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party, after remaining long quiet, was again raising its head towards the close of the year. Robbers and rioters had appeared in different places, who were thought to be connected with that party. The success of their schemes, however, seemed hopeless; though, so disturbed was the kingdom in October, thât martial law was proclaimed throughout Greece, in consequence of the discovery of a conspiracy against the
government of King Otho, organized, as it seemed, under the direction of Colocotroni, who was seized and imprisoned.
In the course of the year a commission was appointed by the Regency to organize the affairs of the Church of Greece, on a plan which proposed an entire separation between the Greek Church and the Patriarch in Constantinople; the clergy being left dependent on a synod like that which directs ecclesiastical affairs in Russia. Preparations have also been made for founding a new city on the Isthmus of Corinth, to be called, after the young King, Othonopolis.
King Otho distinguished his birth-day by an amnesty, and by founding a new order, to be called the “ Order of St. Saviour,” for the reward of meritorious defenders of their country, artists, servants of the state, &c.; the King himself to be Grand Master of the order.
Germany and Switzerland. GERMANY.-Riot at Frankfort-Restraints on the Colleges
Affray at the Festival at Hamback-Trial and Acquittal of Doctors Wirth and Siebenpfeffer — Riot at Landau— Meeting of the Sovereigns of Prussia, Austria, and Russia-Proposed Conferences at Vienna-Union of the Rhine with the Danube and Elbe projected— New Tariff. SWITZERLAND.- Temporary Disturbances in the Cantons
Proceedings of the Federal Diet. GERMANY.-A very serious riot took place at Frankfort, on the evening of the 3rd of April. A body of persons, described as strangers, together with several students, attacked and disarmed the principal military posts of the city, and then broke open the gaol, and liberated the prisoners arrested for political offences. Four soldiers were killed, and fifteen wounded. The next day, however, the liberated prisoners surrendered themselves into the hands of the government, the leaders in the revolt were apprehended, and order was re-established.
In June, the despotic governments of Germany appear to have been again alarmed at the spread of liberal opinions among their subjects. The Prussian students at the colleges of Colangen, Wurtzburg, and Heidelburg, were recalled; and it was ordered, that in future the royal permission should be obtained previous to sending a young man to any foreign university. An affray, between the soldiery and the inhabitants of Newstadt, took place at the festival at Hamback, in Rhenish Bavaria; upwards of a hundred persons were : killed, and one of the cavalry regiments refused to fire upon
Doctors Wirth and Siebenpfeffer (accused of sedition) were tried on the 16th of August, by the tribunal of Landau, and acquitted. The trial and result caused a strong sensation throughout Germany. A serious riot occurred in the town: the evening before, caused by an attack of the Bavarian
soldiery on the inhabitants; in the course of which a magistrate and the Editor of the Landau Feuille Jour were wounded.
The three sovereigns of Prussia, Austria, and Russia, having resolved on meeting for the purpose, as stated, of taking into consideration the present political state of Europe, it was finally determined that the place of meeting should be at Munchengrantz, in the circle of Breslaw, near the Silesian frontiers, at the feudal castle and hunting-lodge of Count Waldstein. The Emperor of Russia reached Schweds, on the Oder, on the 5th of September. He had been tossed for three days in the Gulph of Finland, and had been at last obliged to put back to St. Petersburgh, whence he made the journey by land. The Nuremburgh Correspondent assured its readers, the object of the meeting was to agree to such measures as should put a complete stop to the “revolutionary spirit " which was gaining ground. The result of the
deliberations of the Congress of Sovereigns has not been published; but there seems every reason to believe that the Nuremburgh paper was right as to the object of the meeting.
