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in such a spirit of conciliation as to unite both Chambers, by repealing the law for enforcing the observance of the day, yet condemning the example of king-killing.
The intelligence received in this country from France up to March, 1833, may be pronounced as utterly unimportant, except that, from the absence of news, the inference follows that quiet, if not satisfaction, prevailed throughout the country. Some little interest, and an ebullition of chivalric wrath, from the Carlist party, arose out of rumours which were publicly circulated in February affecting the reputation of the Duchess de Berri, who, it was alleged, was en famille. This report was, of course, sufficient to engage the attention of the gossips; the press contributed its full share towards the amusement of the public, and a duel or two ensued, in one of which, M. Carel, the Editor of the National, was severely wounded by M. La Boire, the champion of Mad. la Duchesse. This casual success on the Carlist side roused the vindictive feelings of the Republican mob, who' resolved to pull down the offices of the Carlist journals. The police, however, anticipated the rioters. The next day the following manifesto was issued, with the signatures of two hundred of the decorés of July.
“Messieurs the Carlists—You will not suffer that any thing should be said against the Duchess de Berry. You say she is a woman an unfortunate woman, and a captive---a mother deprived of her children. You say that respect is due to her sex, to weakness, and to misfortune. You have, therefore, become her champions.
Well, then, we, who have taken part in the revolution of July, declare to you, that we will no longer suffer you to insult that revolution in your journals. We had imagined, that the care of defending it would not have been neglected by those who have profited by it; but it is no longer so.
“ The revolution of July was a principle; those who have usurped its fruits abandon that principle; they suffer you to attack it. The revolution of July is thwarted and persecuted every day in the persons of those who made it. The prisons are filled with its friends and its representatives. The registers of the prisons are full of names of defenders of liberty.
“ If, then, you have any right to claim the privilege granted by oppression and misfortune, that right belongs equally to us. We were present on the day of battle; our eyes sought you every where, but saw you not. Now you show yourselves, and dare forbid our speaking of your lady!
*Well, we have our lady also, and that lady is Liberty, or the revolution of July. We forbid your speaking of her, whether it is in good or evil.
“ You have gone farther; you have held meetings in the very
heart of the capital, the avowed object of which was to manifest your sympathy in favour of a cause which the nation condemns. The capital, astonished at your audacity, has in vain looked for the lawful repression of so daring a proceeding. We forbid your holding any such meetings in future. As the government appears to give you its approbation by tolerating you, we declare to you, that, on the very first occasion, when you shall be guilty of the insolence of calling a public meeting of legitimates, we will take upon ourselves to do what the government should have done long ago; viz. we will disperse you by force.”
It was not until several persons on either side had been arrested by order of government, that the ferment occasioned by this ridiculous affair began to subside. In February, the imputations against the heroine of La Vendée were set at rest by her own confession, which appeared in the Moniteur as follows:
Paris, Feb. 26.-On Friday, the 22d of February, at half past five, Madame the Duchess de Berri delivered to the Gen. Begeaud, governor of the citadel of Blaye, the following declaration :
“ • Pressed by circumstances, and by the measure ordained by the government, although I had the greatest possible motives for keeping my marriage secret, I think I owe it to myself, as well as to my children, to declare, that I was secretly married during my sojourn in Italy.
& (Signed) Maria CAROLINE. « From the Citadel of Blaye, this 22d of Feb., 1833.'
This declaration, transmitted by the General Begeaud to the President of the Council, the minister of war, was immediately deposited in the depôt of the archives of the Chancillerie in France.
About this time some discontents again prevailed at Lyons, but they were suppressed by the power of the military ;—two of the ministers, Messieurs Baude and Dubois, were dismissed from the King's councils, for a conscientious vote, by a gazette announcement, the appearance of which created a great sensatio
in France; and Bergeom and Bennoist, accused of having attempted the life of the King at the Pont
Royal, and the other with being an accomplice, were tried as regicides, and acquitted by a majority of seven voices. On Tuesday, the 16th of April
, Mons. Lionne, the responsible editor of the Tribune, was tried in the Chamber of Deputies for a political libel. After a very long sitting, Mons. Lionne was declared guilty by a majority of 206—256 against 50; and, by the votes of 204 against 103, sentenced to imprisonment for three years, and to pay a fine of 10,000 francs (500l. sterling)—the maximum of punishment which the Chamber, by the law of 1822, could inflict. A subscription was immediately opened at the office of the National, to enable the proprietors of the Tribune to pay the fine. Great preparations were made by government on this occasion, in the anticipation of popular tumult; but the peace was not disturbed.
Towards the close of April the French papers announced, that orders had been received at Toulon for fitting out a squadron, which was to be joined by an English equipment of similar force. The object of these naval preparations was supposed to be directed against the views of Russia.
