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fited Miguelites before them in all directions. As characteristic of their mode of warfare, it is related, that a detachment, under a Colonel Pacheco, entered a village of the enemy on the sea-shore under false colours, playing the Usurper's march, and shouting vivas for Don Miguel; a body of whose militia welcomed them without suspicion. The Pedroites then fixed bayonets and charged the unarmed citizens and soldiers, who had piled up their muskets in the market-place, took 300 prisoners, and bayoneted 180 more.

On the 14th of September, Marshal Bourmont hazarded another attack upon Lisbon, and met with a severe repulse. His troops advanced under cover of the night and attempted to carry the fort of St. John, but were driven back with considerable loss. The French officers, thus finding all hopes of success at an end, on the 24th sent in their resignations, and proceeded on the 27th towards Spain by Abrantes.

On the 22d of Sept., the Young Queen, Donna Maria, landed at Lisbon, and was received with the greatest enthusi

The City of Waterford steamer, having on board part of the Duchess of Braganza and the Queen of Portugal's suite, and her Majesty's jewels, plate, wardrobe, and baggage, to the amount of 90,0001., had been shipwrecked on the breakers near Peniche, and her crew, of twenty-five men, taken prisoners by the Miguelites. The ladies and passengers arrived, however, safely in the capital, and much of the lost property has been recovered.

On the 10th of Oct. a sanguinary and decisive contest took place before Lisbon. The Miguelites had raised redoubts, and were about to plant a formidable battery of artillery against the city. Don Pedro, perceiving the intention of the enemy, sallied out, on the 10th inst., with his troops, in four columns, two of which attacked the Miguelites, amounting to 7000 men. The latter were driven from all their positions. On the following day, the 11th, they rallied, but were again repulsed. Don Miguel fled from the palace of Lunivar, leaving there all the carriages and what he had taken from the Patriarchal and Adjuda Palace, and even his toilet. The Miguelite troops were pursued as far as Santarem, where they made a stand, but after five hours' fighting were driven from the town, closely pursued by the victorious Pedroites.

At the end of October, the Miguelite army occupied Santarem, and the Constitutional forces were encamped outside the fortifications at that town. Miguel had retired to Elvas. The greater part of the Queen's troops had marched out of the capital, commanded by the Duke of Terceira and Count Saldanha, to co-operate with a view to the dispersion of the rebels. It appears that, on the 2d of November, an engagement took place between the Miguelites and Don Pedro's troops, near Alcaer do Sal, in which the latter were totally defeated, owing to the cowardice of the men, and the incapacity of the Portuguese commander. The Miguelite army, according to the letter of “ Birt, captain of marines,” to Admiral Napier, consisted of 15,000 men, and was commanded by Count Lamos. He made an attack on the position of Alcacer, and appears to have been well received by the English marines, under the command of Captain Birt; but the Portuguese immediately ran away, leaving the English to escape as they could. This they effected with the loss of fifty-four men; but the total loss of the Pedroites is rated at 800. But for the arrival of Napier, St. Übes would have fallen into the hands of Count Lamos.

Don Pedro was at this period rigidly proceeding with the confiscation of church property, where it had proved obnoxious to his cause. The Court of Ecclesiastical Reform, composed entirely of churchmen, had decreed the abolition of two expensive monasteries: the sacramental plate being awarded to poor parishes, their books to the public libraries, the furniture to the civil and military officers; and the remainder of their possessions, in lands, houses, and money, to be applied by the government to works of piety:

At the close of the year, the civil strife was not yet finally settled. The army of Miguel still retained possession of the strong hold of Santarem; and no movement of importance had been made on either side. Miguel still continued to threaten the south side of the Tagus by constant marauding parties, which Don Pedro was scarcely able to prevent. It was stated, that England, France, and Spain, had entered into an understanding jointly to terminate the present struggle by negotiation, if practicable; and if not, to settle it by direct interference: the Spanish Court having taken great umbrage at the protection which Miguel had afforded Don Carlos. It did not, however, appear probable that negotiation would succeed. Colonel Hare was despatched by Lord John Russell to Santarem with certain propositions; but the terms were rejected, and it was said that the Colonel was not even allowed to enter Santarem.

It would seem, that nothing short of the extermination of its opponents would satisfy the savage appetites of either party in this unnatural and desolating conflict.

CHAP. VI.

Italy and Greece.

ITALY. French Occupation of Ancona-Arrests at Naples

Eruption of Mount Vesuvius-Dissolution of Monasteries in Sicily -Proceedings at the Papal Court-Power of Austria in Italy. GREECE.— Landing of the young Prince Otho at Napoli di

RomaniaHis Proclamation-Evacuation of the Morea by the French TroopsState of the People and the RegencyThe Greek Church-Establishment of a New Order of Merit.

ITALY.—The measures adopted in 1832 appear to have had the effect of tranquillizing Italy, for a time, at least. The intelligence from that country, during the present year, possesses but little interest. The French still continue to occupy Ancona, which we stated, by mistake, in our last year's volume, they had evacuated.