At the close of the year, preparations were making for conferences on the affairs of Germany, to be held at Vienna. The following list was published of the statesmen who were to participate in the deliberations :-Austria—His Highness Prince Metternich, President: Prussia—M. Von Ancillon, Minister of Foreign Affairs : Saxony-—Baron V. Leindenau, Minister of State : Hanover-Baron Von Ompteda, Cabinet Minister: Wirtemburg-Count Von Beroldenger, Minister for Foreign Affairs, and M. Von Hartmann, Councillor of State: Hessse Darmstadt M. de Theil, Minister of State: Holstein Luremburgh-Count Reventlow, Councillor: Nassau-Baron Von Morocal, Minister of State : The Hanseatic Cities–Dr. Smidt, Burgomaster of Bremen. This was the account of a Hanover authority; while, from Vienna, the following was the report: Baron Starmer, as well as Prince Metternich, for Austria; Count Orloff and Prince Marsckoff for Russia; and Lord Durham for England. Several of the foreign ministers at Vienna were also named; and to France had been sent a note of invitation. It was farther mentioned, that the Turkish minister at Vienna was also to be present.
The Duke of Cambridge returned to Hanover, on the 17th of October, in good health, after a long absence.
Some steps have been taken during the year to forward the
plan of uniting the Rhine with the Danube, and even to join the Rhine with the Elbe by means of communications with the Danube and Moldau, and thus to have a passage by water to the Black Sea, the Archipelago, and the Mediterranean; and, on the other hand, by means of the Moldau and the Elbe, by way of Prague, Dresden, Magdeburgh, and Hamburgh; to altic and the German Ocean.
A new tariff was ordered by the King of Prussia to come into operation on the first of January, 1834. The greater part of the changes are said to be reductions of duty.
SWITZERLAND.-Several of the Swiss cantons have been in a very disturbed state, in consequence of the resistance made by the aristocratic party to the new order of things introduced by the friends of liberal government since the French Revolution of 1830. The Federal Diet, however, acted with vigour, and the malcontents were completely put down.
On the 4th of September, the Federal Diet of Switzerland summoned the Canton of Neufchatel to send Deputies, by the 11th, to the General Diet (at Zurich), in conformity with the resolution of that body, of Aug. 12, 1833 ; with an intimation that, in case of non-compliance, the Canton of Neufchatel would instantly be occupied by the troops of the Federation. Seventeen cantons, by their representatives, concurred in this measure. The summons not being complied with, the Swiss Diet occupied the refractory canton with the troops of the Confederation. The Prussian Ambassador thought proper to protest, in a diplomatic note, against the proceeding. The measures of the Diet, however, ultimately produced the desired effect, and the legislative body of Neufchatel despatched Deputies to the Diet as usual. The troops which were sent against them were then ordered to be disbanded.
TURKEY AND EGYPT-TURKEY AND RUSSIA-Pro
gress of the War between Turkey and Egypt-Defeat and Cap-
-State of Turkey, Views of Russia, &c.
the Poles, in 1832—Charges of 1833.
TURKEY AND EGYPT.-In our last year's Register, we stated there was every probability that the victorious Ali Pacha would speedily be in full march upon Constantinople. It appears that Reuff Pacha, who had been expected to defend the strong position of Koniah, had, in consequence of the hostile disposition manifested by the inhabitants, found it necessary, on the near approach of the victorious Ibrahim Pacha, to retreat upon Acksheber, abandoning a great part of the ammunition and baggage. Koniah, the ancient capital of the Ottoman empire, was then captured by the Egyptians; and a complete victory, which Ibrahim Pacha, soon after obtained over the Grand Vizier, consummated the Sultan's misfortunes. The battle took place near the defile of Mount Taurus, whither Ibrahim Pacha had withdrawn for the purpose of concentrating his forces, and the Turkish army was overthrown. The Grand Vizier was made prisoner; and the victorious Egyptians, reinforced by a part of the conquered army, which had taken service under their flag, were soon within a few leagues of Constantinople.
On the first intelligence of the defeat and capture of his Grand Vizier by the Egyptian forces, the Sultan of Turkey, despairing of being able to save himself, by his own exertions, resolved to throw himself entirely into the arms of Russia, and obtain from that power the protection of his capital, and the adjustment of a tolerable peace from Mehemet Ali. On this being known, the other ambassadors at Constantinople