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session of the forts, and took some pipes of wine. Pedro's loss was very great—850 killed and wounded, fifteen of whom were officers.
Another action took place at Oporto on the 24th of March, in which the Miguelites succeeded in destroying a battery, but were afterwards repulsed. Their loss was estimated at 500, and that of the Pedroites at 200, of whom there were 14 English killed and 64 wounded. Considerable supplies were, at about this period, thrown into Oporto, where Don Pedro mustered 5,000 English and 7,000 French troops, his total force being estimated at not less than 20,000 men.
Hitherto the protracted contest between the royal brothers had been carried on by little more than skirmishing; but we now arrive at proceedings of a more decisive character. On the 20th of June, between 3 and 4,000 men, commanded by Count Villa Flor, were embarked at Oporto, on board a squadron destined for the south of Portugal, consisting of one ship of the line, two frigates, two corvettes, one armed brig, and five steam-boats. Captain Charles Napier was made Admiral, in the room of Sartorius, who had resigned; and the Count de Saldanha succeeded to the command of the army instead of Solignac, who, under the pretence of urgent business in France, retired from his post. On the 24th of June the expedition appeared before Villa Real, where the Miguelites had a force of about 1200 men. The town was attacked from the ships, and in a short time the garrison gave way; about 800 joining the Pedroites, and the remaining 400 making good their escape. As soon as the news of this success became known in the interior, deputations from the adjacent towns sent in their adhesion to the Queen. The expedition then divided itself into two divisions, under the Count Villa Flor, and the Marquess of Palmella, and marched through the province, where they were joyfully received by the inhabitants, and the ancient kingdom of the Algarves was soon under the rule of Donna Maria.
The squadron under Napier's orders, after the success of Villa Real, proceeded to Tavera, where he captured five small Miguelite vessels, and took possession of the fort, which was deserted by its garrison. The squadron then proceeded along the coast towards Faro and Logos, where some defence was made by the gun-boats, batteries, &c., which were soon silenced by Captain Napier, and taken possession of. At Logos they were joined by 400 of Don Miguel's troops, and 500 of the militia. On the morning of the 2d of July, the
squadron under the command of Admiral Napier, consisting of the Rainha de Portugal (his flag ship), the frigates Don Pedro and Donna Maria, the Portuguese corvette, and the brig Villa Flor, sailed from Logos Bay, leaving the Britannia, Birmingham, and William the Fourth steamers, to take in supplies of cattle, &c., for the use of the ships. On the 3d the Villa Flor came into the bay, and made signals for the steamers to join the fleet immediately. The order was given on account of the Miguelite fleet heaving in sight, and from there being but little wind, their assistance was much required to tow the Pedroite ships in a favourable position for action with their formidable opponents. The captains of the steamers objected to encounter the risk without an immediate compensation. Fortunately, during their negociating with the admiral, a breeze sprang up; he, being at that time to the windward of the Miguelite
fleet, made a heavy press of sail, and at three o'clock bore down on them, closely followed by the other ships of the squadron. The fleet of Miguel was drawn
up in line of battle. The Don John (Admiral's ship), of 74 guns and 750 men, was the headmost ship; then followed the Nao Rainha, 74, also with a crew of 750 men; the next was a large store-ship, 52 guns and 640 men; then the Princess Real, a noble frigate of 48 guns; the corvette Princess Real, and three brigg, brought up the rear. At half-past five the Rainha de Portugal frigate bore down under full sail, making for the second ship in the enemy's line (the Nao Rainha, 74). At five minutes before four the action was commenced by a broadside from the Princess Real frigate, immediately followed by broadsides from the store-ship and the Nao Rainha. The Rainha de Portugal never fired till close alongside of the Nao Rainha, when Admiral Napier, attired as a common seaman, boarded that ship sword in hand, immediately followed by his officers and such part of the crew as had been selected for that duty. The Don Pedro, commanded by Captain Napier, son of the commander-inchief, following closely the Rainha de Portugal, ran up on the lee-quarter of the Nao Rainha, and also boarded her. The conflict was dreadful, but in ten minutes the constitutional flag floated over that of Miguel. The Don John, the admiral's ship, which had hitherto only fired her stern guns, now set all sail
, and attempted to make off, but was pursued by Cap tain Napier, and surrendered without resistance, after receiving one broadside. The Donna Maria frigate, in the meantime, had engaged the large store-ship, which vessel was
defended with much bravery, and did not surrender until she had become totally unmanageable. The Princess Real frigate also struck; and the corvette, in endeavouring to make off, having fallen athwart of the Britannia steamer, hove to, and struck her flag, although the Britannia offered no obstruction to her
escape. The officers of Admiral Napier's squadron suffered severely. The following is a list of the killed and wounded :-Captain George, of the Rainha de Portugal, killed whilst boarding the Nao Rainha; Captain Goble, of the Don Pedro, killed; Lieut. Woolridge, flag lieutenant to Capt. Napier, wounded severely, since dead; Lieutenant Millet, marines, killed; the master of the Rainha de Portugal (name unknown), killed; Captain Napier (admiral's son), severely wounded; Captain Reeves, severely; Lieutenant Edmonds, severely; and Captain Vancello, of the marines, severely. The gallant commander-inchief received no other injury than a severe blow by a crowbar. The loss on the part of the enemy, particularly on board of the Nao Rainha, was very great; the captain was killed. On the return of the squadron to Lagos with their prizes, the municipal body presented Admiral Napier with a crown of laurels on a silver plate.
