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twenty-five had perished before Mr. Lander undertook his journey to the coast, including most of the officers and engineers. When Mr. Lander left the Quorra they might be said to have only begun to trade with the natives; and as there was unquestionably an abundance of ivory in the country, we have reason to hope that the adventure will be as prosperous in this point of view as its spirited and enterprising proprietors can reasonably desire. On the 18th of May Mr. Lander left Fernando Po in a native canoe, as before, in order to rejoin his companions.

It appears, according to letters which had been previously received by the Columbine, that at Eboe King Otre had treated the expedition with much kindness, and had made Lander a present of some canoes, with people to pilot them up the river. A few days before their arrival at Eboe, the steamers sent their boats ashore to cut wood. They were fired upon by the inhabitants of a village, and obliged to return. The next morning a large number of men were sent armed. These were immediately fired upon by the natives. The Quorra then sent a signal rocket into the town, and continued firing her long gun at intervals for an hour and a half. The natives still continuing to fire, the crews of both the steamers landed and drove them out of the town or village, and then burned it to the ground. Three of the natives were found killed, and one was dying; one or two of the English were slightly wounded. The news of this engagement reached Eboe before the steamer, and Mr. Lander is of opinion it will have a salutary effect on the natives up the river, and be the means of preventing any future resistance. Nine men are said to have died before they left the Nun, and two or three afterwards. There was also an American merchant brig, the Agenoria, lying in the Nun. She had been fitted out by a company of merchants of New Providence to explore the Niger. She had with her two small schooners, which were to proceed up the river while she remained at the entrance. Nearly all the white men belonging to these vessels had died, and the remainder appeared in the most wretched state, and they had abandoned all intention of attempting to proceed up the river with schooners, it being considered impossible to do so with any sailing-vessel.

Accounts from Algiers describe the French possessions on that coast to be held on a very uncertain tenure. The communication between the town of Mostaganem and Oran had been cut off by the Arabs, who surrounded the former place, and threatened an assault. The French general, Desmichels, was, notwithstanding this threatening aspect of affairs at Mostaganem, obliged to return to Oran; his presence there, it is said, being indispensable, and as he could not proceed by land without fighting his way, he was obliged to embark on board the frigate which contributed to guard the town. On his departure, all the French boats left on that part of the coast were burnt, and the crews murdered.

Accounts from the Cape of Good Hope contain a very melancholy statement of the sufferings of the tribe called Baharutsi, situated beyond the colony, who had been driven from their country by the advance of that warlike tribe, the Zoolas; and although they had fled full six days' journey, they were still pursued by their implacable foe: they were in a state of absolute starvation. Numbers of them, driven by despair, had resolved to return back, and rather perish by the spears of the Zoolas than die the lingering death of famine. In attempting this, hundreds had been stabbed on the way. The missionaries on the frontier, with most praiseworthy humanity, had sent out two of their body and necessary attendants, and some cattle, to conduct the remnant of their tribe to Griqua town, amounting to about 800 persons, all that were left of many thousands.

NEW SOUTH WALES.-A society has been formed at Sydney, under the denomination of the “ Australian Steam Conveyance Company,” the object of which is, to promote the more extensive application of steam machinery to conveyance, both by water and by land. The first undertaking of the company was to establish a steam-packet of twelve-horse power between Sydney and Paramatta, the cost of which, including boat, engine, and all appurtenances, was estimated not to exceed two thousand pounds, and the whole was to be manufactured, as far as practicable, within the colony. The capital was to be raised by four hundred transferable shares of five pounds each, and no individual was to hold more than twenty shares. Three hundred shares were already taken up by the residents in Sydney. The Sydney College, in its main building, was fast approaching completion, and was expected, in a few weeks, to be available as a temporary school-house, with accommodation for a master. The Sydney agricultural report for April states, that the rain which had succeeded the protracted drought had produced a gratifying change, making the ground in excellent order for sowing wheat; and

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FOREIGN HISTORY-VAN DIEMEN'S LAND: AUSTRALIA.

what was above ground was materially improved in appearance and promise. Much of the early maise had been gathered, and, apparently, the crop was more abundant than was anticipated. Tobacco plants had also produced a larger crop than was expected, from the prevalence of extreme dry weather. Seed-oats were in much request among the agriculturists. The pasturage was very scanty, and it was feared that the rains of the latter end of April were too late to effect its restoration before the winter frosts set in.

