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sham. Probably it formed part of Hampden's general scheme of defence for the Chiltern Hills, which protected London from the King's threatened advance; and the Bledlow Cross served a similar purpose. The two roads indicated by these Crosses are *ridgeways," much less easily seized by the enemy's skirmishing parties than the lower passes of Ellesbrough and Saunderton. Two memorable attempts were made to seize the road from Oxford to London through the Chilterns, by surprising the garrison of Wycombe. The first was Lord Wentworth's well-known attack on that town, which ended in a desperate fight in the fields on its east and south sides, and the retreat of the attacking force after losing 900 men. The second was an attempt by Prince kupert, made with the same object, in which Hampden intercepted him, and ultimately forced him to the memorable engagement of Chalgrove Field, in which the great patriot and soldier was mortally wounded. The current accounts of this engagement speak of a "Beacon Hill,” on which the Parliamentary forces, already roused by the news of Rupert's sortie, were descried soon after sunrise.* This “Beacon Hill” was no doubt the hill still so denominated in the parish of Lewknor; and the Bledlow and Whitecliff Crosses perhaps belonged to a general system of beacons distinguishing each hill from the rest

of the range.

THE PRESENT SHAPE OF THE CROSS

dates from about seventy years ago, when the Hampden estate passed from the family of Trevor to that of Hobart. Previously to that time, as may be seen from the descriptions in Gough's Camden (1806) and Brayley

“ The

o "His Highnesse Prince Rupert's late Beating up of the Rebels Quarters at Postcombe and Chinnor, and his Victory in Chalgrove Field on Sunday morning, June 18. Printed at Oxford by Leonard Lichfield, Printer to the University, 1643.” sun had risen, the alarm had spread, and a party of the Parliament's borse appeared on the side of the Beacon Hill,”—LORD NUGENT'S LIFE OF HAMPDEN. The general use of such beacons for military purposes needs no illustration. There were beacons in suitable places along the roads traversing the wooded hill country : “Penn Beacon" still retains the name.

and Britton's "Beauties of England and Wales,” the lower part of the shaft had widened, owing to the action of the weather, to fifty feet, or twice its proper dimensions. The upper margins of the base, marked by dotted lines in the woodcut, then had a greater spread in the upward direction, and reached nearly to the arms of the Cross; the lower part of the shaft, as it now exists, represents an imperfect restoration made in 1826. The monument is now in urgent need of repair, and many tons of chalk would be required to replace that which has been washed down the steep slope of the cliff by the rains and thaws of two centuries and a half. Should this ever be done, it would be easy to carry the shaft somewhat lower, and thus restore the Cross to its proper proportions. It may be added that the Cross is evidently connected with an ordinary fire-beacon, the earthen mound of which, on the crest of the hill close to the top of the Cross, is well known to all who visit it. Possibly the chalk Cross was first suggested by the exposure of the chalk when the sods were cut to forın the beacon mound. When this beacon was lighted by kindling a bonfire on the top of the mound, the white surface of the Cross must have been vividly illuminated, thus clearly identifying to distant observers the hill on which the beacon stood. In its original state, with the stepped base, the Cross, thus lifted up, must have been a singularly striking object.

E. J. PAYNE.

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Captain BOUGHEY Burgess, who died suddenly of heart-
failure at 4, Clifton Terrace, Southsea, on May 18, 1897,
was the second son of John Burgess, Esq., who lived in
London, and at Amersham and Elmhurst, Great Missen-
den, Bucks, early in the century.

The deceased officer was born at Amersham on May
11, 1822, and entered the 20th Bombay Infantry
Regiment in 1842, proceeding to India, where he shortly
afterwards married Miss Gardner.

His regiment was stationed principally at Poona and Ahmednuggar, and after ten years' service he returned to England in 1852, and after the death of his first wife, who left two daughters, he lived at Little Hampden for some time near his brother, the late Rev. William Johnson Burgess, for many years Vicar of Lacey Green Princes Risborough. Like him, he took a great interest in the archæology of the county, and as Hon. Secretary of the Bucks Archæological Society contributed in the RECORDS OF BUCKS articles on is the Earthworks at Hampden and Little Kimble,” and on the “ Entrenchments at Bray's Wood, near Lee, Great Missenden," both of which papers were read before the Society in 1855. In this same year, Captain Burgess was placed on committee for the formation of a County Museum at Aylesbury. He married, secondly, on September 11, 1860, Elizabeth Anne Ballard, daughter of John Ballard, Esq., of York Terrace, Cork, and leaves three sons and six daughters by his second wife. Like his first cousin, the late Rev. Bryant Burgess, Rector of Latimer, he was devoted to natural history and was a good artist. Captain Boughey Burgess was for thirty-six years Secretary of the

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Royal United Service Institution, Whitehall, and during that long period discharged with great ability the onerous duties of that responsible position.