The two Chambers met on Friday, the 26th of April, for the purpose of voting the budget. On the 29th, the financial report was brought forward. The military force, 34,000 men, was to be reduced to 24,000. Since the revolution, the expenditure had exceeded the income; it was, therefore, proposed, that 20,000,000 francs shall be added to the taxes, and 20,000,000 taken from the sinking fund, to meet the expected deficiency, 24,000,000, of 1834. The new taxes to be levied on liquor, and 3,600,000 to be taken from the sinking fund, for public works, to employ the people. The reduction of the 5 per cents. was the grand point on which the minister dwelt. A loan, he said, would be necessary to procure the means of finishing the public works. The several bills were then brought on, among which was one for the better organization of public education.
The anniversary of the death of Napoleon (May 5th) was kept by an assembly of youths and veterans, scattering immortelles about the column in the Place Vendome About the same time there were alarming disturbances at Toulon, which were only suppressed by large bodies of troops.
The Duchess de Berri now again, for a short time, occupied attention. She was delivered of a daughter on the 10th of May. A telegraphic account of the fact was published in the government papers, of which the following is a translation :
“ Telegraphic despatch from Blaye, May 10, 1833. --The
commandant of Blaye to M., the President of the Council : Madame the Duchess de Berri was safely delivered of a daughter this morning, at half-past three o'clock. The pains of travail lasted twenty minutes. M. Dubois, as well as my self, was a witness of the accouchement. The other witnesses arrived afterwards. The verification will be made in the manner agreed upon between the duchess and me. She will herself present the infant, and declare that it belongs to her. The mother and the infant are well; only the little girl is somewhat feeble. At the moment of signing the declaration Doneux added, “ I have delivered Madame the Duchess de Berri, the lawful wife of Count Hector Luchesi Palli, Prince of Campo Franco, gentleman of the chamber to the King of the Two Sicilies.
This statement was afterwards confirmed by the Count de Brissac, under the authority of her royal highness.
On the 15th of June the duchess was liberated from her imprisonment at Blaye. The following account is from the Moniteur :
“ The embarkation of the Duchess de Berri took place today (Saturday) at ten o'clock in the morning. She left the narrow channel of Blaye on board a small boat of the Capricieux, and which was steered by Commandant Mollier. She was accompanied by General Bugeaud, the nurse, and her child. Madame the duchess floated in the boat, at a slow rate, down the channel of Blaye, and the banks were covered by a population of 4 to 5000 persons. The most profound silence reigned. The government had given orders to transport the duchess on board the Agatha to Palermo. The General Bugeaud and the Doctor Doneux accompanied her. The minister permitted the Prince and Princess de Beaufremont and M. de Menars to accompany her to Sicily."
In the Chamber of Deputies, June 18th, Marshal Soult made a formal declaration of the intentions of the French government, in reference to the occupation of Algiers; and to the question, whether it was the intention of the government to occupy only the points of the African coast and the regency of Algiers, which it now holds, the minister stated that no specific determination had been formed, but that no impediments existed to the occupation of other points, if it should appear to be necessary or convenient. The French government intended to favour the colonization of Algiers by private individuals or companies as much as possible, but they did not consider it expedient to adopt any plan for securing that object on the responsibility of the government. Respecting the evacuation of Algiers, the president said, that the French government had not placed itself under any engagement whatever with any power to evacuate Algiers, and that up to that moment they did not entertain the remotest idea of evacuating that territory, but, on the contrary, had taken measures to strengthen the security of its occupation.
Up to the 17th of July, discontents still prevailed at Lyons, in consequence of misunderstandings between the manufacturers and the weavers. At Paris, the anniversary of the “ glorious days” of July passed without riots, but not without unwonted energy on the part of the police. There were no expensive illuminations, save those at the palace and the public offices. The army, amounting in number to 60,000 regulars and 25,000 national guards, unmounted police and official attendants, probably, not fewer than 100,000 men, were all employed in keeping the peace. The national guards did not, as was expected, join the popular cry of " down with the fortifications,” and none but Englishmen remarked that the military occupation of Paris reminded them of the presence of the allied armies there in 1815. The statue of Napoleon, placed upon the column in the Place Vendôme with the sanction of the king, elicited more feeling from the spectators than did the most touching memorials of the three days of July. Two other monuments were of equal attraction: one was a model of a ship of war, the Ville de Paris, apparently moored in the river, and surrounded with a flotilla. This vessel answered the minute guns of mourning which were fired from the Hotel des Invalides. The third monument was the model of Luxor Obelisk, in the centre of the Place de la Concorde, of the full size of the original.
On Saturday, the 25th, all the bells were muffled, all the churches lined with black, and each had a catafalque in honour of the victims of July. Funeral services were read in every church. In all the cemeteries, and wherever any of the patriots were buried, there were raised monuments expressive of the deepest mourning, and inscribed “ Morts pour la patrié.” All pleasure and business were suspended; every height was crowned with the national flag, and at night fireworks and illuminations marked the spots where the contest of the people with the army had been most severe.
The day passed in perfect peace, On Sunday the whole day was consumed in a review, the