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other words, the empirical generalizations that are arrived at by con. paring different societies, and successive phases of the same society.

III. POLITICAL ORGANIZATION.—The evolution of governments, genc. ral and local, as determined by natural causes; their several types and metamorphoses; their increasing complexity and specialization; and the progressive limitation of their functions.

Vol. II. IV. ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANIZATION.—Tracing the differentiation of religious government from secular ; its successive complications and the multiplication of sects; the growth and continued modification of religious ideas, as caused by advancing knowledge and changing moral character; and the gradual reconciliation of these ideas with the truths of abstract science.

V. CEREMONIAL ORGANIZATION.—The natural history of that third kind of government which, having a common root with the others, and slowly becoming separate from and supplementary to them, serves to regulate the minor actions of life.

VI. INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION.—The development of productive and distributive agencies, considered, like the foregoing, in its necessary causes: comprehending not only the progressive division of labour, and the increasing complexity of each industrial agency, but also the successive forms of industrial government as passing through like phases with political government.

Vol. III VII. LINGUAL PROGRESS. — The evolution of Languages regarded as a psychological process determined by social conditions.

VIII. INTELLECTUAL PROGRESS.— Treated from the same point of view: including the growth of classifications; the evolution of science out of common knowledge; the advance from qualitive to quantative prevision, from the indefinite to the definite, and from the concrete to the abstract.

IX. ASTHETIC PROGRESS. — The Fine Arts similarly dealt with: tracing their gradual differentiation from primitive institutions and from each other ; their increasing varieties of development; and their advance in reality of expression and superiority of aim.

X. MORAL PROGRESS.-Exhibiting the genesis of the slow emotional modifications which human nature undergoes in its adaptation to the social state.

XI. THE CONSENSUS.—Treating of the necessary interdependence of structures and of functions in each type of society, and in the successive pliases of social development.*

THE PRINCIPLES OF MORALITY.

VOL. I. PART 1. THE DATA OF MORALITY.—Generalizations furnished by Biology, Psychology and Sociology, which underlie a true theory on right living: in other words, the elements of that equilibrium between constitution and conditions of existence, which is at once the moral ideal and the limit towards which we are progressing.

II. THE INDUCTIONS OF MORALITY.—Those empirically-established rules of human action which are registered as essential laws by all civilized nations: that is to say, the generalizations of expediency.

III. PERSONAL MORALS.—The principles of private conduct-physical, intellectual, moral and religious—that follow from the conditions to compieie individual life: or, what is the same thing—those modes of private action which must result from the eventual equilibration of internal desires and external needs.

Vol. II.

IV. JUSTICE.—The mutual limitations of men's actions necessitated by their co-existence as units of a society-limitations, the perfect observance of which constitutes that state of equilibrium forming the goal of political progress.

V. NEGATIVE BENEFICENCE.-Those secondary limitations, similarly necessitated, which, though less important and not cognizable by law, are yet requisite to prevent mutual destruction of happiness in various indirect ways: in other words—those minor self-restraints dictated by what may be called passive sympathy.

* of this treatise on Sociology a few small fragments may be found in already. published essays. Some of the ideas to be developed in Part II. are indicated in an article on “ The Social Organism,"contained in the last number of the IVestminster Review; those which Part V. will work out, may be gathered from the first half of a paper written some years since on “Manners and Fashion ;" of Part VIII. the germs are contained in an article on the “Genesis of Science ;' two papers on “ The Origin and Function of Music” and “ The Philosophy of Style," contain some ideas to be embodied in Part IX.; and from a criticism of Mr. Bain's work on “ The Emotions and the Will," in the last number of the Medico-Chirurgical Rerieto, the central idea to be developed in Part X, may be inferred.

VI. POSITIVE BENEFICENCE.—Comprehending all modes of conduct, dictated by active sympathy, which imply pleasure in giving pleasuremodes of conduct that social adaptation has induced and must render ever more general; and which, in becoming universal, must fill to the full the possible measure of human happiness.*

In anticipation of the obvious criticism that the scheme here sketched out is too extensive, it may be remarked that an ex. haustive treatment of each topic is not intended; but simply the establishment of principles, with such illustrations as are needed to make their bearings fully understood. It may also be pointed out that, besides minor fragments, one large division (The Principles of Psychology) is already, in great part, executed. And a further reply is, that impossible though it may prove to execute the whole, yet nothing can be said against an attempt to set forth the First Principles and to carry their applications as far as cii'. cumstances permit.

The price per Number to be half-a-crown ; that is to say, the four Numbers yearly issued to be severally delivered, post free, to all annual subscribers of Ten Shillings,

- Part IV. of the Principles of Morality will be co-extensive (though not ideotical) with the first half of the writer's Social Statics.

This Programme I have thought well to reprint for two reasons :—the one being that readers may, from time to time, be able to ascertain what topics are next to be dealt with ; the other being that an outline of the scheme may remain, in case it should never be completed.

The successive instalments of which this volume consists, were issued to the subscribers at the following dates :- Part I. (pp. 1–80) in October, 1860; Part II. (pp. 81–176) in January, 1861; Part III. (pp. 177—256) in April, 1861; Part IV. (pp. 257—331) in October, 1861; Part V. (pp. 335—416) in March, 1862; and Part VI. (pp. 417–504) in June, 1862.*

London, June 5lh, 1862. * These dates and pagings of the divisions as originally issued, of course do not apply to the volume as it now stands, beyond page 123.

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