As an evidence of the esteem in which Captain Boughey Burgess was held, the following notes on his death are extracted from the Royal United Service Institution Journal.

“Much regret has been experienced by all who have been associated with the late Secretary of the Royal United Service Institution, Captain Boughey Burgess, at his death ... Captain Burgess entered the Hon. East India Company's Service on the 15th March, 1842, as Ensign in the Bombay Army, and was appointed to the 20th Bombay Native Infantry on 30th May following. On 21st January, 1845, he was attached to the Public Works Survey at Ahmednuggar, where he remained for some time. On 21st January, 1846, he was promoted to Lieutenant in the 20th Bombay N. I., and retired from the Service with the brevet rank of Captain on the 3rd November, 1851. On the death of Mr. Tonna, Secretary of the Royal United Service Institution, in April, 1857, Captain Burgess was in the following month, appointed his successor, and for thirty-six years carried out loyally and conscientiously the duties of his office. Captain Burgess during his long connection with the Institution, witnessed the introduction of many changes and improvements, and he lived to see its removal to new premises, and its entrance on a career of increased utility. The Journal, which is now the most important portion of the work carried on by the Institution, was for many years edited with great care and ability by Captain Burgess; and when the time arrived for his retirement, in 1893, he was unanimously voted a pension for life by the Council, a resolution which was heartily acquiesced in by the Members at the Annual Meeting. Captain Burgess' long and faithful services to the Institution were fully appreciated by the Members and the Council, and it is with great regret that his decease is announced in this Journal.'

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The Proceedings of the Bucks Architectural and

Archæological Society,

FOR THE YEAR 1896.

The Annual Excursion of the Society took place on Wednesday, the 10th August, 1896. The arrangements were undertaken by the Treasurer, Mr. Williams. The members and their friends numbered about seventy. Assembling at Aylesbury, they made their way through Leighton Buzzard, en route for Woburn Abbey, a beautiful drive through some characteristic Buckinghamshire scenery. On arriving at Woburn Abbey, which was opened to them by the kind permission of the Duke of Bedford, the party was shown through the picture galleries, library, Venetian room, and the statuary galleries. Unfortunately some interesting portions of the Abbey could not be seen as they were under repair. The picture galleries, however, are well worthy of attention, specimens of the works of Holbein, Vandyke, Sir Peter Lely, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and other masters are to be found on the walls. The majority of por. traits are of the members of the Russell family. Those which claimed special attention were the portrait of the William Lord Russell, who was executed on the charge of being connected with the Rye House Plot, and of his wife, the Lady Rachel, who showed her heroic devotion to her husband at bis trial ; and one of Lord John Russell, evidently painted soon after the passing of the great Reform Bill. In the statuary gallery were found objects of archeological interest, particularly a sarcopbagus from Ephesus finely sculptured in relief. The present mansion, chiefly erected by Flitcroft, and largely added to by Henry Holland, is disappointing. If it may be termed a dignified, yet it is a very gloomy structure, every vestige of the Abbey of the Cistercians, of any interest, was destroyed in 1747, and their once famous religious house has given place to a building the chief attraction of which is its connection with a distinguished and historic family.

The Annual Meeting of the Society was held at the town of Woburn, the Rev. T. J. Williams, Rector of Waddesdon, presiding. After the reading of the minutes, the President and Vice-Presidents were re-elected, and the Rev. R. H. Pigott, who had for many years acted as one of the Honorary Secretaries, was elected an additional Vice-President. The members of the Committee, who are subject to annual election, were re-elected with the addition of Mr. R. E. Goolden, Mr. S. Darby, and Mr. J. E. Copland Griffiths; the Rev. R. H. Pigott being elected Standing Chairman. Mr. J. Parker and Mr. A. H. Cocks were re-elected Honorary Secretaries, and Mr. J. Williams, Treasurer.

Mr. J. Williams made his financial report, showing a balance in band of £36 108. 4d., and pointed out that this was the largest balance the Society ever possessed, and enabled him to discharge the printer's bill which had in the past been generally two or three years in arrear. Mr,

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