept in view.