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conduct an appearance of benevolence, but it is not that benevolence which the law of God requires. That humanity which suffers a murderer to escape the punishment of death, is cruelty to society at large.
"When one man has wilfully killed another, he is a murderer; and it is the duty of mankind to put the murderer to death. The executioner of a murderer obeys, instead of violating the sixth commandment; because the capital punishment of such offenders is a lawful means of preserving human life. Gen. ix. 5, 6. And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man. Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed.' This was a law given to Noah as the head of the human family after the deluge; and through him to his whole posterity: and not being a peculiar part of the civil policy of the Jews, or any part of the cere monial law, it has never been abolished or repealed by Jehovah. Prov. xxviii. 17. A man that doeth violence to the blood of any person shall flee to the pit; let no man stay him.'
"This universal law, requiring of all mankind the punishment of the murderer by death, was afterwards specially enjoined upon the Hebrew nation, as a part of their penal code; and wise regulations were enacted to preserve men from capital punishment as murderers, who might have been chargeable with nothing more than justifiable, or unintentional homicide. It is the indispensable duty of all governments to punish the murderer with death; and it would be wise in all to imitate the theocratical policy of the Jews, so far as to allow every accused person a fair trial before disinterested judges. Num. xxxv. 30–34. 'Whoso killeth any person, the murderer shall be put to death by the mouth of witnesses: but one witness shall not testify against any person to cause him to die. Moreover, ye shall take no satisfaction for the life of a murderer, which is guilty of death: but he shall be surely put to death.'"-P. 235.
Every Christian will anticipate with delight that blissful period, when "wars shall cease to the ends of the earth;" when men "shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning hooks;" when "nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more." Hail happy day! when "the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. And the sucking child shall play upon the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice's den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea." Every friend of mankind will wish success to those Peace Societies, which, in this country, and in other parts of the Christian world, are labouring to arrest the progress of that dreadful evil which has so long ravaged the world with its dire calamities, and destroyed the human species in such vast numbers. But cordially as we wish the extirpation of war from the face of the earth, we apprehend that many by pleading against the lawfulness of defensive war, obstruct the accomplishment of their benevolent design. They mistake their
duty, and condemn what the authority of the Highest has sufficiently and plainly sanctioned.
"SEC. V. Men may wage defensive war without violating, and even in obeying the sixth commandment.
"Prov. xx. 18. With good advice make war.' Prov. xxiv. 6. 'By wise counsel thou shalt make thy war.' 1 Chron. v. 19, 20, 22. And they made war with the Hagarites, with Jetur, and Nephish, and Nodab. And they were helped against them, and the Hagarites were delivered into their hand, and all that were with them: for they cried to God in the battle, and he was entreated of them; because they put their trust in him.-There fell down many slain, because the war was of God.' Abraham waged war in defence of his kinsman Lot, and seems to have met with divine approbation in so doing. Gen. xvi. 14-20. When Abraham heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his trained servants, born in his own house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued them unto Dan. And he divided himself against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus. And he brought back all the goods, and also brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women also, and the people.-And Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the Most High God. And he blessed him, and he said, Blessed be Abram of the Most High God, possessor of heaven and earth: and blessed be the Most High God, which hath delivered thine enemies into thine hand.' This Melchizedek is celebrated as a peculiar type of Christ, and he evidently blessed Abram for his bold exploit in defending his kinsman Lot, against his captors. It does not appear that Abraham was guided in this warfare by any special revelation and commission; but he seems to have acted on the principle that it was his duty to defend himself, and family, and kindred, from the effects of offensive war by force of arms. Had this warfare on the part of Abraham been considered as murder by Jehovah, it is incredible that he should not have been divinely censured in those records which make frequent mention of this patriarch, and present him as the example for believers. Under similar circumstances we ought to say with Joab to our fellows, (2 Sam. x. 12.) 'Be of good courage, and let us play the men for our people, and for the cities of our God: and the Lord do that which seemeth him good.'
"When soldiers applied to John the Baptizer, to know their duty, he did not forbid them to bear arms; but implied that they might do it, with good conscience. Luke iii. 14. And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be content with your wages.'
"Self-defence may be lawfully carried so far as to take away the life of one who commits burglary in the night. Exod, ii. 2. 3. If a thief be found breaking up, and he be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him. If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him, for he should make full restitution.'
"Not to be chargeable with indirectly killing ourselves or others in an unlawful manner, we must resist force with force, and even disarm by death those who lift up deadly weapons against us. Neh. iv. 14. "Fight for your brethren, your sons, and your daughters, your wives, and your houses.'"-P. 240. J. J. J.
(To be continued.)
ERRATUM. In this review, p. 361, tenth line from bottom, for national, read natural.
FROM THE MISSIONARY HERALD.
AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY.
The report commences with a very respectful notice of the late president of the society, and thus mentions the election of a successor.
"On his decease (say the Managers) the attention of the Board was directed to the election of a suitable person to be his successor. It is a most gratifying circumstance, that while the Managers felt very high respect and warm attachment to the many distinguished characters in our country, who have patronized and supported the Bible cause, there was one in whom all were immediately united. And at a meeting of the Board on the 6th of December, by an unanimous vote, the Hon. John Jay, of New York, was elected the President of the American Bible Society."
Bibles printed and issued.
There have been printed at the Depository of the American Bible Society during the sixth year,
Which, added to the number mentioned in the last
Make a total of two hundred and sixty-eight thousand one hundred and seventyseven Bibles and Testaments, or parts of the latter, printed from the stereotype plates of the Society in New York, and at Lexington, Kentucky, or otherwise obtained for circulation, during the six years of its existence.