VAN DIEMEN'S LAND.-Accounts from Hobart Town state, that the newly discovered land to the westward had proved one of the most luxurious and eligible tracts, for all the purposes of grazing and agriculture, ever yet discovered in Van Diemen's Land. It comprised a large proportion of upland, and some wet marshes, interspersed with undulating spots of excellent forest, well watered, the soil rich, and the climate fine. The plains were extensive—2000, 3000, and 4000 acres each, abounding with numerous herds of tame cattle, fat as if stall-fed, and horses. A road from the south-west to Spring River, an admirable port near Southwest Cape, is spoken of as practicable. An exploring and clearing party had proceeded in that direction, and it was understood that twenty houses were to be built on the newly discovered land by the Governor, it being intended to form a settlement there.

The Van Diemen's Land newspapers state, that an Insolvent Court is much required, there being a great number of insolvent debtors confined in the gaols both at Hobart Town and Launceston, under the most painful circumstances. The Insolvent Act was brought into operation in New South Wales by Mr. Canning's administration, and having been cautiously administered by the commissioner, R. Thierry, Esq., it has proved a great blessing to unfortunate colonists. As the population of Van Diemen's Land now exceeds that of New South Wales at the time an Insolvent Court was instituted there, it is probable that the present administration will appoint a court in the former place.

AUSTRALIA.—New Group of Islands: A Sidney paper contains the following particulars respecting a group of islands discovered by Capt. Harwood, of the Hashmy whaler, extracted from the log of that ship :-“In coming down from Japan, fell in with a group of islands, not laid down in the charts, in latitude 5° 45' north, and 152° 35' east longitude, about 50 miles N.W. of Young William's Islands; the tops of the trees on the islands were visible a considerable distance at sea. I had the crew of the Hashmy on them refreshing, who were treated with great kindness by the natives.

The islands are very thickly inhabited, with plenty of cocoa-nuts, vegetables, and such refreshments as are necessary for crews coming from Japan with the scurvy. There is also an excellent harbour on the eastern part of Young William's Islands."

SWAN RIVER.-Accounts via the Cape of Good Hope state, that the appearance of the natives in the neighbourhood of this colony in considerable numbers had caused some alarm, and attempts were daily making to establish a good under standing with them, or, at least, to discover their feelings with regard to the colonists. In this, however, little progress had been made, as their language could not be understood, and their shyness and jealousy kept them at a distance from the great body of the settlers. The colonists are exceedingly jealous on the subject of taxation, and a protest had been prepared against the attempt to create revenue for the support of the local establishments, and the construction of public works, by the imposition of a duty of three shillings per gallon on spirituous liquors imported from abroad.

CHAP. X.

America.

UNITED STATES.- South Carolina and the Union-Alliance of

some of the native Indians--Assault on President Jackson-Message to Congress, in December, 1833-Proceedings of the Legis

lature of South Carolina. SOUTH AMERICA. Brazil Mexico Colombia New

Granada- Buenos Ayres.

One subject absorbed all attention throughout the Union, in the early part of 1833, and has continued of the highest interest during the year: viz. the proceedings of South Carolina, and the threatened revolt of that state from the Confederacy. The proclamation of the President, in January, entered into the whole subject in dispute. It was expressed in the most conciliatory language, and evidently dictated by the most anxious desire to avert the necessity of coming to a rupture with the refractory state; but manifested the firmest determination to enforce the law, and to preserve the entirety of the Union, by the exercise, if necessary, of the ample powers supplied by the constitution for that purpose.

Āt a meeting of the citizens of Boston, it was unanimously resolved—“That we are constrained to consider the proceedings of South Carolina as being disloyal to the constitution, and decidedly revolutionary.'

In Carolina, General Hamilton demanded the arsenal at Charlestown and Fort Pinkney to be given up for the use of that state; the President refused to surrender either, and the troops and ordnance of the United States hurried to the spot.

The “nullifiers,” however, seemed determined on their course; the Governor being ordered to defend the act of the Legislature nullifying the tariff laws of the United States; and, in case of an attempted coercion, to call out the whole military power of the state, and organize 10,000 volunteers ; to purchase 10,000 stand of arms and accoutrements for the use of the state ; and, in short, to take the strongest steps for their defence.

The citizens of Virginia expressed their disapprobation of

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