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discovery of Napoleon, a concert, and a mock naval battle, in which the Ville de Paris destroyed the Flotilla which attacked her, the fire-works, and the illuminations. The review took place in the Place de Vendôme, and 100,000 men were passed in review before the King, the Dukes of Orleans, Nemours, and Jonville, the Queen and Princesses, the Ministers, &c. When the canvass which covered the statue of Napoleon was removed, the King and his friends took off their hats, and the cries of “ Vive le Roi,” which prevailed all day, were mingled with those of “ Vive l'Empereur," There were some bursts of feeling worthy of record. Many an eye was filled with tears, and many a prayer was uttered; but no voice spoke against Louis Philippe or the dynasty of July. The old soldiers boldly reassumed the imperial uniform, and they were not checked; and even in the midst of this rejoicing one distinguished Carlist family had the courage to keep their shutters closed, and the deep, conscientious feeling, which prompted such a display, was honoured by the assembled multitude, not with execration or pelting, as it would have been in England, but with cheers, and tokens of approbation of the attachment to principle.

On Monday there were equestrian and elephantine games in an amphitheatre fitted up in the Champs Elysees, and the battles of Napoleon were fought over again in jousts on the Seine. Each theatre gave its performances gratuitously, and each was crowded to excess. The foundation stones were laid of a new bonding warehouse in the Place de Marais; of a grand gallery of mineralogy, in the Jardin des Plantes; and of a new bridge, to be built opposite the Porte Aux Blés, in the Citié. The King and his cortege were enthusiastically cheered as they approached these sites, and the general fête was closed by a banquet and ball, given by the Prefet of the Seine to new-married couples, at which the royal family, the ministers, ambassadors, and nobility, were present.

From July to September, the news from France was wholly unimportant. In the latter month, we find mention made of some disturbances near Tours, in which several lives were lost, and of a conflict which occured near Mantz between the troops and the country people. But the kingdom in general remained peaceful, and nothing but the prosecutions of the press betrayed the existence of political discontent. Meantime, France appears to have been labouring most assiduously, though silently, to render efficient its military resources.

Towards the close of September, the Tribune underwent its eighty-first government prosecution, and eighth condemnation. Its responsible editor, Mons. Lionne, already suffering imprisonment in virtue of the sentence of the Chamber of Deputies, was condemned to five years' further imprisonment, and a fine of 20,000 francs! This sentence ereated a deep sensation.

At about the same date, the French ministry expressed their willingness to co-operate with England in whatever policy she might think proper to assume towards Spain. On the death of Ferdinand, which happened shortly afterwards, a courier was despatched from Paris to Mons. Řaynebal, the French ambassador at Madrid, to acknowledge instantly the sovereignty of the young queen. The army of the Pyrenees was at once augmented, lest any armed intervention in Spain should call on France to take her part. It was said that England would in that case enter Spain from Gibraltar, while the French army crossed the Pyrenees. The warlike preparations on the part of France continued until the close of the year.

On the 1st of December a periodical and regular communication, by means of packets, was established by the French government between Toulon, and their colonial possessions on the coast of Africa. Preparations were also talked of for opening communications between Algiers and Bona, touching at Bonjeiah, and between Algiers and Oran, touching at Arzea.

On the whole, France has been, during the year 1833, tranquil, if not contented. At the close of the year, the ministry appears to have been in some respects disunited. The French tribunals were occupied with trials arising out of combinations of the workmen (principally tailors), to compel their masters to grant an augmentation of wages, under pain of seeing their shops deserted. The most active of the offenders was sentenced to five years' imprisonment; two others to three years’; and several to shorter periods.

CHAP. IV.

Holland and Belgium. Occupation of Antwerp by the Belgians-Preliminary Treaty of

Peace between Holland and Belgium, signed in MayIts Stipulations since acted on- -Opening of the Belgic Chambers in June, by King Leopold in personSubstance of his Speech from the Throne.

After the surrender of the citadel of Antwerp to the French troops, as recorded in our last year's Register, it was taken possession of and occupied by the Belgians; the King of Holland still peremptorily refusing to surrender the forts of Lillo and Leifkenshock, or to allow the free navigation of the Scheldt to England, France, or Belgium. On the 24th of May, however, a preliminary treaty of peace was signed by the plenipotentiaries of Great Britain, France, and Holland. The embargo upon Dutch vessels in the ports of England and France was to be taken off; and the Dutch garrison of Antwerp, prisoners in France, to be sent home. The armistice between Holland and Belgium was to continue, until they could

agree to a definitive treaty of peace; and in the mean time, the navigation of the Scheldt was to be free. The treaty has since been carried into practical effect.