There have been issued from the Depository, from the 30th of April, 1821, to the 1st of May, 1822,
Making a total of one hundred and ninety-three thousand eight hundred and eighteen Bibles and Testaments, and parts of the New Testament, issued by the American Bible Society, since its establishment.
Of the Bibles issued from the Depository during the sixth year, there were, German, 393; French, 551; Gælic, 21; Welsh, 5.-Of the Testaments, 1576 were Spanish, and 77 French.
We stated in our last number, p. 237, the net receipts for the year. The legacies noticed in the following extracts, are not contained in that amount.
"The Board deem it their duty here to mention, that by the last will and testament of the late President, about four thousand five hundred and eightynine acres of land, in the state of Pennsylvania, have been left to Trustees, who are instructed to pay the proceeds of the same into the Treasury of the American Bible Society.
"The liberality of Dr. Boudinot to the National Institution has not been without its influence as an example. And the Managers state, with fervent gratitude, that a citizen of New York, after a life which had been marked with many acts of charity and benevolence, in his last will bequeathed large sums to various religious uses; and the name of Mr. John Withington is recorded as one of
the most distinguished benefactors of the American Bible Society, to which he 431 has left a legacy of ten thousand dollars."
"Further evidence of the Divine blessing on the society is found in the increase of the number of its auxiliaries. More have been recognised during the past year than in the two preceding years; and information has been received of a considerable number which have not been recognised. The Board request that, in all cases where a Bible society has been, or may be formed, auxiliary to the American Bible Society, official notice may be sent, without delay, to the Secretary for Domestic Correspondence. And they further request, that the regulation be carefully observed, that no society can be received as an auxiliary unless its sole object shall be to promote the circulation of the holy scriptures, without note or comment, and unless it shall agree to place its surplus revenue, after supplying its own district with the scriptures, at the disposal of the American Bible Society as long as it shall remain connected with it. This regulation does not respect the societies not auxiliary, which are referred to in the nineteenth article of the constitution."
The whole number of societies which have been recognised as auxiliary to the national society, is three hundred and one.
The interest which has, of late, been excited in South America, renders it proper that we should make the following extract, with which we shall close. "The Testaments in the Spanish language, which, as was stated in the last report, were sent to Buenos Ayres, have been favourably received by the Cabildo of that city, and by their order have been delivered to the commissioner of schools.
"It will be seen, by a subsequent list, that a large number of copies of the New Testament in Spanish, have been sent to various parts of South America, and other places, where the Spanish language is spoken. The Managers find the facility of introducing these scriptures to be increasing, and the number of those who aid them in this work is considerable. They have been assured that in one place, these Testaments were received as a most acceptable gift by a Roman Catholic ecclesiastic, that he proceeded immediately to a judicious distribution of them, and that he appeared to engage in this charity with lively pleasure. The Board feel grateful for the assistance with which they have been favoured; and they are determined to embrace and to improve, to the utmost, every opportunity of circulating the scriptures in Spanish. They rejoice in the prospect of being thus more and more instrumental for the Divine glory, and for the good of multitudes who have hitherto remained ignorant of the oracles of God, and among whom, till lately, a copy of the scriptures was hardly to be found. As the truths of religion become more known, the desire of these persons to possess the sacred book will be more general; and the hope may be entertained with confidence, that, in a few years, the New Testament, and also the whole Bible, will obtain a vastly greater circulation among those who use the Spanish language in America and in the West Indies. In this work, the British and Foreign Bible Society have already engaged with zeal and vigour, and they are preparing copious editions of the scriptures for the Spanish and for the Portuguese Catholics."
Now in the press, "A Lecture on Particular Redemption, in which it is attempted to be shown that this doctrine is taught in the Scriptures, and in the Confession of Faith, and Catechisms of the Presbyterian Church." By the Rev. Jonathan Freeman.
The Treasurer of the Trustees of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, acknowledges the receipt of the following sums for their Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J. during the month of August last, viz.
Of Jacob Ford, Esq. executor, the legacy of Mrs. Sarah Hollingshead, deceased, widow of Rev. Dr. William Hollingshead, late of Charleston, South Carolina, deceased, viz. a draft for $970 87, which with $29 13, being 3 per cent. premium, paid by Mr. Ford for the draft, make $1000, the amount of the said legacy, for the Contingent Fund; received
Of Rev John Codman, of Dorchester, Mass. his second year's payment of his generous subscription of $100 a year for ten years, for ditto
Of James Van Deusen, Esq. collection in Hudson Church, for ditto
Of Rev. Jacob Castner, per Rev. Dr. S. Miller, Mansfield, Newton Pres-
Of Rey. David M'Conaughy, Upper Marsh Creek and Great Conowago, for ditto
Of Mr. Job Haines, Dayton, Ohio, for ditto
Of Mr. Samuel Morrow, Fourth Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, for ditto
Of Rev. William R. De Witt, Harrisburgh, for ditto
Of Rev. Dr. Archibald Alexander, per James S. Green, Esq. the dona-
Amount received for the Contingent Fund
Of Rev. Thomas Kennedy, per Rev. Dr. Janeway, in part of the proportion engaged to be raised by him for the Professorship of Oriental and Biblical Literature, viz.
Of Rev. A. K. Russell, White Clay Creek and Head of Christiana, for
The Treasurer was requested also to acknowledge the receipt of $38 from Rev. Dr. Samuel Martin, per Rev. Dr. Janeway, from "Mrs. Ann McCall, President of the Female Society of Chanceford, York county, Pennsylvania, for the religious instruction of the Indians."
"A Synopsis of the External History of the Church," &c. in continuance, is received, and shall appear in our next number.
"Hints to Professors" shall appear in our next. J. B. on the Book of Job is received.