Towards the middle of the year, numerous arrests took place at Naples, of persons charged of being implicated in a conspiracy to overthrow the government. The plot was alleged to have been organized by some officers, and there was reason to suspect it to be a branch of a very extensive conspiracy against all the existing governments in Italy.

Letters of the date of June 10th, brought intelligence that a new crater had formed itself on the old one, filled up by the last eruption of Mount Vesuvius. This new crater threw up stones and ashes to a great height, with detonations heard at a considerable distance. Another opening had broken out on the eastern flank of the mountain, from which torrents of burning lava rushed down towards the village of Torre dell' Annunziate, so often before injured. These volcanic phenomena continued with increased violence until the 6th of June, when they ceased, just as apprehensions of serious consequences were beginning to be entertained.

Information reached England at about the same date, that the King of Naples had determined to dissolve the monastic establishments in Sicily, and to sequestrate the property to the use of the state, giving the ecclesiastics who should be

sufferers by the transaction an indemnity in the shape of annual pensions.

In November there was much bustle in the Papal Court, and it was stated that a confederation was about to be formed, at the instigation of the northern powers, the object of which was to prevent the spread of liberalism throughout the Italian states. In this scheme Austria and Russia appear to have been suspected of ulterior views prejudicial to the peace of Europe, and it is stated that the French Ambassador and the English Chargé d'Affaires signified to the Pope's government, that if the contemplated confederation league took place, France would feel herself compelled to augment her troops at Ancona, and also to occupy Civita Vecchia.

The Emperor of Austria, it was alleged, was about to assume the title of Protector of Italy. “ This," says the Times newspaper, “is, of all the rumours that have followed the meetings at Merchergrats, the most probable and most alarming: The following sketch of the power of Austria, in Italy, will prove the truth of this remark:

-Ever since the house of Austria, by the territorial partition at the Congress of Vienna, obtained the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, the Austrian government has shown that the Alps form no barrier to its oppression or ambition, and that it looks upon the whole Italian peninsula as a collection of subjects, or subsidiary states, some of which it overwhelms with its military tyranny, and others curses with its laden protection. The small King of Sardinia is obliged to consider Piedmont and Genoa as an Austrian outpost against France; the minute principalities of Modena, Parma,

and Lucca, interposed between the Milanese and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany or Piedmont, have either, for their sovereign, branches of the Austrian family, or are governed under the dictation of Austrian agents. The Grand Duke of Tuscany holds his estates nearly as a fief of the Austrian empire. The Pope is more dependent on the Austrians than he was on the Franks in the time of Charlemagne; and, from the Roman frontier to the southernmost point of Sicily, the kingdom of Naples feels that it can only stir or breathe, regulate its troops, or model its institutions, by a permission or command from Vienna.”

GREECE.-The Bavarian Prince, Otho, the new sovereign of Greece, arrived, on the 6th of February, in the territory which is in future to be under his dominion. He landed at Napoli di Romania. The following are extracts from the sensible and encouraging Proclamation, addressed by the new Monarch to the Grecian people.

“ Despotism has but given way to anarchy, which oppresses you under its terrible scourge. What you had acquired by your noble efforts for the love of your country, discord and the most sordid egotism have deprived you of. To put an end to your ills—to a civil war, which consumes your most brilliant faculties; to direct your efforts to one only end, that of the prosperity, happiness, and glory of your country, shall henceforth become mine. To efface by degrees, under the influence of peace and public order, the many traces of misfortune which have afflicted your country, gifted so liberally by the hand of nature—to take into consideration the sacrifices which have been made, and the services which have been rendered, to the country—to protect, under the ægis of the laws and of justice, your persons and possessions from violence and rapine—to procure well-digested institutions, adapted to the situation and wishes of your country, the advantages of a true liberty, which can only exist under the dominion of the laws --to conclude, in short, the regeneration of Greece—such is the painful but glorious task which I have undertaken. Whatever may be the efforts which this noble task requires of us, we shall be amply rewarded by our success; for, having ascended the throne of Greece, I here give you the assurance of protecting conscientiously your religion, of faithfully maintaining the laws, of doing justice impartially to all, and of preserving inviolate, with the aid of God, all that concerns your independence, your liberties, and your laws."

In the early part of September the Morea was evacuated by the French troops. This step is said to have been the result of a treaty between England, France, and Russia, the object of which, however, cannot easily be surmised, as the predecessors of the present French ministry had always considered the occupation of the Morea as securing a desirable military point in case of war with Russia, as Ancona furnished an excellent position in case of war with Austria.

The bulk of the Greek people appear to be inclined to place confidence in the Regency, and to contribute towards the maintenance of the tranquillity of their new kingdom; but the ministry, divided in opinion among themselves, and none of them sufficiently acquainted with the state of the nation, must be pronounced, in many respects, incompetent for the critical duties they must be called upon to perform. Encouraged by symptoms of feebleness in the government, the Capo D'Istrias

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