The King of Belgium opened the new session of the Chambers on the 7th of June, with a speech from the throne. He stated that, in consequence of the late convention with Holland, a partial disarming would take place; that the revenue was improving; and that a surplus over the expenditure might be expected. He called their attention to the state of commerce and agriculture, and recommended the forming of a water communication from the Scheldt to the Meuse and the Rhine. This speech was well received, and delivered with much spirit. The following is the substance of the address :

“Gentlemen,-Events which are of great importance to Belgium have occurred since the opening of the session of 1833. France and England, according to their engagements, have put us in possession of the fortress which threatened one of our finest cities. A convention, concluded by the same powers, puts Belgium in possession of the greater part of the advantages attached to the treaty of the 15th of November, without yet taking from it those portions of territory, the separation of which will always be felt by us as the most painful sacrifice. The treaty of November 15 remains untouched. I shall take care that, in the final arrangement with Holland, none of the rights which we have acquired shall be infringed. A partial disarming will now be possible; it will be effected in such a manner as to diminish the expenses of the Treasury, without weakening the organization of the army. Thus we shall come as near to a state of peace as political prudence will permit. I have the satisfaction to tell

you, Gentlemen, that in the circumstances in which we now are, it will not be necessary to impose fresh burdens. The resources voted by the Chambers will suffice to meet the expenditure of the year. The ordinary receipt will even afford a considerable surplus, if, as we may hope, the last eight months answer to the first four.

The time is come, Gentlemen, when the government, aided by your concurrence, will be able to direct unremitting attention to the internal ameliorations of the country. In the first rank of interests which call for our attention, are our manufactures and our commerce. Our negotiations with France, on this subject, have commenced under happy auspices; they will be continued with perseverance. We have obtained from the United States of North America the most favourable stipulations for one of the most important branches of our commerce. While continuing to seek abroad advantageous channels for our manufactures and commerce, we have not lost sight of those improvements which several parts of the kingdom call for. The administration has felt the necessity of giving a new impulse to the public works. With this view I recommend to the attention and patriotism of the Chambers, the plan for a grand communication from the sea and the Scheldt to the Meuse and the Rhine, which is called for by the wants and wishes of almost the whole country. Besides the laws on the budget and accounts, those concerning the provincial and commercial organization will be laid before you. You will also have to discuss the law on the distilleries, which must have such great influence on our agriculture, which is already in so flourishing a state. Gentlemen, the elements of prosperity which Belgium contains, as well as its liberal institutions, attest its advanced state of civilization. It is for the powers which direct its destinies to foster, by their joint

efforts, those elements of prosperity, and those institutions, which, if wisely developed, will be the most solid base of our national existence, and open to us the fairest prospect of future prosperity.”

CHAP. V.

Spain and Portugal.

SPAIN.-Insurrection of the Carlists-King Ferdinand resumes the

Government His Protest against the Re-establishment of the Salique Law-Convocation and Meeting of the Cortes to swear Allegiance to their future Queen- The King's Illness and Death Insurrections consequent thereonThe King's Will-Appointment of a Regency and Council of Regency during the Minority of the Young Queen-Proclamation of the Queen-Acknowledgment by

her of the Queen of Portugal-State of the Provinces, &c. PORTUGAL.-Continuation of the Civil Warfare-Actions off

Oporto-Important Change in favour of Don Pedro in June-Captain Napier appointed Admiral in the room of SartoriusCession of Villa Real to the PedroitesBrilliant Success of Napier's Squadron in an Action with the Miguelite Fleet— Military Operations at Oporto equally favourable to the Pedroites-Evacuation of Lise bon-Proclamation of Donna Maria-Entry into Lisbon of the Pedroite Troops--- Arrival of Napier and his Fleet in the RiverRépulsed Attempts of the Miguelites, under Marshal Bourmont, on OportoDon Pedro arrives at Lisbon-Establishes himself as Regent-Retreat of Miguel's Army-Recognition of the young Queen-Attack by Bourmont on Lisbon-Defeat of the Miguelites -Renewed Attacks and Repulses-Resignation of the French Miguelite OfficersLanding of the young Queen-Sanguinary Contest before Lisbon-Progress of the Civil Strife to the close of

the year.

The history of Spain, during the year 1833, commences and terminates with rebellion. On the first day of the year (or the last day of 1832) an attempt was made by the Carlists to raise a civil war. A corps

of about fifteen hundred rebels presented themselves before the gates of Toledo, on the 31st of December, and summoned the commander of the garrison to give up the place to them. This was refused, and application was immediately made to Madrid for a reinforcement of troops, on the approach of which the insurgents fled to the neighbouring mountains.

The government of the kingdom, which had been delegated. to the Queen, was resumed by King Ferdinand on the 4th of

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