At Oporto, in the mean time, some severe fighting had taken place, particularly on the 5th of July, when it was the evident intention of the Miguelites to take the city by storm. It commenced about noon, when the Miguelite batteries of Seralve, Furrada, and Verdinho, opened such a galling fire from north and south on the Pedroite advanced guard, at the Fabrica do Antunes, and attacked it so simultaneously, with columns of infantry, that they dislodged, for the time, the inconsiderable number of French troops intrusted with the defence of that important position. The firing lasted all the afternoon, and extended to Regada and Paranham, opposite Covello; but the Miguelite regular infantry would not come on, and the royalist volunteers nowhere found a chance to break the constitutionalist lines. Though defeated in this quarter, and expelled from the Casa da Preluda, the enemy made another unsuccessful attempt further east, at Bomfim, Campenhao, and Lomba. The Emperor Don Pedro and General Saldanha went to all the points of the line threatened, visited the batteries, and gave directions. The emperor, to put a stop to the further effusion of blood, subsequently sent one of his aides-de-camps with a flag of truce to Count St. Laurenço, bearing a letter from his ministers, calling upon him to follow the example of Algarves, and many other towns in various provinces, by giving in his adhesion to the Queen, especially since the naval victory. Count St. Laurenço declined receiving the letter, because it was not addressed to the King, his master, and, consequently, did not avail himself of the
proffered amnesty. Villa Flor, the Duke of Terceira, with 1,500 men, now pushed forward to St. Ubes, about twenty miles from Lisbon. Telles Jordao, at the head of about 6,000 troops, advanced to resist his progress; but, on the 23d, Villa Flor attacked and completely routed him. Jordao himself was slain. On the night of the same day, the Duke de Cadaval, the Miguelite governor of Lisbon, evacuated it, with about 4,000 who composed the garrison. The inhabitants immediately rose en masse, and, breaking open the prisons, liberated all the captives. They then proclaimed Donna Maria, took up arms, and embodied themselves into a national guard. This was done before a single soldier from the army of Villa Flor had crossed from the south bank of the Tagus, or one of Napier's ships had been seen within the bar. On the morning of the 24th of July, a communication was made to Villa Flor, who marched into Lisbon at the head of his troops. The Queen's flag was hoisted on the citadel, and afterwards that of England; which was saluted with twentyone guns, and the salute was returned to the royal standard of Portugal by Admiral Parker. On the 25th, Napier and his fleet, with Palmella on board the flag-ship, entered the river.
At Oporto, a battle took place on the 25th of July, when Marshal Bourmont, the French general in the service of Don Miguel, with the main body of the Miguelite troops, attempted to carry that city by storm, but after eight hours' fighting he withdrew his troops. At one time the Miguelites entered the place, but were repulsed with tremendous slaughter, having lost 1,400 men. The Pedroite loss was 700, among whom was the brave Colonel Cotter, who fell by a random shot after the heat of the action. The inhabitants gave a very spirited assistance to the garrison. The women carried ammunition to the lines, and bore back the wounded to the hospitals, in the midst of the thickest fire.
The news of the capture of Lisbon reached Oporto on the 26th, and on the evening of that day Don Pedro took his departure in a steam-boat for the capital. He arrived at Lisbon on the 28th. The British ships in the Tagus joined the Portuguese vessels and forts in firing a royal salute. At night the city was brilliantly illuminated with grand displays of fire-works, and a continuance of gaiety was observed on
several successive nights. Don Pedro established himself as Regent to the young Queen. He sent away the Spanish ambassador and the Pope’s nuncio, as instigators and abettors of the late usurpation, and notified to the Jesuits that he meant to put in force the laws that banish them from Portugal.
On the 9th of August, Miguel's army, under Marshal Bourmont, raised the siege of Oporto, and retreated on Vallonga, about two leagues from that city, and then proceeded to Coimbra, as head-quarters, a considerable force being left before Oporto. On the 18th, however, this force was attacked by the Constitutionalists, and completely routed, a great number being taken prisoners, the rest escaping to Coimbra.
On the 15th of August, the recognition of Donna Maria, as Queen of Portugal, by the British government, formally took place, Lord W. Russell presenting his credentials to Don Pedro. The courts of Paris and Sweden also acknowledged her at about the same date.
On the 5th of September, Marshal Bourmont, at the head of the Miguelite army, made a vigorous attack on Lisbon; the assailants, however, were repulsed, and completely defeated in every point. In the charge of the 6th infantry upon the élite of the Miguelite line (the Lamoquistas), the latter lost more than 200 in killed, besides an immense number wounded. During the night of the 5th, a large body of the Miguelites, who had entrenched themselves, were attacked and defeated with great loss, and all their works destroyed. The chief slaughter was by the bayonet. The official returns of the constitutionalists make the loss of the enemy about 1,100, and their own about 280, killed and wounded. Among the Pedroite officers there were killed-D. Thomas de Mascarenhas, Colonel Brederodi, and a son of the Condé d'Alva. The number of Bourmont's troops, before the attack, was from 15,000 to 16,000. The Constitutionalists consisted, on the 7th, of 21,000 men; viz. 9,000 troops of the line, including recent arrivals from Oporto, and 15 battalions of national troops, amounting to nearly 12,000 men: of these battalions, three were in action and fought gallantly. The inhabitants rushed to the trenches; and, after the battle, the ladies of Lisbon visited the hospitals and attended the wounded.
The Miguelites renewed their attempt, upon the 9th, with great fury, when they pushed forward as far as the Palace of Adjuda, pillaged it, and then retired.
The garrison of Oporto, in the meantime, made some successful excursions into the interior, driving the discom